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[London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2015]. 2 p.Rahnuma, Family Planning Association of Pakistan (Rahnuma-FPAP, the IPPF Member Association in Pakistan) and other civil society organizations (CSOs) have identified a number of ‘high priority’ pledges: progress towards these pledges is critical for increasing access to modern family planning (FP) methods. Civil society calls on the government to: Demonstrate political commitment to deliver the FP2020 pledges. To date, there has been slow progress on all family planning indicators due to inadequate financial commitments and ownership by governments and government ministries; Allocate government funding to family planning at the provincial level. Budgets are a responsibility of provincial governments, due to devolution; Invest in effective procurement and logistics systems for family planning to ensure commodity security and address unmet need for family planning, including unmet need for long-acting reversible contraceptives. In the absence of a functioning supply chain, unmet need will increase.
Population Policy in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Case of Both Normative and Coercive Ties to the World Polity.
Population Research and Policy Review. 2014 Jun 15;During the 1980s and 1990s, two-thirds of sub-Saharan African countries adopted national population policies to reduce population growth. Based on multivariate statistical analysis, I show that countries with more ties to the world polity were more likely to adopt population policies. In order to refine world polity theory, however, I distinguish between normative and coercive ties to the world polity. I show that ties to the world polity via international nongovernmental organizations became predictive of population policy adoption only after the 1994 United Nations International Conference on Population and Development institutionalized reproductive health as a global norm to which countries could show adherence through population policies. Ties to the World Bank in the form of indebtedness, presumed to be coercive, were associated with population policy adoption throughout the time period observed. Gross domestic product per capita, democracy, and religion also all predicted population policy adoption. The case of population policy adoption in sub-Saharan Africa thus demonstrates that ties to organizations likely to exert normative pressure are most influential when something about international norms is at stake, while ties to organizations with coercive capacity matter regardless of time, but may be easier for wealthier countries to resist.
Washington, D.C., Population Action International, 2011.  p. (Policy and Issue Brief)The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) supports family planning and reproductive health programs in developing countries that save women’s lives. UNFPA provides international leadership on population issues and is a key source of financial assistance for these important programs. Maintaining U.S. funding for UNFPA programs is crucial to improving the health of women and their families, addressing demographic trends, and promoting sustainable development.
New York, New York, UNFPA, Technical Division, Gender, Human Rights and Culture Branch, 2008. 27 p.This booklet provides a snapshot of UNFPA's programming efforts to advance gender equality and empower women. It reports on activities undertaken in various priority areas like empowerment, reproductive health, youth and adolescent, conflict and emergency situations, etc. The report is based on contributions from the global, regional and country levels over the course of two years (2007-2008).
Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition. 2008 Sep; 26(3):251-2.Add to my documents.
Cambridge, Massachusetts, Belknap Press, 2008. xiv, 521 p.Rather than a conspiracy theory, this book presents a cautionary tale. It is a story about the future, and not just the past. It therefore takes the form of a narrative unfolding over time, including very recent times. It describes the rise of a movement that sought to remake humanity, the reaction of those who fought to preserve patriarchy, and the victory won for the reproductive rights of both women and men -- a victory, alas, Pyrrhic and incomplete, after so many compromises, and too many sacrifices. (Excerpt)
Washington, D.C., Population Reference Bureau [PRB], BRinging Information to Decisionmakers for Global Effectiveness [BRIDGE], 2007.  p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. GPO-A-00-03-00004-00)Poverty reduction strategies form the basis of World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) assistance in the poorest developing countries. The detailed guidelines, or poverty reduction strategy papers (PRSPs), are prepared in the host country and influence the investments made in most sectors of development. While population programs have promoted family planning for decades as part of development efforts, family planning has received less attention and dedicated funding since the advent of PRSPs. Therefore, those who support continued investments in family planning need to understand the process through which the strategies are developed and monitored and stay engaged to ensure that support for population and family planning programs is sustained. (excerpt)
