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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Bixby symposium on population and conservation: Key note address.

    Goodall J

    Population and Environment. 2007 May; 28(4-5):274-282.

    Full transcript of Dr. Goodall's keynote address at the Bixby symposium on Population and Conservation, held at the University of California, Berkeley on May 6, 2006. Dr. Goodall contrasts population growth amongst chimpanzees and human beings and discusses current conservation efforts of the Jane Goodall Institute in the Gombe region of Tanzania and the development of the TACARE (take care) program. (author's)
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  2. 2

    Population, development and food security: an unresolved challenge for the twenty-first century.

    Villarreal M; Stloukal L

    Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):215-246.

    Since the Rome Population Conference the perceptions of the relationship between population dynamics and food security have undergone significant changes, ranging from fear of unyielding famines caused by explosive population growth to strong confidence in the capacity of the world to stand up to the challenge of growth. Many novel factors, unpredictable at the time, radically changed the scene throughout the half century. Unprecedented population growth happened during times of growing incomes and soaring agricultural production. Emerging actors such as the international agricultural research system played an important role, while emerging factors such as the AIDS epidemic have changed the parameters of the equation. With a world population that will significantly increase in the twenty first century, and that will, for the first time in history, be more urban than rural, not only will the total demand for food be greater than it has ever been, but the nature of that demand will be different. In many countries, changes have been taking place in dietary habits, as well as in methods of food production, processing and marketing, while international trade in raw commodities and processed foods has also grown substantially. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    United States. Exploring the environment / population links and the role of major donors, foundations and nongovernmental organizations.

    Lule EL; Obaid TA; Chamie J; Neuse M; Gillespie D

    In: No vacancy: global responses to the human population explosion, edited by Michael Tobias, Bob Gillespie, Elizabeth Hughes and Jane Gray Morrison. Pasadena, California, Hope Publishing House, 2006. 103-196.

    The mission of the World Bank is to fight poverty and improve the living standards of people in the developing world. It is a development bank which provides loans, policy advice, technical assistance and knowledge-sharing services to low- and middle-income countries to reduce poverty. It also promotes growth to create jobs and to empower poor people to take advantage of these opportunities. The World Bank works to bridge the economic divide between rich and poor countries. As one of the world's largest sources of development assistance, it supports the efforts of developing countries to build schools and health centers, provide water and electricity, fight disease and protect the environment. As one of the United Nations' specialized agencies, it has 184 member countries that are jointly responsible for how the institution is financed and how its money is spent. There are 10,000 development professionals from nearly every country in the world who work in its Washington DC headquarters and in its 109 country offices. The World Bank is the world's largest long-term financier of HIV/AIDS programs and its current commitments for HIV/AIDS amount to more than $1.3 billion --half of which is targeted for sub-Saharan Africa. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    World Bank lending policies and procedures in the population sector.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1977 Nov. 18 p.

    The attached paper provides the most up-to-date and authoritative statement that is available on World Bank lending policies in the population sector. The paper parallels closely an official Bank statement that was recently distributed to staff as an internal document. Since the paper is concerned only with the Bank's lending operations, it does not deal with other aspects of the Bank's population activities, such as the coverage of population in Bank economic reports or Bank research in the field. The paper defines the "population sector" as the Bank sees it and then describes the Bank's lending objectives, the range of fertility-reducing interventions possible in the light of current understanding of fertility determinants, the types of delivery systems available for the provision of family planning services, typical project content in the sector, and the use of "population components'' in non-population projects. The paper also explains how a number of general Bank policies -- e.g., on procurement, project justification, user charges, local-cost financing, co-financing, and project monitoring and evaluation -- are applied in this sector. (author's)
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  5. 5

    Indonesia burdened by population ills, political and social pressures.

    Collymore Y

    Washington, D.C., Population Reference Bureau [PRB], 2003 Aug. 3 p.

