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Improving effectiveness and outcomes for the poor in health, nutrition, and population: an evaluation of World Bank Group support since 1997.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Independent Evaluation Group, 2009.  p.The World Bank Group’s support for health, nutrition, and population (HNP) has been sustained since 1997 -- totaling $17 billion in country-level support by the World Bank and $873 million in private health and pharmaceutical investments by the International Finance Corporation (IFC) through mid-2008. This report evaluates the efficacy of the Bank Group’s direct support for HNP to developing countries since 1997 and draws lessons to help improve the effectiveness of this support.
Cambridge, Massachusetts, Belknap Press, 2008. xiv, 521 p.Rather than a conspiracy theory, this book presents a cautionary tale. It is a story about the future, and not just the past. It therefore takes the form of a narrative unfolding over time, including very recent times. It describes the rise of a movement that sought to remake humanity, the reaction of those who fought to preserve patriarchy, and the victory won for the reproductive rights of both women and men -- a victory, alas, Pyrrhic and incomplete, after so many compromises, and too many sacrifices. (Excerpt)
Review and appraisal of the progress made in achieving the goals and objectives of the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development: the 2004 report.
New York, New York, United Nations, 2004.  p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/235)This report is divided into an introduction and seven sections. The first two sections provide an overview of population levels and trends, and population growth, structure and distribution in the world and its major regions. These are followed by four sections focusing on clusters of issues: reproductive rights and reproductive health, health and mortality, international migration, and population programmes. The final section summarizes the major conclusions of the report. Reflected in the discussions in all the sections, both explicitly and implicitly, are three interrelated factors that affect implementation of all the recommendations of the Programme of Action, namely, availability of financial and human resources, institutional capacities, and partnerships among Governments, the international community, non-governmental organizations and the civil society. The full implementation of the Programme of Action requires concerted action on these three fronts. (excerpt)
Population and Development Review. 2006; 32 Suppl:1-51.By the end of the twentieth century, although expansion of population numbers in the developing world still had far to run, the pace had greatly slowed: widespread declines in birth rates had taken place and looked set to continue. To what degree population policies played a significant role in this epochal transformation of demographic regimes remains a matter of conjecture and controversy. It seems likely that future observers will be impressed by the essential similarities in the path to demographic modernity that successive countries have taken in the last few centuries, rather than discerning a demographic exceptionalism in the most recent period--with achievement of the latter credited to deliberate policy design. But that eventual judgment, whatever it may be, needs to be based on an understanding of how demographic change over the last half-century has been perceived and the responses it has elicited--an exercise in political demography. Such an exercise, inevitably tentative given the recency of the events, is essayed in this chapter. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2003 Sep. 5 p. (HIV Prevention Now Programme Briefs No. 9)In combating HIV/AIDS, it is essential to translate awareness of the implications of the epidemic into effective policies and programmes. The ability of communities, nation states, and the international community to halt and reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS, called for within the Millennium Declaration, requires an understanding of the social, cultural and economic factors that drive the pandemic. HIV prevention programmes can and should take advantage of the cumulative knowledge, methods and experience acquired in the area of population and development. Population and development strategies can be adapted, based on the realities of the population groups, and used to help provide an enabling environment for action and to support the implementation of effective HIV prevention policies and programmes, especially within UNFPA's core areas of prevention among young people and pregnant women, and comprehensive condom programming. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1998 Winter; 35(4): p..According to the 1998 revised estimates and projections of the United Nations, the world population currently stands at 5.9 billion persons and is growing at 1.33 per cent per year, an annual net addition of about 78 million people. World population in the mid-twenty-first century is expected to be in the range of 7.3 to 10.7 billion, with a figure of 8.9 billion by the year 2050 considered to be most likely. Global population growth is slowing, thanks to successful family planning programmes. But because of past high fertility, the world population will continue to grow by over 80 million a year for at least the next decade. In mid-1999, the total will pass 6 billion-twice what it was in 1960. More young people than ever are entering their childbearing years. At the same time, the number and proportion of people over 65 are increasing at an unprecedented rate. The rapid growth of these young and old new generations is challenging societies' ability to provide education and health care for the young, and social, medical and financial support for the elderly. (excerpt)
