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New York, New York, UNICEF, Data and Analytics Section, 2015. 8 p.This report provides an overview of key facts about child marriage in Africa. While rates of child marriage are slowly decreasing across the continent, the rate of progress combined with population growth means there will not be a substantial reduction in the number of child brides. If current trends continue, almost half of the world’s child brides in 2050 will be African.
Population Policy in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Case of Both Normative and Coercive Ties to the World Polity.
Population Research and Policy Review. 2014 Jun 15;During the 1980s and 1990s, two-thirds of sub-Saharan African countries adopted national population policies to reduce population growth. Based on multivariate statistical analysis, I show that countries with more ties to the world polity were more likely to adopt population policies. In order to refine world polity theory, however, I distinguish between normative and coercive ties to the world polity. I show that ties to the world polity via international nongovernmental organizations became predictive of population policy adoption only after the 1994 United Nations International Conference on Population and Development institutionalized reproductive health as a global norm to which countries could show adherence through population policies. Ties to the World Bank in the form of indebtedness, presumed to be coercive, were associated with population policy adoption throughout the time period observed. Gross domestic product per capita, democracy, and religion also all predicted population policy adoption. The case of population policy adoption in sub-Saharan Africa thus demonstrates that ties to organizations likely to exert normative pressure are most influential when something about international norms is at stake, while ties to organizations with coercive capacity matter regardless of time, but may be easier for wealthier countries to resist.
New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2008 Mar.  p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/275)The wall chart on Rural Population, Development and the Environment 2007 displays information on various aspects of population, environment and development, including changes in rural populations and their relationship with development and the environment. The wall chart include information for 228 countries or areas as well as data at the regional and sub-regional levels. (author's)
New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2008 Mar.  p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/274)The wall chart on Urban Population, Development and the Environment 2007 displays information on various aspects of population, environment and development, including changes in urban populations and their relationship with development and the environment. The wall chart include information for 228 countries or areas as well as data at the regional and sub-regional levels. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., Population Reference Bureau [PRB], 2007 Dec.  p.With continuing political turmoil, emergency rule declared, and concerns about how free and fair January elections will be, Pakistan has been under the spotlight recently. But the political arena isn't the only area where challenges persist. Beneath the surface, more problems are brewing in the sixth most populous country in the world. Some of the challenges are fueled by the country's rapidly growing population, which is making increasing demands on social services, especially the health care system. A comparison of population pyramids reflects how Pakistan has grown and how its needs will multiply. Between 1970 and 2000, Pakistan more than doubled in population to 144 million from 60 million. Its population ages 15 to 49 more than tripled to 68 million from 14 million. As the number of people in that age group rose, so did demand for maternal and child health care. And health care needs are likely to grow as the 2025 projection for those ages 15 to 49 rises to 121 million, nearly double the 2000estimate. (excerpt)
Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2007 Nov; 110(5):999-1002.Family planning plays a pivotal role in population growth, poverty reduction, and human development. Evidence from the United Nations and other governmental and nongovernmental organizations supports this conclusion. Failure to sustain family planning programs, both domestically and abroad, will lead to increased population growth and poorer health worldwide, especially among the poor. However, robust family planning services have a range of benefits, including maternal and infant survival, nutrition, educational attainment, the status of girls and women at home and in society, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention, and environmental conservation efforts. Family planning is a prerequisite for achievement of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals and for realizing the human right of reproductive choice. Despite this well-documented need, the U.S. contribution to global family planning has declined in recent years. (author's)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Human Development Network, 2007 Apr.  p. (HNP Discussion Paper)The objective of this paper is to discuss some obstacles and opportunities presented by population processes in order to prioritize areas for investment and analytical work as background information for the 2007 HNP Sector Strategy. Within HNP, two areas fall within population: (1) reproductive, maternal, and sexual health issues, and the health services that address them; and (2) levels and trends in births, deaths, and migration that determine population growth and age structure. Many of the aspects of delivery of sexual and reproductive