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  1. 1

    State of world population 2017. Worlds apart: Reproductive health and rights in an age of inequality.

    Diaz MM; Engelman R; Klugman J; Luchsinger G; Shaw E

    New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], Division of Communications and Strategic Partnerships, 2017. 140 p.

    In most developing countries, the poorest women have the fewest options for family planning, the least access to antenatal care and are most likely to give birth without the assistance of a doctor or midwife. Limited access to family planning translates into 89 million unintended pregnancies and 48 million abortions in developing countries annually. This does not only harm women’s health, but also restricts their ability to join or stay in the paid labour force and move towards financial independence, the report argues. Lack of access to related services, such as affordable child care, also stops women from seeking jobs outside the home. For women who are in the labour force, the absence of paid maternity leave and employers’ discrimination against those who become pregnant amount to a motherhood penalty, forcing many women to choose between a career and parenthood. The UNFPA report recommends focusing on the furthest behind first, in line with the United Nations blueprint for achieving sustainable development and inclusive societies by 2030. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development has “envisaged a better future, one where we collectively tear down the barriers and correct disparities,” the report states. “Reducing all inequalities needs to be the aim. Some of the most powerful contributions can come from realizing...women’s reproductive rights.” (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Addressing the Child and Maternal Mortality Crisis in Haiti through a Central Referral Hospital Providing Countrywide Care.

    Jacobs LD; Judd TM; Bhutta ZA

    Permanente Journal. 2016 spring; 20(2):59-70.

    The neonatal, infant, child, and maternal mortality rates in Haiti are the highest in the Western Hemisphere, with rates similar to those found in Afghanistan and several African countries. We identify several factors that have perpetuated this health care crisis and summarize the literature highlighting the most cost-effective, evidence-based interventions proved to decrease these mortality rates in low- and middle-income countries.To create a major change in Haiti's health care infrastructure, we are implementing two strategies that are unique for low-income countries: development of a countrywide network of geographic "community care grids" to facilitate implementation of frontline interventions, and the construction of a centrally located referral and teaching hospital to provide specialty care for communities throughout the country. This hospital strategy will leverage the proximity of Haiti to North America by mobilizing large numbers of North American medical volunteers to provide one-on-one mentoring for the Haitian medical staff. The first phase of this strategy will address the child and maternal health crisis.We have begun implementation of these evidence-based strategies that we believe will fast-track improvement in the child and maternal mortality rates throughout the country. We anticipate that, as we partner with private and public groups already working in Haiti, one day Haiti's health care system will be among the leaders in that region.
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  3. 3

    The state of the world's children 2016. A fair chance for every child.


    New York, New York, UNICEF, 2016 Jun. [184] p.

    Every child has the right to health, education and protection, and every society has a stake in expanding children’s opportunities in life. Yet, around the world, millions of children are denied a fair chance for no reason other than the country, gender or circumstances into which they are born. The State of the World’s Children 2016 argues that progress for the most disadvantaged children is not only a moral, but also a strategic imperative. Stakeholders have a clear choice to make: invest in accelerated progress for the children being left behind, or face the consequences of a far more divided world by 2030. At the start of a new development agenda, the report concludes with a set of recommendations to help chart the course towards a more equitable world.
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  4. 4

    World Bank support to early childhood development. An independent evaluation.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2015. 199 p.

    The sustained benefits of early childhood interventions are well established in developed countries. Early development plays a major role in subsequent school performance, health, socialization, and future earnings. For children born into poverty, the equity enhancing impact of early childhood interventions hold the promise of overcoming social disadvantages and breaking the intergenerational transmission of poverty. The World Bank’s support to early childhood development (ECD) is well aligned with the Bank’s twin goals of reducing extreme poverty and promoting shared prosperity. This evaluation by the Independent Evaluation Group examines the Bank’s design and implementation of projects across sectors supporting ECD interventions to inform future operations and provide inputs to the new Global Practices and Cross-Cutting Solutions Areas.
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  5. 5

    World Development Indicators 2016. Highlights: Featuring the Sustainable Development Goals. Extracted from the full version of WDI 2016.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2016. [54] p.