Global HealthLink. 2003 Jan-Feb; (119):8.Important changes have occurred over the past decade in the policy and program environment for the population and reproductive health fields. These changes embody renewed commitments to human rights and gender equity in international affairs as well as recognition of changing economic, demographic and epidemiological conditions in countries. The commitments were agreed upon during the series of international conferences and summits that took place during the I990s, including the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo (ICPD), the Fourth World Conference on Women (FWCW) and the Social Summit. A key accomplishment of these conferences was to establish measurable goals toward which governments and development agencies could focus their efforts to improve the health and welfare of poor people around the world. The "plus-five" follow- up to these conferences further sharpened global attention on outcomes and on actions that need to be undertaken to achieve International Development Goals (IDGs), later expressed as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). They also identified key challenges that governments and agencies face in their efforts to implement commitments made at the conferences. Chief among these challenges are shortfalls in financial support for needed action, lack of implementation capacity in countries, and the rapidly changing policy and program environments in which the work must be done. (excerpt)
The USAID population program in Ecuador: a graduation report. [El Programa de USAID para la población de Ecuador aprueba su examen final. Informe]
Washington, D.C., LTG Associates, Population Technical Assistance Project [POPTECH], 2001 Oct.  p. (POPTECH Publication No. 2001–031–006; USAID Contract No. HRN–C–00–00–00007–00)For nearly 30 years, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) provided assistance for population, family planning, and reproductive health programs in Ecuador. Throughout the early years, USAID worked with both private and public sector institutions to establish a broad base for national awareness of and support for family planning and for the introduction of contraceptive services. USAID led all other donors in this sector in terms of financial, technical, and contraceptive commodity assistance. Upon reflection of the accomplishments of the USAID population program during these years and considering its most recent Strategic Objective of “increased use of sustainable family planning and maternal child health services,” it is apparent that the Agency was successful in this endeavor and has adequately provided for the graduation of its local partners, particularly those in the private sector, where USAID had directed the major focus of its assistance over the past decade. During the last and final phase of assistance, 1992–2001, the USAID strategy focused primarily on assuring the financial and institutional sustainability of the two largest local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that provide family planning services. USAID/Ecuador worked in partnership with the Asociación Pro-bienestar de la Familia Ecuatoriana (APROFE), which is the Ecuadorian affiliate of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), and the Centro Médico de Orientación y Planificación Familiar (CEMOPLAF)—institutions that provide contraceptive and other reproductive health services. At the same time, in order to assure that the necessary tools were in place for future program monitoring, planning, and evaluation, USAID assistance was provided to the Centro de Estudios de Población y Desarrollo Social (CEPAR). (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2003.  p. (E/750/2003)Financial Resource Flows for Population Activities in 2001 is intended to be a tool for donor and developing country Governments, multilateral organizations and agencies, private foundations and NGOs to monitor progress in achieving the financial resource targets agreed to at the ICPD. Development cooperation officers and policy makers in developing countries can use the report to identify the domestically generated resources and complementary resources from donors needed to finance population and reproductive health programmes. (excerpt)
In: Women, international development, and politics: the bureaucratic mire. Updated and expanded edition, edited by Kathleen Staudt. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Temple University Press, 1997. 167-182.Using a feminist lens to inspect current PVO (private voluntary organization) family planning programs, we first define the feminist perspective as it applies to such programs and then compare that feminist vision with the reality found in the field. This paper examines the political dynamics of working for a feminist agenda within the community of population PVOs. The following case study illustrates these dynamics and leads to a discussion of both the obstacles to the realization of a feminist vision and the political strategies and attitudes that help implement this vision. Together, we draw on seventeen years of work with a variety of PVOs involved in family planning and reproductive health. (excerpt)
In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 211-247.During its thirty-year history, a number of valuable books have been written about the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), both by insiders and by knowledgeable outsiders. Most of these books have been organized around broad themes, usually UNFPA's work in each of the major population areas (reproductive health and family planning; policy formulation; population information, education and communication; data collection and analyses; and programmes focused on women and adolescents); UNFPA's work in each of the five major geographic regions; its role in the three international population conferences held in 1974, 1984, and 1994; and its involvement in new initiatives and innovations. This chapter takes a somewhat different tack. It attempts to describe UNFPA's overall role in population and development over the entire 30 years. In addition to summarizing the major accomplishments and challenges of UNFPA in each of the past three decades, it presents a number of events from each year in a chronological framework in order to chronicle and illustrate the wide variety of ways UNFPA has made and continues to make a constructive difference, including its role in many advocacy and programme activities that otherwise might never have been undertaken. While the chapter covers the entire period, it does try to highlight some important items and subjects that were somewhat overlooked in earlier books on UNFPA. These items and subjects include the annual State of World Population (SWOP) reports; UNFPA-sponsored conferences in the 1970s and 1980s; population, development and the reduction of poverty in China; and the Rafael M. Salas Lecture Series. More recent developments, including UNFPA's role in the series of United Nations conferences and summits on economic and social matters in the 1990s, its active role in the various policy and programme coordinating mechanisms of the United Nations system, and UNFPA's evolving role in population and development since the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in 1994 are also described in some detail. (author's)