    Still reaping the repercussions of the Asian financial crisis, Indonesia has in recent years struggled with numerous difficulties ranging from social unrest, political instability, and ethnic and sectarian violence to a decline in access to health care and other public services. More recent events, including the bomb blast in Jakarta — which followed other deadly bombings in 2002 — have increased fears that the sprawling archipelago may be facing new political and population pressures. (excerpt)
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  6. 6

    The world tomorrow..? Annual report 1991/92.

    World Population Foundation

    Laren, Netherlands, World Population Foundation, 1992. 20 p.

    The World Population Fund is a non-profit organization created in 1987 to increase awareness of the nature, size, and complexity of rapid population growth and to support population projects in developing countries. The foundation hopes that its efforts will improve global standards of living. Projects emphasize the collection, analysis, and dissemination of population information; the formulation and implementation of population policies; maternal and child health care and family planning (FP); and improving the position of women. Collaborating regularly with the Dutch government, the UN, and other international organizations, the World Population Fund is the only organization in the netherlands which concerns itself specifically with problems of world population growth. This report outlines the consequences of world population growth; fund activities in 1991 in information, education, and training; project fundraising; family planning efforts in Burkina Faso, India, and Tanzania; and collaboration with the Consultancy Group for maternal health and FP. Fund accounts are presented. Teenage pregnancy, population pressures and environmental degradation, urbanization, and economic development are discussed. If present population growth trends continue, world population will triple within the next century to 18 billion with 90% of the growth in developing countries. Widespread poverty, malnutrition, disease, and early mortality will be the consequences of such growth. While experience shows that FP programs can help lower population growth rates, demand for FP is greater than supply in most developing countries. In fact, 300 million couples, the majority of whom live in developing countries, are being denied the universal right to freely decide the number and spacing of their children. The persistence of social and political controversy over funding family planning in developing countries, funding shortages, and inadequate policies and programs continue to result in teenage and child pregnancies, abortions, unwanted births, malnourished mothers and children, and maternal mortality. Balanced population policies and programs integrated within development plans are called for. To that end, the World Population Fund in 1992 will emphasize interactions between population growth and environment while also focusing upon the needs of and services for youth.
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  7. 7

    How donors can help.

    Fornos W

    In: All of us. Births and a better life: population, development and environment in a globalized world. Selections from the pages of the Earth Times, edited by Jack Freeman and Pranay Gupte. New York, New York, Earth Times Books, 1999. 430-3.

    It is estimated that as the year 2000 approaches, the world population will surpass 6 billion. This projection is because either economic stagnation or social disintegration affects rapid demographic growth. Curtailing population growth alone can not solve the world's social and environmental ills; however, it requires a substantial reduction of human fertility in order to have a meaningful improvement of the human condition. To achieve this, organizations have implemented population and family planning programs in less developed countries. Although most of these efforts were not initiated until the 1960s and 1970s, there have been a number of notable successes. Contraceptive prevalence among married women of reproductive age has increased over the past 30 years from 25% to 56%. The annual rate of world population growth has declined from 2.06% to 1.4%. Within the past decade, the annual increase in human numbers has slowed from almost 90 million to less than 80 million. While these demographic trends are both important and encouraging, they do not signal victory in the world's continuing struggle to contain its human growth. This paper traces the changes in international public opinion concerning the importance of population stabilization, as long as it is based on human rights and voluntary acceptance of family planning.
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  8. 8

    [Demographic pressure, populating modes and impact on the environment in Morocco] Pression demographique, modes de peuplement et impact sur l'environnement au Maroc.

    Yaakoubd AI

    In: Third African Population Conference, Durban, South Africa, 6-10 December 1999. The African Population in the 21st Century. / Troisieme Conference Africaine sur la Population, La Population Africaine au 21e Siecle. Volume I, [compiled by] Union for African Population Studies. Dakar, Senegal, Union for African Population Studies, 1999. 531-44.

