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United States. Exploring the environment / population links and the role of major donors, foundations and nongovernmental organizations.
In: No vacancy: global responses to the human population explosion, edited by Michael Tobias, Bob Gillespie, Elizabeth Hughes and Jane Gray Morrison. Pasadena, California, Hope Publishing House, 2006. 103-196.The mission of the World Bank is to fight poverty and improve the living standards of people in the developing world. It is a development bank which provides loans, policy advice, technical assistance and knowledge-sharing services to low- and middle-income countries to reduce poverty. It also promotes growth to create jobs and to empower poor people to take advantage of these opportunities. The World Bank works to bridge the economic divide between rich and poor countries. As one of the world's largest sources of development assistance, it supports the efforts of developing countries to build schools and health centers, provide water and electricity, fight disease and protect the environment. As one of the United Nations' specialized agencies, it has 184 member countries that are jointly responsible for how the institution is financed and how its money is spent. There are 10,000 development professionals from nearly every country in the world who work in its Washington DC headquarters and in its 109 country offices. The World Bank is the world's largest long-term financier of HIV/AIDS programs and its current commitments for HIV/AIDS amount to more than $1.3 billion --half of which is targeted for sub-Saharan Africa. (excerpt)
Adolescence Education Newsletter. 2005 Jun; 8(1):3-4.EDUCATION PROGRAMMES for young people can be intricately linked to development goals (left). This was illustrated in a document released last year based on a technical review of UNFPA's three-decade experience in Population Education (PopEd). UNFPA PopEd programmes could be categorized into: 1) Population and Family Life Education; 2) Sexuality Education; and 3) Life Skills Education. Common elements of all programmes are: advocacy to promote an enabling socio-political environment; capacity-building through teacher training and development of curriculum and materials; and peer education. (excerpt)
International thinking on population policies and programmes from Rome to Cairo: Has South Africa kept pace?
South African Journal of Demography. 1996; 6(1):49-56.This paper reviews global thinking on population policy expressed at the world conferences on population matters from 1954 to 1994. The review is complemented by an overview of trends in South Africa that constituted a de jure population policy during the apartheid era. There is also a brief discussion of the Population Green Paper tabled in 1995, aimed at the establishment of a national population policy for South Africa. This is evaluated against the Programme of Action decided on at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo, Egypt, in 1994. There is an indication that finally, South Africa can be said to be genuinely moving in the direction of respect for human rights in its population policies in harmony with global convention. In a sense, it is catching up with global trends in the population field after years of isolation resulting from sanctions against the apartheid government. (author's)
At ICPD+10 mark, UNFPA intensifies efforts to promote RH commodity security. [Approchant le dixième anniversaire de la CIPD, le FNUAP intensifie ses efforts pour promouvoir la sécurité de la santé de la reproduction]
Population 2005. 2004 Jun; 6(2):13.As the 10th anniversary of the Cairo International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) approaches, there has been no letup in the UN Population Fund’s efforts to promote reproductive health commodity security around the world. Indeed, the Fund is actually intensifying its activities in this sector, leaving the distinct impression that it is all part of a coordinated and continuing response to the Program of Action of the September 1994 conference, and to the ICPD+5 update by the UN General Assembly in 1999. The impression would be neither casual nor accidental, because UNFPA is acting as the lead international agency that is trying to facilitate the creation and implementation of government strategies to meet the growing need for quality contraceptives, essential drugs and other reproductive health commodities. Special attention is also being devoted to assess future condom needs for HIV/AIDS prevention programs. Reproductive health commodity security (RHCS) is accepted as assured in those countries where the strategy has been successfully integrated into the national health program. (excerpt)
Population 2005: News and views on further implementation of Cairo Program of Action. 2003 Sep; 5(3):5.Family Planning Association of Kenya is greatly honored by having been selected by the committee to receive this year's United Nations Population Award in the institutional category. This is indeed a memorable occasion for the Family Planning Association of Kenya on whose behalf and on behalf of the Government and people of Kenya I am standing here to receive the prestigious 2003 United Nations Population Award. It is true to say that the Family Planning Association of Kenya over the years has contributed significantly to increased awareness of population and reproductive health problems in Kenya. From its inception, the association pioneered the family planning movement, investing all its resources in advocating for planned parenthood. With time, and in the spirit of the International Conference on Population and Development, the scope of her work has to encompass integrated sexual and reproductive health. This has enabled women, men and youth to have access to sexual and reproductive health information and services. These services include family planning, maternal and child health, maternity, papsmear tests, laboratory investigations, pharmacy, Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) for HIV/AIDS, outpatient treatment and referral. (excerpt)