    These WDI Highlights are drawn from World Development Indicators (WDI) 2016 - the World Bank’s compilation of internationally comparable statistics about global development and the quality of people’s lives. WDI is regularly updated and new data are added in response to the needs of the development community; the 2016 edition includes new indicators to help measure the Sustainable Development Goals. World Development Indicators is the result of a collaborative partnership of international agencies, statistical offices of more than 200 economies, and many more.
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  6. 6

    World Bank Group gender strategy (FY16-23) : gender equality, poverty reduction and inclusive growth.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2015 98 p.

    By many measures, 2015 marks a watershed year in the international community's efforts to advance gender equality. In September, with the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), UN Member States committed to a renewed and more ambitious framework for development. This agenda, with a deadline of 2030, emphasizes inclusion not just as an end in and of itself but as critical to development effectiveness. At the center of this agenda is the achievement of gender equality and empowerment of all women and girls (SDG 5). In addition to governments, the private sector is increasingly committed to reducing gaps between men and women not just because it is the right thing to do, but because it makes business sense. Gender equality is also central to the World Bank Group’s own goals of ending extreme poverty and boosting shared prosperity in a sustainable manner. No society can develop sustainably without transforming the distribution of opportunities, resources and choices for males and females so that they have equal power to shape their own lives and contribute to their families, communities, and countries. Promoting gender equality is smart development policy.
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  7. 7

    World Development Indicators 2016.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2016. [172] p.

    This annual release of a new edition is an opportunity to review the trends we’re seeing in global development and discuss updates we’ve made to our data and methods. The WDI team aims to produce a curated set of indicators relevant to the changing needs of the development community. The new edition includes indicators to help measure the 169 targets of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) -- these build on the 8 goals and 18 targets of the Millennium Development Goals we focused on in previous editions, but are far wider in scope and far more ambitious. A complementary Sustainable Development Goals data dashboard provides an interactive presentation of the indicators we have in the WDI database that are related to each goal. For each of the 17 SDGs the World View section of the publication includes recent trends and baselines against key targets. Data experts in the World Bank’s Data Group and subject specialists in the Bank’s Global Practices and Cross Cutting Solution Areas teamed up to identify new and existing indicators and assess key trends for each goal and for three cross-cutting areas: statistical capacity; fragility, conflict and violence; and financial inclusion.
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  8. 8

    From agreement to action: Delivering the Sustainable Development Goals.

    Hinds R

    London, United Kingdom, Save the Children, 2016. [53] p.

    The Millennium Development Goals were a crucial starting point in galvanising international support for poverty reduction and illustrate the role international frameworks can play in driving national policy change. The Sustainable Development Goals -- if implemented enthusiastically and effectively -- will help us finish the job and ensure that no one is left behind. “From Agreement to Action” provides guidance and recommendations for governments, international actors and other stakeholders as they develop their implementation plans, and identifies five areas of action.
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  9. 9

    A UN declaration on the post-2015 development agenda.

    Kenny C

    [Washington, D.C.], Center for Global Development, 2013 Aug. [11] p. (Center for Global Development Essay)

    In 2000, the UN General Assembly endorsed the Millennium Declaration, a statement that provided the source and inspiration for the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The effects of the declaration -- and the MDGs - -are difficult to measure, but it certainly framed important global discussions about development. In 2015, the UN’s world leaders will likely agree to a new set of goals to follow the Millennium Declaration. In this essay, Charles Kenny proposes that -- instead of getting bogged down hammering out details of how to measure progress -- the UN craft a new consensus statement to replace the Millennium Declaration. Kenny proposes such a statement in the pages that follow and provides commentary in the margins.
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  10. 10

    A life of dignity for all: Accelerating progress towards the Millennium Development Goals and advancing the United Nations development agenda beyond 2015. Report of the Secretary-General.