    The author considers the general problem of relations between population and the environment in developing countries. The following aspects of these relations are examined for the case of Morocco: population pressure and water resources; rural migration and the degradation of urban environments; population pressure upon the environment; and pressure upon land, overexploitation of soil, and deforestation. Relevant international accords to which Morocco has committed are noted. Morocco’s involvement in international accords on population and the environment includes participation in the UN Conference on the Environment, the International Conference on Population and Development, the World Summit on Social Development, and the World Conference on Women. At the regional level, the Tunis Action Plan marked the beginning of greater country effort in the Maghreb to coordinate measures to resolve common problems and create conditions to foster sustainable and ecologically viable development. Although the pace of population growth in Morocco has slowed in recent years, ecological threats remain real and sometimes full of negative consequences. These problems are understood and discussed at the governmental level, but better measures could still be developed and put into action.
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  9. 9

    Haiti: not enough services for fast-growing population.

    POPULI. 1999 Jan; 25(4):4.

    According to the UNFPA, Haiti's estimated population of 8 million people is growing by about 200,000 people (2.3%) per year. Total population in Haiti is already larger than that projected in 1980 for the country in 2003. At the current rate of growth, Haiti's population will reach 10 million people by 2010 and 20 million by 2040. The country is becoming increasingly urbanized, with 55% of the population projected to be living in cities in 2010. Massive in-migration from rural areas to cities has destabilized urban life in terms of employment, housing, and transportation. Only 30% of jobs lost in Port-au-Prince after the 1991 military coup d'etat has been revived. Rents are increasing, homeless people abound, and numerous unregulated structures are being built. Traffic and pollution choke Port-au-Prince. Although the agricultural sector employs 70% of the work force, it earns only 31% of national income. 63% of the original forest in Haiti has been destroyed and 63% of the land cannot be cultivated because it slopes at an angle of greater than 20 degrees. The availability of potable water is growing increasingly scarce. Haiti's rapid population growth could impede social, economic, and environmental progress.
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  10. 10

    Transmigration in Indonesia: lessons from its environmental and social impacts.

    Fearnside PM

    ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT. 1997 Jul-Aug; 21(4):553-70.

    This article identifies the lessons learned from transmigration programs in Indonesia, during 1976-89, and describes briefly the history and types of transmigration in Indonesia, the World Bank project, the demographic and agricultural benefits, and the environmental and social impacts. During transmigration, millions of people from overcrowded islands of Java, Madura, Bali, and Lombok, were resettled in the outer islands of Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Irian Jaya. The World Bank, which funded the program, has been criticized for its irresponsibility. An evaluation of the relative benefits of resettlement schemes is dependent upon answering several questions. One question is to what extent development initiatives "going wrong" should be accepted and given support to lesson the damage. Another question is to what extent should financing agencies be responsible for damage that is unlike limited impacts of more discrete projects. About 17% of transmigration projects are corrupt, and choice of sites is controversial. Environmental impact statements are required, but are not publicly available or debated. Impact assessments stipulate inclusion of local people in the process, whereas in practice, locals are included as data. Sometimes, impacts are not ready before industry is installed. World Bank review processes result in significant deletions between draft and final Appraisal Reports. Governments maintain secrecy. The effect of transmigration is the diluting of native cultures, the excuse-making because "it is going to happen anyway," inadequate assessments, environmental degradation, and continuance of schemes under other names.
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  11. 11

    Concluding remarks.

    Uitto JI

    In: Population, land management, and environmental change. UNU Global Environmental Forum IV, edited by Juha I. Uitto and Akiko Ono. Tokyo, Japan, United Nations University, 1996. 84-7.

    Human population is growing at an unprecedented rate, doubling since the 1950s. Every year, 90 million people are added to the world's current level of more than 5.6 billion people. The most likely scenario forecast by the UN puts world population at 10 billion in the year 2050. Such rapid population growth places enormous pressure upon agricultural production on a global scale and the ability of the Earth to feed its inhabitants. There is evidence that crop yield increases realized in the green revolution have reached or will soon reach their limits, with most farmers already using improved varieties and techniques. With little new arable land available to clear, farmers will likely have to rely upon existing land or move to increasingly marginal areas. The latter approach increases the vulnerability of farm land to erosion and is often associated with the loss of topsoil and the encroachment of deserts. The Fourth United Nations University (UNU) Global Environmental Forum was largely based upon the research work conducted in the international collaborative research program on "People, Land Management, and Environmental Change (PLEC)," conducted under the auspices of the UNU. PLEC is aimed at a systematic field-level analysis of sustainable land management and agrotechnology, and the maintenance of biological diversity in small-farm regions in the tropical and subtropical parts of the world.
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  12. 12

    From Bucharest to Cairo: 20 years of United Nations population conferences.