Population 2005: News and views on further implementation of Cairo Program of Action. 2003 Sep; 5(3):4-6.I further dedicate this award to those men and women who are active today in the population field - including, of course, those serving at the grass roots level in outstanding organizations throughout the world, such as the Family Planning Association of Kenya, this year's institutional winner -- as well as to those who will follow in our toot- steps. They need not be reminded that a few rays of light shining in does not mean that we have reached the end of the tunnel, While the current generation of leadership in the population field has focused on helping couples to have only the family size they want, the next generation must tackle issues growing in their enormity and importance -- issues including aging, migration, urbanization, and deadly diseases, The recent announcement by the United Nations Population Division that world population may now stabilize at 8.9 billion is welcome news. The projection attests to the fact that we know what works. It attests to the fact that where and when couples the world over have access to the necessary information, means, and methods to control their fertility, they are motivated to have smaller families. (excerpt)
Population and Development Review. 2002 Dec; 28(4):707-733.We begin by briefly describing the shift in population policies. We then set out two theoretical frameworks expected to account for national reactions to the new policy: first, the spontaneous spread of new cultural items and the coalescence of a normative consensus about their value, and second, the directed diffusion of cultural items by powerful Western donors. We then describe our data and evaluate its quality. Subsequently, we analyze the responses of national elites in our five study countries to the Cairo agenda in terms of discourse and implementation. In our conclusion, we evaluate these responses in terms of the validity of the two theoretical frameworks. (excerpt)
Earth Times. 2002 Nov 25;  p..Dr. Shaban Abou El-Fotoh is very proud of the gold stars he has been awarded by Egypt's Ministry of Health and displays them proudly on the wall of his office in the Hegazy Medical Center, a public clinic in the town of Caliobeya, just outside of Cairo. He was awarded these stars based on his management of the clinic, a clean but basic facility that receives more than 300 patients a day and serve four local neighborhoods that comprise of over 27,000 residents. El-Fotoh and many of the nurses, physicians and technicians in the center have received supplemental medical training from a program spearheaded by Egyptian anthropologist Dr. Hind Khattab in conjunction with the United Nations Population Fund's Cairo field office. Her program was established to improve the quality and sensitivity of reproductive health care services in rural Egypt. The Hegazy Medical Center is one of a handful of clinics near Cairo involved in Khattab's pilot program that has been so successful in its results that UNFPA decided to continue supporting it in its new program for 2002-2006. The idea for the program was born in 1988, when Khattab attended a conference on maternal mortality. She wanted to understand why women in Egypt, as well as many other developing nations, were not aware of their gynecological health and effectively suffer in silence. (excerpt)
Bangkok, Thailand, Unesco Regional Office, 1980. 111 p. (Population Education Programme Service)This report presents the results of a workshop on Innovative Structures and Approaches to Population Education which enabled 12 Asian countries with population education programs to share their experiences. The workshop also enabled countries with emerging population education programs to formulate alternative and innovative structures for more effective implementation of programs. Participants came from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Korea, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. The report contains individual country reports on the current population situation, population education programs, in-school programs, out-of-school programs, and innovative approaches to population education. In most cases, population education is viewed as part of national development plans. In many countries, it is relatively new and often equated with the family planning programs. There is a need for awareness and orientation programs, such as study tours by government officials, seminars, and the use of Unesco Mobile teams. Various strategies for curriculum development that have been used are infusion of population examples, integration of issues into syllabi and textbooks, and adding separate units on population in selected subjects. Training of teachers has included self-learning modules, face-to-face training, and seminars. Research and evaluation on population education has been carried out in 4 countries (e.g. content analysis of textbooks and survey of parent and students). Out-of-school programs, radio and television, national theater, and home visits have increased awareness of population education. Alternative structures and approaches to population education are discussed in terms of program development and implementation, awareness and orientation of key persons and training of teachers, curriculum and material development, and coordination with different agencies/departments and administrative organization.