    United Nations. Secretary-General

    [New York, New York], United Nations, 2013 Jul 26. [19] p. (A/68/202)

    The present report is submitted pursuant to General Assembly resolution 65/1, in which the Assembly requested the Secretary-General to report annually on progress in the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals until 2015 and to make recommendations for further steps to advance the United Nations development agenda beyond 2015. Renewed efforts are essential for achieving the Millennium Development Goals by the end of 2015. While providing an assessment of progress to date, the report also identifies policies and programmes that have driven success in the achievement of the Goals and can contribute to accelerating it. These include emphasizing inclusive growth, decent employment and social protection; allocating more resources for essential services and ensuring access for all; strengthening political will and improving the international policy environment; and harnessing the power of multi-stakeholder partnerships. A new post-2015 era demands a new vision and a responsive framework. Sustainable development -- enabled by the integration of economic growth, social justice and environmental stewardship -- must become our global guiding principle and operational standard. This is a universal agenda that requires profound economic transformations and a new global partnership. It also requires that the international community, including the United Nations, embrace a more coherent and effective response to support the agenda. As we make the transition to this new era, we need to continue the work begun with the Millennium Development Goals and ensure that extreme poverty is ended within a generation. In keeping with United Nations principles, this post-2015 framework can bring together the full range of human aspirations and needs to ensure a life of dignity for all.
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  11. 11

    Improving nutrition through multisectoral approaches.

    Alderman H; Elder L; Goyal A; Herforth A; Hoberg YT; Marini A; Ruel-Bergeron J; Saavedra J; Shekar M; Tiwari S; Zaman H

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2013 Jan. [172] p.

    This report provides operational guidance to maximize the impact of investments on nutrition outcomes for women and young children. The recommendations in this document build on evidence to date on issues of malnutrition, with the aim of providing concrete guidance on how to mainstream nutrition into agriculture, social protection, and health. The document is composed of five modules, including an introduction, an economic analysis of the relationship between poverty, economic growth and nutrition, and one module for each of the aforementioned focus sectors.
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  12. 12

    The structural determinants of child well-being: an expert consultation hosted by the UNICEF Office of Research, 22-23 June 2012.

    Banati P; Alexander G

    Florence, Italy, UNICEF, Office of Research, 2012. [72] p.

    This paper describes the outcomes of an expert consultation on “The Structural Determinants of Child Well-being” hosted by the UNICEF Office of Research. The two-day meeting brought together twelve participants to discuss the underlying causes of child well-being and develop an initial framework to consider the impact of structural factors on children’s lives and the inequalities that too often shape (and limit) their futures. Seven major conclusions emerged from the debate. There is a large and still to be exploited potential for structural interventions to improve the lives of children in low and middle-income countries. Some sectors, notably health, have moved ahead in defining a structural determinants approach to programming and have a growing evidence base to draw upon. Other sectors have begun to follow but still have to make their case with the policy community. Until now, there has been very little work that brings together insights from analysing structural determinants of child wellbeing across all its dimensions in a consistent and rigorous way. Definitions of terms relating to structural and social determinants, and what we understand by social norms vary, and are sometimes at odds with each other or confusing. An agreement on key principles and concepts is an important basis for defining structural interventions that can make a difference at national and local levels. An integrated view of child well-being requires inter-sectoral and comprehensive approaches which both recognize the interplay of structural factors that influences children’s lives and seek to build synergies across programme areas. A pathway analysis can be helpful, together with the recognition of the vital importance of the early years, and other key periods of emotional and cognitive development such as adolescence. Such a ‘life-course’ approach offers the possibility to better understand the interaction of determinants at different stages of a child’s life and intergenerational drivers of inequity, gender inequality and disadvantage. A life-course approach has a strong evidence base primarily in OECD countries, and is still to be extended to low- and middle-income countries. Structural determinants are by their nature complex. That complexity does not imply that appropriate interventions cannot be launched, rather that new ways of planning and organizing inter-sectoral approaches are required especially in settings where administrative capacities are are still weak. A number of such innovations are beginning to show promise and need both support and expansion. New thinking related to ‘Governance’ as a domain of analysis and policy action for children provides directions of fresh research. Applied to systemic issues such as de-centralisation or social exclusion, such approaches point back to the insights developed from human rights thinking, including the obligations of the state to put in place and monitor the effectiveness of institutions and structures that address underlying causes of inequity and ensure that excluded groups, including all children, girls and boys, have a voice and are heard both in policy making and in resource allocation. A number of tools to strengthen analysis and action under a structural determinants approach are available but need to be expanded and tested in different settings. Finally, measurement challenges also need to be overcome to build a strong data base for action.
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  13. 13

    Resolution adopted by the General Assembly. 66/288. The future we want.