In: The global family planning revolution: three decades of population policies and programs, edited by Warren C. Robinson and John A. Ross. Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2007. 155-174.In Jamaica, as in many countries, the pioneers of family planning were men and women who sought to improve the well-being of their impoverished women compatriots, and who perhaps were also conscious of the social threats of rapid population growth. When, eventually, population control became national policy, the relationship between the initial private programs and the national effort did not always evolve smoothly, as the Jamaican experience shows (see box 10.1 for a timeline of the main events in relation to family planning in Jamaica). A related question was whether the family planning program should be a vertical one, that is, with a staff directed toward a sole objective, or whether it should be integrated within the public health service. These issues were not unique to Jamaica, but in one respect Jamaica was distinctive: it was the setting for the World Bank's first loan for family planning activities. Family planning programs entailed public expenditures that were quite different from the infrastructure investments for which almost all Bank loans had been made, and the design and appraisal of a loan for family planning that did not violate the principles that governed Bank lending at the time required a series of decisions at the highest levels of the Bank. These decisions shaped World Bank population lending for several years and subjected the Bank to a good deal of external criticism. For that reason, this chapter focuses on the process of making this loan. (excerpt)
[Oslo], Norway, Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2005. 57 p.Sudanese women like everyone else aspire towards achieving the commitments made at the Millennium Summit in 2000. What are the odds, for a country and a people in a complex conflict and post-conflict situation? The ethos of the Millennium Declaration and its emphasis on women's rights, participation of all citizens, gender equality and peace, profoundly captures the reality for women and their families in Sudan. Progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Sudan demands creative and extra-ordinary measures centered on women's leadership, reducing gender inequalities in all governance, service provision, and resource management while fostering strategic partnerships. Sudan is a country of multiple realities for its communities. Sudanese women and people are continuing to smile with one eye, while crying with another eye. They are living between the joys and commitment to sustain the peace ushered by the CPA and crying in search of peace in the Darfurs! The publication derives from the commitment, consistency and resilience of Sudanese women in their quest for peace, safe and secure living environment; freedom from poverty, discrimination and marginalisation. It is informed by the strategic and creative partnership created between the Government of Norway, UNIFEM and NUPI in creating space for women's voices in the international processes in support of the post-conflict reconstruction of Sudan. The Oslo Gender Symposium and Donors' Conference are cases in point. It is a simple and clear message that links peace, security and development and women's human rights, from the perspective of women's leadership in the struggle for inclusion and empowerment. (excerpt)
Global Society. 2007 Jul; 21(3):393-414.To demonstrate that norms have independent causal power, constructivists de-emphasise material factors related to state interests and highlight social factors. Similarly, they conceptualise international organisations as autonomous from state influence, and focus on cases featuring non-state actors that stimulate a "tipping point" of norm diffusion among states in advance of state sponsorship. By contrast, this article utilises an historical materialist approach that admits both social and material data to examine the contrasting case of population control. It finds that US corporate foundations, eugenist demographers, feminist birth control activists and related NGOs conceptualised and promoted population control in the United States, at the United Nations, and across developing countries. However, the tipping point of norm diffusion occurred only after the United States publicly advocated population control. Indeed, material and social factors were inextricably bound together. (author's)
New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2005.  p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/247)The HIV/AIDS epidemic has been a gathering force for nearly a quarter-century, and it continues to be a major global challenge. AIDS finds its victims in both rich and poor countries. There is no region of the world where HIV/AIDS is not a potentially serious threat to the population. Sub-Saharan Africa has so far borne the brunt of the AIDS devastation, and the region continues to experience high rates of infection. About 3 million people in the region were newly infected with the virus in 2004. Countries in Eastern Europe and Asia now have the fastest-growing rates of HIV infection in the world, and the populous countries of China, India and Indonesia are of particular concern. In some more developed countries, there are signs of a resurgence of risky sex between men. (excerpt)