The blurred line between aiding progress and sanctioning abuse: United States appropriations, the UNFPA and family planning in the P.R.C.
New York Law School Journal of Human Rights. 2000; 17(3):1063-1104.This note discusses the trend in People's Republic of China programs, international standards of human rights, legislative trends, and the United States budget for fiscal years 2000 and 2001 as they apply to family planning programs. Specifically, this discussion shows why Congress should condition funding of these programs based on assurances of compliance with human rights standards. Part I presents an overview of the P.R.C. programs. Part II reviews internationally accepted standards of human rights concerning reproduction and population control, as well as China's violations of these rights. Part III describes UNFPA funding of the P.R.C.'s programs, emphasizing their latest 4-year program. Part IV discusses the legislative trend since 1985 of limiting or halting funding to the programs, and the current state of the federal budget regarding these appropriations. Part V discusses the global gag rule and the necessity of its removal. Part VI considers recently proposed legislation regarding funding family planning. Finally, the conclusion proposes a possible solution to the family planning dilemma in the face of both the continuing need for assistance and the continued existence of human rights abuses. (excerpt)
BMJ. British Medical Journal. 1993 Nov 6; 307(6913):1161.The first population summit for 56 of the world's scientific academies was held in New Delhi in late 1993. Participants at the three day meeting recommended that governments adopt an integrated policy on population and sustainable development. The African Academy of Science, co-sponsored of the event, did not endorse the recommendation. The African Academy of Sciences considered its large population as an important resource necessary for the exploitation of natural resources and productivity. Family planning that was fertility regulation alone was considered simplistic by the African Academy. The recommendation was separately endorsed by the national governments of Egypt, Ghana, and Nigeria. The aim of the summit was to provide input to the upcoming UN World Conference on Population and Development scheduled for Cairo in 1994. The population projection of 7.8 billion by 2050 with a reduced fertility of 1.7 children per woman early in the 21st century was still considered too large. The summit spent considerable time on the issue of funding for contraceptive research and development, which was low at 3% of annual sales globally. The distinction was made that family planning services should be part of a broader strategy of improving the quality of human life. There was less agreement on depletion of resources and environmental degradation. China, India, and Indonesia were considered to be depleting natural resources. However, excessive consumption was identified in the United States, Germany, and Japan. The US population of 250 million had a resource demand index 50 times higher than Indonesia's population of 188 million. The summit statement urged developed countries to be more resourceful in resource use and eliminate waste. An Oxford academician's considered opinion was that it was easier to reduce population size than to reduce affluence, lifestyles, and wastefulness.
Selected resolutions and decisions related to population adopted by the Economic and Social Council at its second regular session of 1991.
POPULATION NEWSLETTER. 1991 Jun; (51):17-21.UN resolutions and decisions pertaining to population adopted by the Economic and Social council at its 2nd Session in 1991 are published in the UN Population Newsletter. First the Secretary-General was asked to continue giving priority to monitoring world population trends in ongoing projects such as studies on relationships between population and development, role of women, analysis of population policies, and biennial estimates and projections of populations, among others. The Secretary General was requested to continue giving high priority to multilateral technical cooperation programs on such topics as training in demography, analysis of population data, formulation of population policies, implementation of programs, and training of population specialists. The Economic and Social Council decided that a meeting to be held in 1994 will be called the International Conference on Population and Development. Its objectives will be: 1) to appraise progress made on the World Population Plan of Action; 2) to identify instruments and mechanisms to implement these recommendations; 3) to strengthen awareness of population issues on the international agenda and their links to development; 4) to consider ways of treating population issues in their development context in the next decade; 5_ to adopt a set of recommendations for the next decade; and 6) to enhance mobilization of resources needed in developing countries to implement the results of the Conference. A set of 6 issues was proposed as needing the most attention in the next decade: population growth; population policies; relationships between population; development; and the environment; changing population distribution, role and status of women; and family planning programs, health, and well-being. 6 expert groups will be convened to address these issues at the Conference.