    Kuroda T

    Tokyo, Japan, Asian Population and Development Association, 1996 Dec. 33 p. (APDA Resource Series 2)

    This paper presents an overview of the distinguishing features of the 20th century by focusing on the decades between the first and third World Population Conferences (1974-94). The essay opens with a prologue which describes the increasing concern about population growth which served as the background to the development of the progressive World Population Plan of Action (WPPA) in 1974 and presents current population projections and annual growth rate data. The next topic is the adoption of the WPPA, with its last minute attention to family planning programs, at the Bucharest Conference. This is followed by consideration of the "Bucharest effect" which included reversals by China and India which led to their adoption of new policies to control growth. Discussion of the "quiet gathering" at Mexico City which adopted recommendations to further implement the WPPA in 1984 is augmented with a look at the ripple caused by the denial of the US delegation of the possibility of achieving demographic goals before achieving economic development. The three global upheavals experienced in the 20th century after the watershed of World War II are then identified as the world population explosion, the destruction of the global environment, and the conflicts which followed the fall of the Berlin Wall. The ensuing discussion then considers the three most important aspects of the world population crisis: the population growth rate, the size of the annual increases, and total global population. Finally, the paper looks at the Fourth International Conference on Population and Development during which the WPPA became a Programme of Action which embraced a revolutionary strategy calling for the empowerment of women to achieve population stability and development, emphasizing reproductive health care, and establishing targets to reduce death rates. The essay concludes by calling for a revolution in thinking to derive ways to cope with the upcoming 30 years of rapid population growth.
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  13. 13

    Towards universal food security. Draft of a policy statement and plan of action. (Provisional version -rev. 1).

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]

    [Unpublished] 1996 Mar. 19 p. (WFS 96/3)

    The heads of states and governments assembled at the 1996 World Food Summit reaffirmed the right of every man, woman, and child to be free from hunger and malnutrition. Global food production will have to increase by more than 75% over the next 30 years to meet the food demands posed by an additional 2.6 billion population by 2025. This draft statement, prepared by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, outlines seven commitments: 1) ensure the political, social, and economic environment, based on the equal participation of men and women, that is most conducive to food for all; 2) ensure that policies and institutions contribute to improving access by all to nutritionally adequate and safe food at all times; 3) endeavor to meet transitory and emergency food requirements in ways that encourage recovery, development, and a capacity to satisfy future needs; 4) ensure that food, agriculture, and rural development policies encourage adequate and reliable food supplies at the household, national, and global levels, and promote sustainable agricultural and rural development; 5) ensure that food and agricultural trade policies are conducive to improved food security; 6) promote appropriate investments in sustainable agricultural, forestry, and fisheries production and post-production development, and in supporting research, infrastructure, and services; and 7) cooperate in the implementation and monitoring of the World Food Summit Plan of Action.
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  14. 14

    Food requirements and population growth. Provisional version.

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]

    [Unpublished] 1996 Jun. [75] p. (WFS 96/TECH/10)

    This provisional document on food requirements and population growth was prepared for the World Food Summit by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. By the year 2000, the global food situation will be characterized by even broader disparities in regional food availability and dietary patterns. A projected 72% increase in the world's population between 1992 and 2050 will require major shifts in food production systems and natural resource use patterns. However, the distribution of natural resources needed for agricultural production does not correspond to the geographic distribution of the population. Elimination of chronic undernutrition could require a 30-40% increase in food distribution in Africa, a 15% increase in Asia, and a 10% increase in Latin America. To achieve a well-balanced diet, plant-derived energy must be increased in the Third World by 174%. In countries where land and water are scarce, yield increases will be achieved largely through productivity increases and the development of human capacities. As long as developing countries remain dependent on agricultural production, the struggle against poverty will be linked to increased food production and enabling women to produce food under better conditions. A major and unprecedented change in the scale of food security and human capital development, including resolution of gender issues that impact on food security, must occur.
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  15. 15

    [Population and the environment] Poblacion y medio ambiente.