New York, New York, UNFPA, Technical Support Division, 2002 Jul. 10 p. (Communication / Behaviour Change Tools. Programme Briefs No. 2)Hotlines (also known as help lines) are telephone lines established to provide information to a caller, serve as an entry point for first time counselling or act as a referral service. Telephone counselling involves a special form of interpersonal communication in which a counsellor seeks to guide and encourage another person to address a specific problem. Telephone counselling differs from face to face counselling, as the telephone counsellor has to depend on his/her voice as the only means of communication. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2002. x, 103 p.Financial Resource Flows for Population Activities in 2000 is the fourteenth edition of a report previously published by UNFPA under the title of Global Population Assistance Report. The United Nations Population Fund has regularly collected data and reported on flows of international financial assistance to population activities. The Fund’s annual Reports focused on the flow of funds from donors through bilateral, multilateral and non-governmental channels for population assistance to developing countries1 and countries with economies in transition. Also included were grants and loans from development banks for population activities in developing countries. (excerpt)
Population 2005: News and views on further implementation of Cairo Program of Action. 2003 Sep; 5(3):13-14.Based on the funding trends of population and reproductive health programs, and on the international commitment to fund South-South cooperation in those fields, this article suggests ways and means to institutionalize funding for this cooperation modality from developing and donor country sources. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1995. vi, 68 p. (Programme Review and Strategy Development Report No. 47)The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), in collaboration with the Government of the Republic of Mozambique, undertook a Programme Review and Strategy Development (PRSD) exercise to review the country's programme of population activities, identify the main population issues and challenges facing the country and formulate strategies necessary to address these issues and challenges. The PRSD exercise took place from 16 May to 12 June 1994. The strategies recommended in this report are based on extensive discussions with senior officials of various ministries and organizations, especially the Ministries of Health, Mineral Resources, Education, State Administration, and Cooperation; the National Planning Commission; Provincial Governors, District Administrators; the Eduardo Mondlane University (UEM); various resident missions in the United Nations system; multilateral and bilateral donor agencies; and national and international non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The recommendations of the Mission were also enriched by experiences gathered during a field visit to the four provinces of Manica, Nampula, Sofala and Zambezia. (excerpt)
Information note on the 10th anniversary of the International Conference on Population and Development - ICPD. Update 30 May 2003.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2003 May 30. 3 p.As we approach the 10th Anniversary of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), the mid-point of its 20-year Programme of Action, there is much to celebrate and to look forward to. Many countries have been able to translate the commitments they made in Cairo into policies and action programmes designed to transform the lives of women. But much remains to be done. At this point in time, most member states, UNFPA, and other partners believe that the best way to commemorate ICPD is by doing a pragmatic and constructive country-by-country analysis of achievements, of constraints, of lessons learned and to feed back the results so as to enrich and accelerate the implementation of the ICPD PoA. The 10th Anniversary is also an opportunity to reflect on the ICPD goals, and demonstrate how achieving them will contribute to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Several activities are already planned at the national, regional and global levels. Here is a summary of those activities. (excerpt)
Spotlight. 2003 May 30-Jun 5; 22(46): p..J. Bill Musoke, Country Representatives of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), has been in Nepal for more than couple of years. Musoke, who has been involved in the implementation and execution of the UNFPA's major programs, spoke to Keshab Poudel on various population-related issues. (excerpt)
Vietnam Population News. 2002 Oct-Dec; (25):5-6.0n 9 December 2002, United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the Committee for Population, Family and Children (CPFC) signed a project "Support to Strengthen the Capacity, of the Committee for Population, Family and Children and Concerned Institutions in the Management and Implementation of the National Population Programme". The project has total budget of US$ 4,528,750 and will be implemented over a period of four years from 2002 to 2005. (excerpt)
Vietnam Population News. 2002 Jul-Sep; (24):3-4.An interview with Mr. Omer Ertur, UN Population Fund (UNFPA) Representative in Viet Nam on the occasion of World Population Day, July 11th by Ha Noi Newspaper. (excerpt)