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, ICOMP, 1992 Apr. iv, 23 p.The Annual Report for 1991 of the International Council on Management of Population Programmes (ICOMP) marks progress in development cooperation over 10 years, looking forward to the 1990s, despite financial limitations. Notable achievements were made in the ICOMP Women's Programme and in regional training workshops on management. ICOMP has held 8 policy seminars on strategic management of population programmes and nongovernmental organization management, rather than conduct international conferences biennially, as was the prior agenda. These Workshops were held in Southern Africa and in West Africa on Primary Health Care, and Population Programme Management, in South Asia on Family Well-Being, in Latin America on Community Contraceptive marketing, in Africa on Development Management, and in Asia on Women and Management Development. This report includes a summary of activities, international workshops and seminars, the Institutional Development Assistance Program (IDAP), Women and Development Management, and Technical Assistance/Networking. It ends with a financial balance sheet, a list of expenditures by projects, and a roster of executive committee, programme managers, institute directors, consultants, and administrative staff.
INTEGRATION. 1991 Sep; (29):4-5.The work of the Soviet Family Health Association (SFHA) is described. Created in January, 1989, the organization boasts 25 state-paid workers, and as of June 1991, membership of 15,000 corporate and individual members. Individual annual membership fee is 5 rubles, and entitles members to counseling and family planning (FP) services. The SFHA works in cooperation with the Commission on Family Planning Problems of the USSR's Academy of Sciences, and has been a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) since 1990. Association activities include lectures for students, newly-weds, adolescents, and working women on modern contraceptive methods; research on attitude regarding sex, sex behaviors, and the perceived need for effective contraception; clinical trials of contraceptive suitability for women; and the training of doctors in FP and contraceptives. Problems central to the SFHA's operations include insufficient service and examination equipment, a shortage of hard currency, and the small number of FP specialists in the country. Solutions to these obstacles are sought through collaboration with the government, non-governmental organizations in the Soviet Union, and international groups. The SFHA has a series of activities planned for 1991 designed to foster wider acceptance of FP. Increased FP services at industrial enterprises, establishing more FP centers throughout the Soviet Union, and studying FP programs in other countries are among Association targets for the year. Research on and promotion of contraceptives has been virtually stagnant since abortion was declared illegal in 1936. Catching up on these lost decades and remaining self-reliant are challenges to the SPHA.
Report of the POPIN-Africa training seminar/workshop on methodologies for input/output mechanisms, documentation and population information networking, Addis Ababa, 20-31 October 1986.
[Unpublished] 1986. 7 p. (UNFPA PROJ. NO. RAF/84/P16; ECA/TC/POP/86/2.8(ii))The 1st training seminar/workshop on POPIN-Africa methodologies for input/output, documentation and population information networking which was organized by the POPIN-Africa Coordinating Unit took place at the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) in Addis Ababa in October 1986. Analysis of evaluation questionnaires completed by the participants revealed that: the seminar was useful since it brought network members together as a team to discuss problems relevant to their duties at the country and subregional/sectoral levels; the discussion sessions following lectures which highlighted practical issues were very useful; and the sessions on management, monitoring and evaluation, acquisition, abstracting, report writing and editing, training design and management and the simulated models of action plans were particularly useful. It was recommended that similar training seminars be held to cater specifically to the topics of network planning and management, abstracting, report writing and editing.