Vietnam Population News. 2007 Apr-Jun; (43):3-6.On 5 May 2007, Madame Le Thi Thu, Minister-Chair-woman of VCPFC, and heads of ministries and sectors warmly welcomed Ms. Ann M. Veneman, UNICEF's Executive Director. At the meeting, Madame Thu gave a brief on Viet Nam's achievements in child care, education and protection during the past few years and future work orientation. Children's living standards have been unceasingly improved, children's rights have been step by step met in terms of physical, intellectual, spiritual and morality. She hoped to receive the efficient support of UNICEF. Ms. Ann M. Veneman is impressed by Viet Nam's achievements. She said that UNICEF would have focus to HIV/AIDS, childhood injury, and under-five underweight. She recommended Viet Nam to pay more attention to causes of those issues, especially setting up databases and provide data/indicators that can be compared with other countries in the region. During her visit, Ms. Ann M. Veneman also met with Government officials to discuss about related matters. She said Viet Nam is likely to be one of the countries to reach the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targets, with some of these targets ahead of 2015. Despite the significant progress achieved, there remain challenges, such as disparity between the rich and poor, impacts of HIV on children and protecting children from injury and harm. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Human Development Network, 2007 Apr.  p. (HNP Discussion Paper)The objective of this paper is to discuss some obstacles and opportunities presented by population processes in order to prioritize areas for investment and analytical work as background information for the 2007 HNP Sector Strategy. Within HNP, two areas fall within population: (1) reproductive, maternal, and sexual health issues, and the health services that address them; and (2) levels and trends in births, deaths, and migration that determine population growth and age structure. Many of the aspects of delivery of sexual and reproductive health services are addressed in the overall sector strategy. This paper, therefore, focuses on the determinants and consequences of demographic change, and on policies and interventions that pertain to fertility and family planning. Fertility has declined in most of the low- and middle-income countries, with TFRs converging toward replacement level, except in 35 countries, mainly in Sub-Saharan Africa, where a broad-based decline in fertility has not occurred. As the priorities of donors and development agencies have shifted toward other issues, and global funds and initiatives have largely bypassed funding of family planning, less attention is being focused on the consequences of high fertility. Reproductive health is conspicuously absent from the MDGs, and assistance to countries to meet the demand for family planning and related services is insufficient. The need for Bank engagement in population issues pertains to economic growth and poverty reduction, as well as inequities in terms of the impact of high fertility on the poor and other vulnerable groups. Evidence indicates that large family size reduces household spending per child, possibly with adverse effects on girls, and the health of mothers and children are affected by parity and birth intervals. Equity considerations remain central to the Bank's work as poor people are less likely to have access to family planning and other reproductive health services. Other vulnerable groups that are less likely to be served by reproductive health services include adolescents and rural populations. Additionally, improved education for girls, equal opportunities for women in society, and a reduction of the proportion of households living below the poverty line are necessary elements of a strategy to achieve sustainable reductions in fertility. The Bank has a comparative advantage to address these issues at the highest levels of country policy setting, and its involvement in many sectors can produce synergies that will allow faster progress than a more narrow focus on family planning services. (author's)
Lancet. 2007 Feb 3; 369(9559):354-355.Return of the Population Growth Factor: its impact on the Millennium Development Goals, a report of hearings held in the UK Parliament in 2006, focuses on the devastating impact of population growth on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The report was released on Jan 31. The Inquiry Chairman, Richard Ottaway, Member of Parliament (MP), concludes: "The evidence is overwhelming: the MDGs are difficult or impossible to achieve with the current levels of population growth in the least developed countries and regions." Experts from around the world who testified to the hearings described the beneficial effects of slowing rapid population growth, as did Cleland and colleagues recently in The Lancet. Slower population growth permits greater investment in education and health, helping to lift nations out of poverty (MDG 1). By contrast, high birth rates in sub-Saharan Africa have helped increase the number living in extreme poverty from 231 million in 1990 to 318 million in 2001. In Ethiopia, 8 million people already live on permanent food aid, and the projected population growth from 75 million today to 145 million in 2050 presents an insurmountable challenge. Rapid population growth has a detrimental effect on the hope of achieving universal primary education by 2015 (MDG 2). (excerpt)
Population and Development Review. 2006; 32 Suppl:1-51.By the end of the twentieth century, although expansion of population numbers in the developing world still had far to run, the pace had greatly slowed: widespread declines in birth rates had taken place and looked set to continue. To what degree population policies played a significant role in this epochal transformation of demographic regimes remains a matter of conjecture and controversy. It seems likely that future observers will be impressed by the essential similarities in the path to demographic modernity that successive countries have taken in the last few centuries, rather than discerning a demographic exceptionalism in the most recent period--with achievement of the latter credited to deliberate policy design. But that eventual judgment, whatever it may be, needs to be based on an understanding of how demographic change over the last half-century has been perceived and the responses it has elicited--an exercise in political demography. Such an exercise, inevitably tentative given the recency of the events, is essayed in this chapter. (excerpt)
Evolution of national population policies since the United Nations 1954 World Population Conference.
Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):297-328.Population policy did not figure prominently at the 1954 United Nations World Population Conference in Rome. It was a commonly held view at the time that "population matters" were in the personal and family sphere and thus, not an appropriate area of involvement for Governments. Nevertheless, some discussion took place on policies to reduce population growth in less developed regions, on policies to raise fertility in more developed regions, on the impact of population ageing and on the consequences of international migration for sending and receiving countries. This paper tracks Government's views and policies on population and development since the 1954 Rome Conference. Among other things, it considers the central role played by United Nations global population conferences in facilitating international cooperation and national government entrance into embracing population policies. (excerpt)
Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):141-163.World demographic growth at the time of the Rome Conference in 1954 was characterized by unprecedented high rates of natural increase. This was the consequence of the combined effect of faster declines in death rates and sustained high birth rates. As a result, world population would double from three to six billion between 1960 and 1999 and from 5 to 6 billion in just 12 years (1987-1999), while it had taken the world four times as much to double from 1.5 to 3 billion and nearly a millennium to reach the first billion. What triggered this growth were primarily unprecedented mortality declines, a better control of major killer diseases and increases in survival particularly in the developing countries (life expectancy increased from 41 to 65 years on average over the last three decades). With such unprecedented growth rates, the theory of demographic transition acquired particular policy significance in the late 1950s to raise a serious concern about the impact of current and projected growth rates both within countries and internationally at the economic, social and geopolitical levels. This theory would soon become the driving force behind all population policy objectives aimed at third world countries where governments were encouraged to formulate population policies, establish policy institutions and programme structures to implement family planning programmes, bring about smaller-sized families and help couples avoid unwanted pregnancies. (excerpt)
From Rome 1954 to Rome 2005 and beyond. Introductory remarks on the past and future of population problems.
Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):49-68.50 years on, Rome is once again at the centre of the scientific, and therefore political, debate on population problems. It is a great pleasure and a great honour to introduce here, in this prestigious Academy together with a small but highly qualified scientific and technical/political community, a Conference in order to discuss population problems with a holistic approach. An Irish colleague wrote to congratulate me on this initiative, highlighting how it will once again make it possible to discuss substantial population-related problems on an international level. Indeed when examining political and operative directives, this subject has been frequently neglected in the recent sessions of the United Nations Commission on Population and Development, whose once large number of experts participation is gradually falling. (excerpt)
United States. Exploring the environment / population links and the role of major donors, foundations and nongovernmental organizations.
In: No vacancy: global responses to the human population explosion, edited by Michael Tobias, Bob Gillespie, Elizabeth Hughes and Jane Gray Morrison. Pasadena, California, Hope Publishing House, 2006. 103-196.The mission of the World Bank is to fight poverty and improve the living standards of people in the developing world. It is a development bank which provides loans, policy advice, technical assistance and knowledge-sharing services to low- and middle-income countries to reduce poverty. It also promotes growth to create jobs and to empower poor people to take advantage of these opportunities. The World Bank works to bridge the economic divide between rich and poor countries. As one of the world's largest sources of development assistance, it supports the efforts of developing countries to build schools and health centers, provide water and electricity, fight disease and protect the environment. As one of the United Nations' specialized agencies, it has 184 member countries that are jointly responsible for how the institution is financed and how its money is spent. There are 10,000 development professionals from nearly every country in the world who work in its Washington DC headquarters and in its 109 country offices. The World Bank is the world's largest long-term financier of HIV/AIDS programs and its current commitments for HIV/AIDS amount to more than $1.3 billion --half of which is targeted for sub-Saharan Africa. (excerpt)
Health Policy and Planning. 2006 Jul; 21(4):326-328.The UNDP report on the Millennium Development Goals, or MDGs (UNDP 2005), cautions that the Goals will not be met by 2015 in the most needy countries, and, in fact, warns that the situation in Africa may actually worsen. What can be done to secure some measure of success in the health-MDGs effort? Should strengthening health systems be regarded a 'first-order' goal within 'higher-order' MDGs to secure at least the institutional and system prerequisites of better health for all in the future, perhaps after 2015 -- a 'second-best' result in the absence of a 'first best' MDG outcome? (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations, 2005.  