Contraceptive Technology Update. 2002 Dec; 23(12):142-143.This summer, the Bush administration officially announced it was cutting all U.S. support for the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the largest multilateral population assistance agency in the world. This decision was a major victory for anti-family planning members of Congress, who have long alleged that UNFPA's small program in China indirectly supports coercive practices sanctioned by the Chinese government as a result of its "one-child-per-family" policy. (excerpt)
Earth Times. 2002 Nov 25;  p..Dr. Shaban Abou El-Fotoh is very proud of the gold stars he has been awarded by Egypt's Ministry of Health and displays them proudly on the wall of his office in the Hegazy Medical Center, a public clinic in the town of Caliobeya, just outside of Cairo. He was awarded these stars based on his management of the clinic, a clean but basic facility that receives more than 300 patients a day and serve four local neighborhoods that comprise of over 27,000 residents. El-Fotoh and many of the nurses, physicians and technicians in the center have received supplemental medical training from a program spearheaded by Egyptian anthropologist Dr. Hind Khattab in conjunction with the United Nations Population Fund's Cairo field office. Her program was established to improve the quality and sensitivity of reproductive health care services in rural Egypt. The Hegazy Medical Center is one of a handful of clinics near Cairo involved in Khattab's pilot program that has been so successful in its results that UNFPA decided to continue supporting it in its new program for 2002-2006. The idea for the program was born in 1988, when Khattab attended a conference on maternal mortality. She wanted to understand why women in Egypt, as well as many other developing nations, were not aware of their gynecological health and effectively suffer in silence. (excerpt)
SusPop News. 1995 Jan; (11):2-4.This article discusses the agenda and achievements of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, emphasizing that an increase funding is needed to achieve and continue the goals of the conference.
Proceedings of the Workshop on Strategies for Implementation of Rajasthan Population Policy, Jaipur, January 20, 2000.
Jaipur, India, Rajasthan State Institute of Health and Family Welfare, Population Resource Centre, 2000. xiv, 50 p.The living standards of the people of the state can be improved only by formulating and implementing a policy that will effect appropriate changes in the size, structure and distribution of population. The Population Policy of Rajasthan indicates the qualitative demographic goals to be achieved, within a defined time frame and states the proposed interventions and innovations to achieve the specified goals. However, the strategy for implementation must have the active involvement of all stakeholders. A national workshop on developing strategies was held simultaneously with the release of the Policy. This report, which is the proceedings of the workshop, provides insight into the implementation of the Policy. (author's)
In: Family planning, health and family well-being. Proceedings of the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Family Planning, Health and Family Well-Being, Bangalore, India, 26-30 October 1992, [compiled by] United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1996. 338-41. (ST/ESA/SER.R/131)The World Bank started assisting population and family planning activities in 1969. Since then it has concentrated on financial lending in family planning, population, health and nutrition; policy dialogue on population with governments; and sector studies for countries and regions. During the 1970s the Bank funded 22 projects in 15 countries, lending $366 million; 19 of the projects were population related. Health, population, and nutrition activities became the focus during 1979 and 1987. 45 projects were approved with $1,209 million committed. The Bank advised governments on the integration of population issues into development planning. Family planning was supported as a part of health provision in Africa and Latin America. The World Development Report, 1984, focused on population, stressing its importance in development. Reorganization and decentralization took place in 1987 but lending continued to grow in these areas. Currently [in 1992] there are 50 ongoing projects with a total commitment of $963 million for population policy development and family planning services. Policy and research work entails family planning cost effectiveness in Colombia and Indonesia. Cooperation and collaboration with local communities and nongovernmental organizations have developed over the years. The Bank also cooperates with UNFPA, IPPF, WHO, the African Development Bank, and the United Nationals Development Program. The Safe Motherhood Operational Research fund receives Bank support. The Task Force for Child Survival is supported by a grant. An intersectoral approach is taken, thus family planning, health, education, and nutrition projects are combined in broad social sector projects. 10 of the 28 projects in 1991 were such combined social development projects with 20% of all lending. Future opportunities concern strengthening family planning services; cooperation with donors for institution building to affect demographic change; increasing the involvement of local communities and nongovernmental organizations; and further integrating population policy into development strategies for the reduction of poverty.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1995. viii, 103 p. (Programme Review and Strategy Developpement Report No. 42)This report presents the findings of a 1993 UN Population Fund (UNFPA) Programme Review and Strategy Development Mission to Zambia which sought to review the nation's program of population activities and to design a strategy for an expanded population program. The report opens by presenting country data highlights, a map, and a summary. Chapter 1 describes the population and development context in terms of demographic trends and of the political and socioeconomic context. Chapter 2 reviews the national population program through a look at population and development policy and plans, implementation of the population program, and past and present technical cooperation. The third chapter reviews the proposed national population program strategies and makes proposals for general strategies, sectoral strategies, and UNFPA assistance.