POPULI. 1987; 14(4):15-24.This is a collection of comments by UNFPA Deputy Representatives/Senior Advisors on Population (DRSAPs) concerning their relationships with local governments. The geographical focus is on developing countries. (ANNOTATION)
In: Population and management: a report of the Seminar/Workshop on the Management of Latin American Population and Family Planning Programs held in Bogota, Colombia on May 23-26, 1976, edited by Henry Gomez. Caracas, Venezuela, Instituto de Estudios Superiores de Administracion, . 44-9.Add to my documents.
A tribute to General William H. Draper, Jr., statement made at the Memorial Service for General William H. Draper, Jr. Church Center for the United Nations, New York, 18 February 1975.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA . 3 p.General Draper worked closely with the United States government, the UNFPA and the International Planned Parenthood Federation. He was a concerned citizen and had a great deal of energy. He traveled everywhere to look for allies, to get ideas and funds, and to learn about how people of different cultures thought and acted. General Draper was enthusiastic and eager for the causes he worked for. He foresaw the developing countries solving their population problem with billions of dollars, rather than millions, which he helped to produce. He was a senior statesman of population. General Draper's reliable presence will be missed when the population work becomes more complex and urgent.
Echo. 1974 Dec; 23(2):1-2.This article addresses the question of the education of population program administrators. Population is regarded as one of the most delicate aspects of administration. Population programs affect the most intimate aspects of family life and individual behavior. This is one of the 1st lessons that the administrative personnel of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities had to learn. In 5 years of experience since the foundation of the Fund in 1969, the most important learning continues to be that there is no single solution for population problems; each country must find its own way. In the World Conference on Population held in Bucharest, the Fund received strong support in spite of differences in opinion among the participants on issues such as population and the present and future functions of the Fund. This indicates that the Fund's activities are adequate for any type of population politics. The adoption of a World Plan for Population suggests that a new, international view based on the cooperation of all nations in population activities is germinating.
Evaluation report to UNFPA on UNFPA-supported United Nations Demographic Training and Research Centre.
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, Oct. 1977. 159 p.UNFPA (United Nations Fund for Population Activities) gives support to 6 UN Domographic Training and Research Centres (IIPS, CELADE, CDC, RIPS, IFORD, AND CEDOR). An evaluation of these centers addressed these points: 1) description and analysis of the objectives for each center as well as of the strategy for the total program and of the interrelationship between these objectives and the overall strategy; 2) description and problem oriented analysis of the center's programs including legal arrangements, institutional framework, planned and actual activities, resources, and funding; 3) description and analysis of the achievements by each center of its objectives; 4) description and analysis of the present and future role of each center for the achievement of the overall strategy. The International Institute for Population Studies (IIPS) gives adequate training to its personnel, but it needs to require minimum standards of knowledge of mathematics and statistics; a standard English test should be applied before admission. There is also a lack of opportunity for field work. At Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia (CELADE), training should provide more opportunities in studying interrelationships between population and socioeconomic variables, and put less emphasis on technical subjects, such as mathematics and statistics. The Cairo Demographic Centre (CDC) should continue to recruit the majority of its students from the Arab countries. The Centre should be more demanding in this recruitment and admission policies and procedures should be standardized. CDC should develop a specific policy on grades and on the conditions under which a candidate may not receive a diploma or degeee. The Mission recommends that the Regional Institute for Population Studies (RIPS) strengthen its field work program, coordinate its curriculum to avoid overlap of coursework, and that the UN contribute funds for all activities forming part of the agreement. At both Institut de Formation et de Recherche Demographiques (IFORD) and Centre D'Etudes Demographiques ONU-Roumanie (CEDOR), the mission concludes that both centers are too small to be viable, and feels that under ideal conditions it would have been preferable to have both population development and technical demography taught in one and the same institution. Closer collaboration between the 2 centers is recommended. There is a dire need for training and research in French speaking developing countries.