    De Mull E

    Guatemala City, Guatemala, Programa Poblacion y Desarrollo, Unidad de Educacion, Informacion y Adiestramiento, 1990. 24 p.

    As environment and development issues are inseparable, in 1987 the UN issued a call to governments to achieve a sustainable development that would not compromise the livelihood of future generations. A great deal of environmental destruction is related to the combination of poverty and rapid population growth that results in massive migration and cultivation of marginal lands. Countries that have been successful in controlling environmental degradation have instituted economic control policies, land reform, and urban planning. The consequence of rapid abandonment of rural areas means that by the year 2000 half of the world's population will be living in cities and 1/5 of these in megalopolises of 4 million or more inhabitants. The economic depression of the 1980s in the developing countries has also accelerated this process. The United Nations has formulated a program for the 1990s to inaugurate a new era of growth and economic development based on the sustainability of population and natural resources. This calls for the reduction and stabilization of rapid population growth; the reversion of the process of deforestation and erosion of the major hydrographic basins; and the elimination of hunger by means of large-scale sustainable agricultural production.
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  16. 16

    The population summit: reflections on the world's leading problems.

    Perlman M


    It is difficult for social scientists to maintain an academic position on the consequences of population growth against religious or political agendas. Reform lacks both imagination, relevance, and specificity. Reform should give priority in Africa to very real issues, such as widespread tribalism, political corruption, and the lack of decent quality schooling for children, rather than to high birth or AIDS-related death rates. In other parts of the world reform should involve defining how many workers are needed for support of children and the elderly with dignity. Crises force technological solutions to man-made practices affecting, for instance, ozone depletion. The published papers of the 1993 Population Science Summit in New Delhi address a variety of issues about the relationship between population, natural resources, and the environment. This article discusses some of the issues presented in the published papers: the planning framework, reform as a subjective or epistemic system rather than an objective or ontologic system, and doomsday scenarios. The Summit planning framework recognizes that population growth is too high, that solutions involve zero population growth, and an increased standard of living with equality for men and women is desired. The 25 papers by 32 authors focus on the urgency of the population problem, resource use, demographic transition in a gender perspective, family planning and reproductive health, and future policy needs. Demographers and intellectuals confuse value commitment to slowing population growth with objective scientific argument. The Summit papers are subjective and a reflection of beliefs and opinions rather than scientific findings. Few recognize that later in life Malthus considered gluts or oversupplies of materials the cause for doom. Environmentalists posit shortages as a critical problem, while instability in civil society and the level of general poverty are much more pervasive and serious.
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  17. 17

    Population policy at a crossroads. Will world conference signal new directions for U.S.?

    McCarty L; Sherman D

    ZPG REPORTER. 1994 Jun; 26(3):1, 3.

    In September 1994 in Cairo, at the third population conference hosted by the United Nations, world leaders will be asked to approve a plan that could stabilize the world population at about 8 billion people by the middle of the next century. Participants will consider interrelated issues: population growth, access to family planning, women's empowerment, sustainable development, poverty, consumption, and the environment. This campaign for a more equitable world is likely to continue after Cairo, with the UN-sponsored social summit in Copenhagen and a women's conference in Beijing slated for next year. The Cairo International Conference on Population and Development will require a new approach to sustainability by balancing environmental protection, economic development, and present and future human needs. The United States has only 5% of the world's population, but it uses 25% of the world's commercial energy, produces more garbage and waste than any other country, and generates 21% of all carbon dioxide emissions, which contribute to global warming. Demands for energy, water and food already cannot be met as natural resources are being exhausted at an alarming rate. The fight over water rights to the Colorado River exemplifies the shrinking natural resource base. In contrast to the Reagan-Bush administration, the Clinton administration restored funding to international family planning agencies and endorsed sustainable development. The US birth rate is back at a 2-decade high, while 60% of pregnancies are unintended. US adolescent pregnancy is the highest among industrialized countries, leading to a cycle of poverty and soaring public costs. Government funding for new contraceptive research has been stagnant because of the pressure of right-wing groups, although finally RU-486 became available for clinical trials. The Cairo conference is likely to recognize the US as the leader in global political issues, however, domestic population and consumption issues have still to be addressed.
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  18. 18