    United Nations. General Assembly

    [Unpublished] 2012 Sep 11. [53] p. (A/RES/66/288)

    Recalling its resolution 64/236 of 24 December 2009, in which it decided to organize, in 2012, the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development at the highest possible level, as well as its resolution 66/197 of 22 December 2011, 1. Expresses its profound gratitude to the Government and the people of Brazil for hosting the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio de Janeiro from 20 to 22 June 2012, and for providing all the necessary support; 2. Endorses the outcome document of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, entitled “The future we want”, annexed to the present resolution. (Excerpt)
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  14. 14

    Rio+20. United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 20-22 June 2012. Agenda item 10. Outcome of the conference. The future we want.

    United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (2012: Rio de Janeiro)

    [Unpublished] 2012 Jun 19. [53] p. (A/CONF.216/L.1)

    We, the Heads of State and Government and high-level representatives, having met at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 20 to 22 June 2012, with the full participation of civil society, renew our commitment to sustainable development and to ensuring the promotion of an economically, socially and environmentally sustainable future for our planet and for present and future generations. (Excerpt)
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  15. 15

    The Millennium Development Goals and the road to 2015: Building on progress and responding to crisis.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2010. [52] p.

    The Millennium Development Goals provide a multidimensional framework for attacking poverty in a world of multipolar growth. By focusing on measurable results, they provide a scorecard for assessing progress toward mutually agreed targets. And by enlisting the support of national governments, international agencies, and civil society in a development partnership, they have brought greater coherence to the global development effort. In this way they take us beyond the old, sterile opposition of “developed” and “developing” or “north” and “south.” The evidence from the last 20 years, documented in the statistical record of the MDGs, is that where conditions and policies are right for growth with equity, rapid and sustainable progress toward improving the lives of the poorest people can take place. Not every country will achieve the global MDG targets in the time allowed. Success has not been distributed evenly and there have been serious setbacks. Some countries are still burdened by legacies of bad policies, institutional failures, and civil and international conflict. For them, progress toward the MDGs has been delayed, but the examples of good progress by others point the way for their eventual success.
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  16. 16

    Global health and the new bottom billion. What do shifts in global poverty and the Global Disease Burden mean for GAVI and the Global Fund?

    Glassman A; Duran D; Sumner A

    Washington, D.C., Center for Global Development, 2011 Oct. [37] p. (Center for Global Development Working Paper No. 270)

    After a decade of rapid growth in average incomes, many countries have attained middle-income country (MIC) status. At the same time, the total number of poor people hasn’t fallen as much as one might expect and, as a result, most of the world’s poor now live in MICs. In fact, there are up to a billion poor people or a ‘new bottom billion’ living not in the world’s poorest countries but in MICs. Not only has the global distribution of poverty shifted to MICs, so has the global disease burden. This paper examines the implications of this ‘new bottom billion’ for global health efforts and recommends a tailored middle-income strategy for the Global Fund and GAVI. The paper describes trends in the global distribution of poverty, preventable infectious diseases, and health aid response to date; revisits the rationale for health aid through agencies like GAVI and the Global Fund; and proposes a new MIC strategy and components, concluding with recommendations.
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  17. 17

    Global health and the new bottom billion: How funders should respond to shifts in global poverty and disease burden.

    Glassman A; Duran D; Sumner A

    [Washington, D.C.], Center for Global Development, 2012 Jan. [4] p. (CDG Brief)

    After a decade of rapid economic growth, many developing countries have attained middle-income status. But poverty reduction in these countries has not kept pace with economic growth. As a result, most of the world’s poor -- up to a billion people -- now live in these new middle-income countries (MICs), making up a “new bottom billion.” As the new MICs are home to most of the world’s poor, they also carry the majority of the global disease burden. This poses a challenge to global health agencies, in particular the GAVI Alliance and the Global Fund, which are accustomed to disbursing funds on the assumption that the majority of poor people live in poor countries. To better target aid to poor people, we recommend that funders focus on four areas: Eliminating country-income thresholds as across-the-board criteria for allocating global health funding; Setting up regional pooled procurement or pricing mechanisms; Building evidence-based priority-setting institutions; Establishing increased accountability mechanisms and providing technical support for MICs.
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  18. 18

    The state of the world's children 2012. Children in an urban world.