p.Global poverty rates are falling, led by Asia. But millions more people have sunk deep into poverty in sub-Saharan Africa, where the poor are getting poorer. Progress has been made against hunger, but slow growth of agricultural output and expanding populations have led to setbacks in some regions. Since 1990, millions more people are chronically hungry in sub-Saharan Africa and in Southern Asia, where half the children under age 5 are malnourished. Five developing regions are approaching universal enrolment. But in sub-Saharan Africa, fewer than two thirds of children are enrolled in primary school. Other regions, including Southern Asia and Oceania, also have a long way to go. In these regions and elsewhere, increased enrolment must be accompanied by efforts to ensure that all children remain in school and receive a high-quality education. The gender gap is closing — albeit slowly — in primary school enrolment in the developing world. This is a first step towards easing long-standing inequalities between women and men. In almost all developing regions, women represent a smaller share of wage earners than men and are often relegated to insecure and poorly paid jobs. Though progress is being made, women still lack equal representation at the highest levels of government, holding only 16 per cent of parliamentary seats worldwide. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 2001 Jun-Aug; 38(2): p..Thirty years ago, my predecessor U Thant transferred a small trust fund to the new United Nations Development Programme, said Secretary-General Kofi Annan in 1999. "A small group of donors provided a small amount of money for the new fund's operations. Such were the modest beginnings of what we know today as the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) -- one of the United Nations leading success stories of the last half-century." Today, UNFPA is active in 146 countries. As one privileged to participate in the success story of UNFPA, which reflects an evolution, not only of the Fund and the United Nations system overall but also an increasing awareness among people, I will briefly detail a few of the most relevant highlights. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1977 Nov. 18 p.The attached paper provides the most up-to-date and authoritative statement that is available on World Bank lending policies in the population sector. The paper parallels closely an official Bank statement that was recently distributed to staff as an internal document. Since the paper is concerned only with the Bank's lending operations, it does not deal with other aspects of the Bank's population activities, such as the coverage of population in Bank economic reports or Bank research in the field. The paper defines the "population sector" as the Bank sees it and then describes the Bank's lending objectives, the range of fertility-reducing interventions possible in the light of current understanding of fertility determinants, the types of delivery systems available for the provision of family planning services, typical project content in the sector, and the use of "population components'' in non-population projects. The paper also explains how a number of general Bank policies -- e.g., on procurement, project justification, user charges, local-cost financing, co-financing, and project monitoring and evaluation -- are applied in this sector. (author's)
[Washington, D.C.], World Bank, 1977 Nov.  p.The Bank entered the population field because its experience drove it to the conclusion that attempts to raise the standard of living in a great many developing countries were being seriously hindered, if not thwarted, by the growth of population. The Bank has no fixed idea how large the population of any particular country ought to be, but it is convinced that, in most developing countries, the faster population grows, the slower will be the improvement of living standards. In many countries "population drag" is not just a minor element in the picture; it is one of the main explanations of why living standards are improving so slowly. In the mid-1960's, about two-thirds of total annual investment in a sample of 2.2 developing countries was required to maintain per capita income constant, leaving only about one-third to increase it. The corresponding figures for a representative sample of 19 developed countries were one-quarter and three quarters. The cost of rapid population growth is therefore large, and it falls most heavily on the poorest. High rates of fertility increase the number of children the labor force must support. Some of these costs are borne by the individual household, while others, such as education, are borne primarily by society. Without a decline in fertility, increased expenditures are necessary merely to provide the same inadequate instruction to larger numbers of students. Rapid population growth is an important cause of inequality of incomes. The expansion of the labor force exerts downward pressures on wages and creates unemployment; in agriculture, the effect is often the fragmentation of landholdings and growing landlessness. (excerpt)
Population Research and Policy Review. 2005 Jan; 24(1):85-106.Our case studies of the evolution of population policies in Kenya and Malawi offer insights into the interaction between the global population movement and national governments. The comparison is useful because it permits identifying the common strategies of a global movement, strategies that are likely to be evident elsewhere; it also permits identifying differences in national responses related to particular domestic contexts. We find a common repertory of movement strategies to influence the governments of Kenya and Malawi to adopt a neo-Malthusian population policy and to implement a family planning program. However, these strategies were promoted more or less aggressively depending on the national response and the chronological period. National responses were related to differences in the governments' approaches to nation-building, their willingness to accept foreign influence and the importance they placed on preserving cultural traditions, and to their assessment of benefits they would gain from responding favorably to movement proposals. The data come from written accounts and from interviews with international actors and Kenyan and Malawian elites who participated in the policy development process. (author's)