In: Jain SC, Kanagaratnam K, Paul JE, ed. Management development in population programs. Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina, School of Public Health, Dept. of Health Administration and Carolina Population Center, 1981. 113-51.This case study examines the management development aspect of the Korean national family planning program which was initially adopted in 1962. The nation's goal in the 1st 10 years of the program was to reduce the rate of population growth from 2.9-2.0%. Subsequent targets were established to reduce the growth rate to 1.5% by 1976 and 1.3% by 1981. Recent census figures indicate that these latter figures were not reached. The total fertility rate declined from 6.0 in 1960 to 2.7 in 1978, a 55% decline. The age specific fertility rate also declined except for women between 25-29 years of age. Program costs during the last 18 years totaled about $126.7 million; 80% of these funds came from the government and the rest from foreign assistance. 3811 full time employees were engaged in the program in 1979; 4.9% at the central level, 8.1% at the provincial level, and 87% at the urban and county level. 69% are considered family planning workers. Between 1962-79, 6.1 million cumulative acceptors have received contraceptive services. The IUD was the principal method of contraception until 1976 when female sterilization services were introduced. The contraceptive practice rate has increased from 9-49% between 1964-78. Organization of the program is structured on a national, provincial, and local basis. Assessment of the program indicates that there has been success but the following problems still remain in the, 1) rural oriented program structure, 2) high discontinuation rates of contraceptive usage and inadequate follow-up, 3) high turnover of field workers, 4) difficulties in using local civil administration services, 5) poor quality research, 6) weak management training, and 7) poor relationships among special projects. Other program management problems exist in planning, resource allocation, training, use of private clinics, coordination, interagency coordination, program supervision, recording systems, and overall program evaluation. Emphasis is placed on the operational and managerial capacity of the program managers to successfully implement family planning programs. Improvements in the current managerial system and the role of international agencies are discussed.
N.Y., Population Council, 1978. 210 pThis book chronicles the development of the Population Council from its beginning in 1952 with a professional staff of 10 to its present international organization. There are 6 chapters, each dealing with a specific span of years in the council's history, plus a conclusion and notes section, with an extensive "Documentation" appended giving details on conferences, personnel, annual expenditures and affiliations of the Council. Individual persons who have contributed to the development of the Council are highlighted in the book, and relevant quotations are interspersed in the text to highlight policy decisions. Each chapter contains details of research, contemporary contraceptive advances and organizational procedures followed by the Council. The Council's involvement in various projects for population planning in many countries is discussed, with some highlights from specific projects. The book also outlines major shifts in policy by governments as they affected or were affected by the Council's activities. Certain seminars and academic affiliations are also described, as well as some future plans of the Council.
A contraceptive to revolution? A reappraisal of Dutch policy regarding family assistance and the center-periphery model.
Paper presented at Seminar on Population and Economic Growth in Africa, Leiden, Dec. 1972. 39 p., appendixesAdd to my documents.
Unpublished, March 1969. 20 p., addendumsAdd to my documents.
[Unpublished] 1982. Paper prepared for Conference on Vasectomy, Colombo, Sri Lanka, Oct. 4-7, 1982. 21 p.Discusses the factors responsible for the decline of male acceptance of vasectomy over the past decade. The Association for Voluntary Sterilization (AVS) is a nonprofit organization working in the United States which helps funding of similar programs in other developed and developing countries. Reasons for the decline of vasectomy acceptance include the lack of attention paid to male sterilization in countries with family planning programs, the introduction of new technology for female sterilization, the introduction of new effective methods of contraception, and the exaggerated sexual role of the male and the need to protect his virility. The author reviews successful vasectomy programs and finds that, to be successful, a program should have strong leadership, a focussed design, clinic hours that would not interfere with patients' working schedules, and should pay attention to the needs of men, e.g., emphasizing that vasectomy does not cause impotency. The program should also have a community-based orientation, since all the services are not hospital-based and can be brought to the client's home, thereby emphasizing the minor nature of the surgery. AVS believes that vasectomy as a means of family planning can be effective. It is safe, inexpensive, simple, and deliverable. A special fund was allocated in 1983 to stimulate the development of several pilot and demonstration projects in a variety of countries.