    New York, New York, UNICEF, 2012. [156] p.

    When many of us think of the world’s poorest children, the image that comes readily to mind is that of a child going hungry in a remote rural community in sub-Saharan Africa -- as so many are today. But as The State of the World’s Children 2012 shows with clarity and urgency, millions of children in cities and towns all over the world are also at risk of being left behind. In fact, hundreds of millions of children today live in urban slums, many without access to basic services. They are vulnerable to dangers ranging from violence and exploitation to the injuries, illnesses and death that result from living in crowded settlements atop hazardous rubbish dumps or alongside railroad tracks. And their situations -- and needs -- are often represented by aggregate figures that show urban children to be better off than their rural counterparts, obscuring the disparities that exist among the children of the cities. This report adds to the growing body of evidence and analysis, from UNICEF and our partners, that scarcity and dispossession afflict the poorest and most marginalized children and families disproportionately. What does this mean for children? This document examines the situation of children growing up in urban settings and finds that denial of children’s rights to survival, health, nutrition, education and protection are widespread. It sheds light on the scale of these urban inequities and suggests ways to ensure that urban childhoods are safe, healthy, participatory and fulfilling. The report also includes sections on adolescents, HIV and other issues impacting the well-being of youth. (Excerpt)
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  19. 19
    Peer Reviewed

    Violence against women: an urgent public health priority.

    Garcia-Moreno C; Watts C

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2011 Jan 1; 89(1):2.

    This editorial focuses on violence against women and states that addressing it is central to the achievement of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 3 on women's empowerment and gender equality as well as MDG 4, 5, and 6. It discusses different aspects related to violence against women including: research efforts, mortality and morbidity rates, economic costs, social costs, and prevention.
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  20. 20

    Eliminating health inequities. Every woman and every child counts.

    International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies; Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health

    Geneva, Switzerland, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, 2011. [44] p.

    This report calls for barriers to health services to be removed. The report contains a set of concrete recommendations for action by different stakeholders, including government, donors and civil society, to improve access to quality care and health information, and greater gender equality. The recommendations take a holistic approach, linking health inequities to poverty, gender bias, and human rights violations, which in turn impact on education, transport, health, agriculture and overall well-being. Success stories of social and political action in 10 countries around the world, including Egypt, Bangladesh, Malawi, Ecuador, Afghanistan, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Austria, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, and Eritrea, are also highlighted.
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  21. 21
    Peer Reviewed

    Telemedicine and health information technology to achieve Millennium Development Goals [editorial]

    Merrell RC; Doarn CR

    Telemedicine and e-Health. 2011 Mar; 17(2):63.

    This editorial focuses on the importance of telemedicine and health information technology (HIT) in achieving some of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). It discusses how telemedicine and HIT could assist in achieving Goal 6 - HIV, malaria and other diseases, Goal 4 - reduction in child mortality, Goal 5 - improvement in maternal health, and Goal 3 - empowerment for women.
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  22. 22

    A review of population, reproductive health, and adolescent health and development in poverty reduction strategies.

    World Bank. Health, Nutrition and Population Central Unit. Population and Reproductive Health Cluster

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, Health, Nutrition and Population Central Unit, Population and Reproductive Health Cluster, 2004 Aug. [23] p.

    This review examines how poverty reduction strategies are addressing population (Pop), reproductive health (RH), and adolescent health and development (AHD) issues. We analyzed twenty-one Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) and associated documents, and conducted interviews with Health, Nutrition, and Population (HNP) staff at the World Bank involved in the poverty reduction strategy process. Based on this review, we recommend actions that the Bank, other donors, government counterparts, and civil society groups can take to better support countries to address Pop/RH/AHD issues in their poverty reduction efforts. Population, reproductive health, and adolescent health and development issues are closely interrelated in cause, consequence and policy implications. To maintain a stronger focus on these three issues, we chose not to analyze related concerns such as gender, nutrition, and education -- all essential components of the multisectoral approach advocated by the Cairo Programme of Action (ICPD, 1994). Other reviews have examined these related issues in greater depth. This paper complements a growing body of work reviewing the application of the PRS framework to poverty alleviation in low-income countries. Compared to previous health and related sector reviews, it provides a more in-depth look at Pop/RH/AHD issues, examines documents related to the PRSP such as the JSA and CAS, and incorporates interviews of key actors with Pop/RH/AHD expertise involved in the PRS process. This review is meant to complement findings from other reviews of the PRS process that focus on broader issues of relevance to all sectors. Our analysis relied on several of these relevant internal and external reviews, including in-depth reviews of gender, the health sector, nutrition, and population and development issues. (Excerpt)
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  23. 23