    Hard realities of a crowded world.

    Mann J

    WASHINGTON POST. 1994 Aug 24; E13.

    The Turner Broadcasting's People Count programming is focusing attention on the global population explosion and the September 1994 United Nations Conference on Population and Development in Cairo. The documentary "The Facts of Life" presents a tour of overpopulated regions in both the developed and developing world. Los Angeles, once the city of citrus groves, is now a city of too many cars, too many people, stifling smog and not enough water. Its air quality is expected to violate federal standards for 20 more years. In a Sub-Saharan African village, a couple has 10 children. In such villages, children help families survive. Women in Ghana have an average of 6 children each. In Bangladesh women still have an average of 4 children each, despite the successes of Concerned Women for Family Planning, a group that has trained 30,000 health care workers for that country. Mexico City has run out of water. It has one of the lowest birth rates in the developing world--3 children per woman--yet thousands of people live in garbage dumps. 93 million people are added to the world's population each year. At the present rate of growth, the world total of about 5.6 billion is expected to double by the year 2035. The UN conference centers on a document that delineates how to curb population growth: give women and men access to contraceptives and good health care; educate girls so they will delay childbearing and so they will be able to provide for their children; and shore up the environment so people can support their families. Muslim interests have joined the Vatican in condemning the language that asserts women's rights to regulate their fertility and to terminate pregnancy. Nonetheless, Indonesia's family planning success story was accomplished with the support of the Muslim leaders. The media, a new and modern force, may erode ecclesiastical authority, as evidenced by CNN's examination of the population crisis to help find answers.
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  19. 19

    Cairo conference.

    McMichael AJ

    BMJ. British Medical Journal. 1994 Sep 3; 309(6954):554-5.

    The United Nations Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in September, 1994, will evoke criticism of the inability of governments to act quickly enough to avert demographic and environmental crises. Rapid population growth has clear implications for public health. Globally there now occur anthropogenic changes in atmospheric composition, the degradation of fertile lands and ocean fisheries, an accelerating loss of biodiversity, and the social and ecological problems of massive urbanization. In the future, per capita consumption levels will increase in burgeoning populations of developing countries, thus adding to the environmental impacts of overconsuming rich countries. By the end of the decade there will be over six billion people, of whom one half will live in cities. These demographic and environmental trends, if translated into climatic change, regional food shortages, and weakened ecosystems, would adversely affect human health. The World Health Organization is likely to concentrate only on accessible family planning and promotion of health for women and families. Continuing asymmetric child-saving aid, unaccompanied by substantial aid to help mobilize the social and economic resources needed to reduce fertility, may delay the demographic transition in poor countries and potentiate future public health disasters. As a result of recent reductions in fertility, even in Sub-Saharan Africa, average family sizes have been halved. Yet the demographic momentum will double population by 2050. The biosphere is a complex of ecosystems and, if unsustained, it could not fulfill the productive, cleansing, and protective functions on which life depends. The Cairo conference must therefore recognize that sustaining human health is a prime reason for concern about population growth and models of economic development.
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  20. 20

    Egypt is a good venue. An interview with UNFPA country director Sjaak Bavelaar.

    Seewald R

    INTEGRATION. 1994 Sep; (41):32-5.