    The scorecard: Moniitoring and evaluating the implementation of the World Bank’s Reproductive Health Action Plan 2010–2015.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2011 Jul. [32] p.

    This scorecard is an analysis of the World Bank's Reproductive Health Action Plan. Approved in 2010, the Action Plan marks the Bank's renewed commitment to sexual and reproductive health. Building on recommendations of an evaluation of the Bank and consultation with civil society, it sets out the Bank's approach to increase its effectiveness in promoting and supporting national policies and strategies for reproductive health, and to support improved reproductive health outcomes at national level. One year after its approval, it is time to take stock of the Plan; to assess implementation globally and nationally; to celebrate progress; and to identify where increased focus is needed to ensure that the Plan is reflected in Bank policy and lending patterns. This scorecard includes an analysis of the Reproductive Health Action Plan and its Results Framework. It reviews progress to date and makes recommendations for changes to the indicators. It also includes three country scorecards -- for Burkina Faso, Mali and Ethiopia -- which chart progress at country level in three of the 57 focal countries. (Excerpts)
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  24. 24

    The Millennium Development Goals report 2011.

    United Nations

    New York, New York, United Nations, 2011. [72] p.

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight targeted development aims designed to free humanity from extreme poverty, hunger, illiteracy and disease by 2015. Together, they form a blueprint for development agreed upon by all the world's countries and all the world's leading development institutions. Reliable, timely and internationally comparable data on the MDG progress indicators are crucial for holding the international community to account, encouraging public support and funding for development, allocating aid effectively, and comparing progress among regions and across countries. This report draws on data from numerous international agencies and national governments to present an accounting to date of how far the world has come in meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). It outlines the significant progress made by some countries towards the MDGs, but also demonstrates that efforts to reach the MDGs by 2015 still need to be intensified. They must address disparities in progress between urban and rural areas, and increase efforts to target the world's hardest to reach populations, namely the extremely poor and those disadvantaged due to their sex, age, ethnicity or disability.
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  25. 25

    Towards a green economy: Pathways to sustainable development and poverty eradication. A synthesis for policy makers.

    United Nations Environment Program [UNEP]

    Nairobi, Kenya, UNEP, 2011. [52] p.

    We argue in UNEP's forthcoming Green Economy Report, and in this extracted Synthesis for Policy Makers, that the rewards of greening the world's economies are tangible and considerable, that the means are at hand for both governments and the private sector, and that the time to engage the challenge is now. In this report, we explored through a macroeconomic model the impacts of investments in greening the economy as against investments in "business as usual" -- measuring results not only in terms of traditional GDP but also impacts on employment, resource intensity, emissions and ecological impact. We estimated, based on several studies, that the annual financing demand to green the global economy was in the range of US$ 1.05-2.59 trillion. To place this demand in perspective, it is less than one-tenth of the total global investment per year (as measured by global Gross Capital Formation). Taking an annual level of US$ 1.3 trillion (i.e. 2% of global GDP) as a target reallocation from "brown" investment to "green" investment, our macroeconomic model suggests that over time, investing in a green economy enhances long-run economic performance and can increase total global wealth. Significantly, it does so while enhancing stocks of renewable resources, reducing environmental risks, and rebuilding our capacity to generate future prosperity. Our report, Towards a Green Economy, focuses on 10 key economic sectors because we see these sectors as driving the defining trends of the transition to a green economy, including increasing human well-being and social equity, and reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities. Across many of these sectors, we have found that greening the economy can generate consistent and positive outcomes for increased wealth, growth in economic output, decent employment, and reduced poverty. (Excerpts)
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