    Practically all of Egypt's 58.9 million population lives along the Nile and the Nile delta. The population of Egypt will double to 117.8 million by 2025 at the present rate of 2.3% annual increase. The most significant achievement of the Family Planning Program of Egypt is the dramatic increase in the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR). According to the latest two Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 1988 and 1992, the CPR climbed from 37% in 1988 to 47% in 1992 as a result of the national population program that the government of Egypt has been promoting. The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) has trained doctors in contraceptive services including IUD insertion and removal techniques, provided contraceptives free of charge, and also supported large-scale IEC activities. Demographic Health Survey data showed CPR close to 60% in the major cities like Cairo and Alexandria. In the Delta, in Lower Egypt, CPR is between 30 and 50%, while in Upper Egypt, it is still between 15 and 30%. This is why UNFPA is now trying to target the country program to Upper Egypt. The major donors are USAID, the United Nations Population Fund, Japan, the Netherlands, Germany, and the European Union. The Muslim position on family planning in Egypt is vocalized by the Sheik of Al-Azhar University, the oldest university in the world, established in 972. The Sheik has supported family planning and the use of contraceptives except sterilization. He allows abortion only when it is required for medical reasons. UNFPA started the first program in Egypt in 1971. Now in its 5th 5-year country program from 1992 to the end of 1996, the total expenditure is $20 million, of which $10 million is provided from UNFPA resources. The remaining $10 million is to come out of other resources.
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  21. 21

    A dramatic drop in human fertility.

    Wattenberg B

    BALTIMORE SUN. 1994 Mar 18; 25A.

    It is doubtful that the population will increase until it degrades the environment to the degree predicted by the UN, since worldwide fertility is decreasing greatly. A recent article in Scientific American, entitled "The Fertility Decline in Developing Countries," shows that birth rates in Sub-Saharan Africa, where fertility rates had been very high, are falling. For example, during 1977-1978, Kenya had a total fertility rate of 8.3 but feel to 6.7 in 1989 and to 5.4 in 1993. This is one of the fastest declines in fertility ever. The fertility decline in Sub-Saharan Africa (e.g., Botswana and Zimbabwe) means a smaller global population than that projected by the UN. It will be more difficult to declare demographic doom at the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo. The large fall in fertility will likely result in more money for global family planning. US President Clinton wants to contribute more money. The article showed that the drops in fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa occurred even though the economy was weak. The leading determinants for this decrease were increase in age at first marriage, more female education, more contraceptive use, and urbanization. Besides, fertility has been falling in Latin America, Northern Africa, and Asia for many years. Developed countries have also experienced considerable declines in fertility: Russia 1.4, the former East Germany 0.8, Spain 1.3, and Japan 1.5. Despite these lower rates, the Un still uses higher fertility assumptions (2.1, replacement fertility) to project population growth to 7.8-10 billion people, depending on the scenario. The higher rates support the UN's belief that population growth causes food shortages and reduced natural resources.
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  22. 22

    More population policy needed, not less.

    Stolnitz GJ

    In: Population transition in south Asia, edited by Ashish Bose and M. K. Premi. Delhi, India, B. R. Publishing, 1992. 19-27.

    The author notes that, despite recent UN estimates of falling global population growth rates, "the realities in both the developing and developed regions point to increasing, not decreasing, demographic pressures on resources and productive capacities. Global and regional potentialities for attaining rising levels of living in the face of prospective increases in numbers appear to be diminishing, not expanding....[He finds that] population policy, both in the industrially advanced and developing regions, can no longer be regarded as a peripheral part of development programming efforts." (EXCERPT)
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  23. 23

    Population: the critical decade.

    Camp SL

    FOREIGN POLICY. 1993 Spring; (90):126-44.

    World population is growing by 1 billion people every 11 years. The decade of the 1990s presents the last chance to stabilize human populations by the middle of the 21st century, through humane and voluntary measures, at something less than double the current world population of 5.4 billion. At the 1984 UN International Conference on Population (held in Mexico City), the official delegation of the US presented a White House-drafted statement that declared population, growth a neutral phenomenon and labeled government policies to deal with it an overreaction. The US policy reversal at Mexico City was followed, later in 1984, by a decision to end 17 years of US support for the International Planned Parenthood Federation and then, in 1986, by the withdrawal of all support from the UN Population Fund. More than 95% of future growth will occur in the developing countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The majority of developing countries outside of East Asia still have annual population growth rates of between 2.5 and 3.5%. The UN Food and Agriculture Organization estimates that without major conservation efforts, developing countries could experience an almost 30% decline in agricultural productivity by the end of the next century, when their populations may have increased 4- to 6-fold. In sub-Saharan Africa, with food production growing at 2% and population growing at 3%, per capita food production has dropped 15-20% since 1970. In the Asian and Latin American countries, the number of current and prospective contraceptive users is approaching an average 75% of fertile-age couples. For most developing countries, including Colombia, Mexico, South Korea. Thailand, and Tunisia, organized family planning programs have accounted for 40-50% of the fertility decreases to date, according to regression analysis. In the fall of 1991, when a new foreign aid authorization could not be passed, 58% of Americans wanted the US government to resume support of the UN Population Fund.
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  24. 24

    Kenya at the demographic turning point? Hypotheses and a proposed research agenda.

    Kelley AC; Nobbe CE

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1990. xvi, 97 p. (World Bank Discussion Papers 107)

    The interactions within and between the determinants and consequences of rapid population growth in Kenya are analyzed with a view to fostering a research agenda and proving insights for the creation of a population strategy during the next decade. Despite Kenya's long-standing concern about checking its rapid population growth, annual growth rates reach 4%. However, Kenya may be entering a new demographic phase of declining growth rates. Population pressure, through both reduced benefits and increasing costs of children to the household, may be responsible for moderate demographic change. Fertility declines with an eventually sustainable balance between population numbers and the economy and the environment depend upon factors motivating parents to desire fewer offspring. These motivating factors, in turn, depend upon the interrelations among population growth, society, economy, and population policy and programming. While the time frame for demographic transition remains elusive, population programming undertaken thus far, though failing to effect change up to now, may hold the key to future successes. Health delivery and family planning systems are already in place and will influence the pace of population growth decline during future decades. Population and economic trends, population policies and programs for the period 1965-89, research, strategy, and recommendations are discussed at length.
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  25. 25

    Desertification in the Sahelian and Sudanian zones of West Africa.

    Gorse JE; Steeds DR

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1987. xi, 62 p. (World Bank Technical Paper No. 61)

    The problem of desertification in the Sahelian and Sudanian Zones (SSZ) of West Africa is addressed. Desertification is defined as the process of sustained decline in biological productivity of arid and semiarid land. Desertification is complex and poorly understood and is caused by the interaction between drought and human abuse. Better management is a viable long term solution. In the SSZ, there is variable rainfall and low fertility soil, and resources are overexploited by humans. The focus of discussion is on defining the nature of the problems and the geographic features of the SSZ; the problem is complex and multifaceted and includes population pressure. The nature of and pressures on traditional production systems (agrosylvicultural, agrosylvipastoral, and sylvopastoral) are described as well as the carrying capacities of traditional production systems. Past development activities and common weaknesses of development activities are reviewed with reference to the agricultural, livestock, and forestry sectors. The elements of a strategy for better resources management are delineated. Some general observations are made. Actions are defined with reference to pressure on 1) carrying capacity (CC) in areas where the ratio of population (RP) does not exceed CC, where RP slightly exceeds OC, and where RP greatly exceeds CC; the issue of irrigation increasing carrying capacity is dealt with. Other elements are 2) upgrading competence in research and training, 3) reducing demand (population and wood), and 4) the policy environment (land law and incentives). Implications for actions are indicated for the members of the Comite Inter-Etats de Lutte contre la Secheresse dans le Sahel, governments, financiers in general, and for the World Bank group in particular. A statistical appendix is provided with information on land distribution, soil suitability, population and distribution by a number of factors, and carrying capacity. Elementary erosion techniques and research orientations also are provided.
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