health services are addressed in the overall sector strategy. This paper, therefore, focuses on the determinants and consequences of demographic change, and on policies and interventions that pertain to fertility and family planning. Fertility has declined in most of the low- and middle-income countries, with TFRs converging toward replacement level, except in 35 countries, mainly in Sub-Saharan Africa, where a broad-based decline in fertility has not occurred. As the priorities of donors and development agencies have shifted toward other issues, and global funds and initiatives have largely bypassed funding of family planning, less attention is being focused on the consequences of high fertility. Reproductive health is conspicuously absent from the MDGs, and assistance to countries to meet the demand for family planning and related services is insufficient. The need for Bank engagement in population issues pertains to economic growth and poverty reduction, as well as inequities in terms of the impact of high fertility on the poor and other vulnerable groups. Evidence indicates that large family size reduces household spending per child, possibly with adverse effects on girls, and the health of mothers and children are affected by parity and birth intervals. Equity considerations remain central to the Bank's work as poor people are less likely to have access to family planning and other reproductive health services. Other vulnerable groups that are less likely to be served by reproductive health services include adolescents and rural populations. Additionally, improved education for girls, equal opportunities for women in society, and a reduction of the proportion of households living below the poverty line are necessary elements of a strategy to achieve sustainable reductions in fertility. The Bank has a comparative advantage to address these issues at the highest levels of country policy setting, and its involvement in many sectors can produce synergies that will allow faster progress than a more narrow focus on family planning services. (author's)
Population and Environment. 2007 May; 28(4-5):274-282.Full transcript of Dr. Goodall's keynote address at the Bixby symposium on Population and Conservation, held at the University of California, Berkeley on May 6, 2006. Dr. Goodall contrasts population growth amongst chimpanzees and human beings and discusses current conservation efforts of the Jane Goodall Institute in the Gombe region of Tanzania and the development of the TACARE (take care) program. (author's)
The ICPD vision: How far has the 11-year journey taken us? Report from a UNFPA panel discussion at the IUSSP XXV International Population Conference, Tours, France, 19 July 2005.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2006. 54 p.UNFPA, the United Nations Population Fund, decided to sponsor a Panel debate at the 25th IUSSP International Population Conference on progress towards achievement of the Plan of Action following the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), which took place in Cairo, Egypt in 1994. The title of the debate was "The ICPD Vision: How far has the eleven-year journey taken us?" Four distinguished speakers were invited to act as panel members. Two demographers, Professors John Cleland and Ian Pool, both advocated for a much stronger focus on population dynamics and were critical of the ICPD and, to some extent, also of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for not paying sufficient attention to macro-level demography. Two supporters of the Cairo agenda, Dr Pascoal Mocumbi and Professor Gita Sen, both stressed some important gains in the eleven years since the ICPD, but also stressed some of the constraints on significant progress including inadequate attention to health systems and the roles of wider political and cultural shifts. This document begins with an introduction and commentary on the panel debate by Professor John Hobcraft, which tries to place the discussions in their wider context. The second part contains revised statements from the four Panel participants: Professors John Cleland, Ian Pool and Gita Sen; and Dr Pascoal Mocumbi. The discussion was lively and the issues raised are of huge importance. The panelists were asked to relate their remarks not only to the ICPD, but also the MDGs, particularly the first goal of halving poverty by 2015. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2007 Feb 3; 369(9559):354-355.Return of the Population Growth Factor: its impact on the Millennium Development Goals, a report of hearings held in the UK Parliament in 2006, focuses on the devastating impact of population growth on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The report was released on Jan 31. The Inquiry Chairman, Richard Ottaway, Member of Parliament (MP), concludes: "The evidence is overwhelming: the MDGs are difficult or impossible to achieve with the current levels of population growth in the least developed countries and regions." Experts from around the world who testified to the hearings described the beneficial effects of slowing rapid population growth, as did Cleland and colleagues recently in The Lancet. Slower population growth permits greater investment in education and health, helping to lift nations out of poverty (MDG 1). By contrast, high birth rates in sub-Saharan Africa have helped increase the number living in extreme poverty from 231 million in 1990 to 318 million in 2001. In Ethiopia, 8 million people already live on permanent food aid, and the projected population growth from 75 million today to 145 million in 2050 presents an insurmountable challenge. Rapid population growth has a detrimental effect on the hope of achieving universal primary education by 2015 (MDG 2). (excerpt)
Population / development / environment trends in a globalized context: challenges for the 21st century.
Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):247-278.This paper begins with a brief review of ongoing trends in development patterns and population dynamics, with emphasis on the impacts of globalization. This assessment suggests that, in the foreseeable future, the most pertinent PDE questions will relate to the distribution of population over space and leads to the question - how can we best address the issue of environment and space? The sustainable use of space is posited here as a helpful approach and its usage is exemplified with respect to the main PDE problem of the 21st century, namely - urban growth. Finally, the paper addresses the question - what are the environmental implications of unparalleled growth in towns and cities, and what issues need to be addressed in this connection? (excerpt)
Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):167-184.This paper intends to comment on some of the connections between demographic patterns and poverty reduction that have been sufficiently tested, and are now widely accepted. The first section of it gives an overview of the different conceptions of poverty that are currently considered. The second deals with poverty measurement, and with the availability of data, both in developed and developing countries, pointing at some of their problems and limitations, particularly for their use in international comparisons and macro-economic analysis. The third describes briefly how theories relating demography and poverty have evolved from the time that this issue was aroused by Malthus, and reviews the current state of the art. In the following section, some aspects of the incidence of poverty on fertility and mortality are explored. The dynamics of the demographic changes and their effects on economic development are the subject of the fifth section. Finally, the last section is devoted to the controversial role that the massive migration inflows that are a trait of our times can play in the eradication of poverty. (excerpt)
Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):141-163.World demographic growth at the time of the Rome Conference in 1954 was characterized by unprecedented high rates of natural increase. This was the consequence of the combined effect of faster declines in death rates and sustained high birth rates. As a result, world population would double from three to six billion between 1960 and 1999 and from 5 to 6 billion in just 12 years (1987-1999), while it had taken the world four times as much to double from 1.5 to 3 billion and nearly a millennium to reach the first billion. What triggered this growth were primarily unprecedented mortality declines, a better control of major killer diseases and increases in survival particularly in the developing countries (life expectancy increased from 41 to 65 years on average over the last three decades). With such unprecedented growth rates, the theory of demographic transition acquired particular policy significance in the late 1950s to raise a serious concern about the impact of current and projected growth rates both within countries and internationally at the economic, social and geopolitical levels. This theory would soon become the driving force behind all population policy objectives aimed at third world countries where governments were encouraged to formulate population policies, establish policy institutions and programme structures to implement family planning programmes, bring about smaller-sized families and help couples avoid unwanted pregnancies. (excerpt)
Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):111-140.At the end of 1951, in the first issue of the Population Bulletin, the United Nations published an article on the past and future growth of world population (United Nations, 1951). The article provided a "long-term view" of future population growth by projecting the population by groups of countries from 1950 to 1980. According to this first set of estimates and projections issued by the United Nations, the world population, which was estimated to be 2.4 billion in mid-1950, would increase by at least half a billion and at most 1.2 billion over the next 30 years, producing for 1980 a range of 3 billion to 3.6 billion people, with a "medium" value of 3.3 billion. A further scenario obtained by maintaining constant the vital rates estimated for the late 1940s produced a world population of 3.5 billion (table 1), The proceedings of the 1954 World Population Conference held in Rome included another set of population projections, updating the work published in 1951. The major difference between the two sets lies on an upward adjustment of the 1950 population of Asia that resulted in a world total closer to 2.5 billion and led to a larger population in 1980 (3.6 billion in the medium variant). Today, with the benefit of hindsight, we estimate that the world's population in 1950 was slightly over 2.5 billion and that it increased by 1.9 billion over the next 30 years, to reach 4.4 billion by 1980, a value higher than the highest projected at the time of the 1954 Conference. In reviewing past demographic trends, this paper will compare them with those expected by United Nations demographers in the 1950s and 1960s in order to understand better their assessment of how the demographic transition would proceed. (excerpt)
Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):69-90.For most of human history, life was especially brutal. The growth of world population was kept in check largely by famines, deadly diseases and wars. Living conditions were poor and death rates were high. Infant and child deaths and maternal mortality were common, and few reached 60 years of age. And prior to 1800, centenarians, those aged 100 or older, are not believed to have lived. As a result of high birth and death rates, world population grew slowly for most of the past. Two thousand years ago, world population is believed to have been around 300 million people. Near the close of the 15th century world population was approaching the half billion mark. And when Malthus wrote his essay on population at the end of the 18th century, world population had not yet reached the one billion mark. Up until the modern era, nearly all of the world's population lived off the countryside. A thousand years ago, a few percent of the world's population of roughly 300 million lived outside rural areas. Even in 1700, the proportion urban had changed little and only five cities had more than a half a million inhabitants: Istanbul, Tokyo, Beijing, Paris and London. By 1800, about three percent of the world's population of some 1 billion lived in cities or urban places. By 1900, about 15 percent of the world's population of 1.6 billion resided in urban areas and the number of cities with more than a half a million inhabitants had increased eight-fold. (excerpt)
From Rome 1954 to Rome 2005 and beyond. Introductory remarks on the past and future of population problems.
Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):49-68.50 years on, Rome is once again at the centre of the scientific, and therefore political, debate on population problems. It is a great pleasure and a great honour to introduce here, in this prestigious Academy together with a small but highly qualified scientific and technical/political community, a Conference in order to discuss population problems with a holistic approach. An Irish colleague wrote to congratulate me on this initiative, highlighting how it will once again make it possible to discuss substantial population-related problems on an international level. Indeed when examining political and operative directives, this subject has been frequently neglected in the recent sessions of the United Nations Commission on Population and Development, whose once large number of experts participation is gradually falling. (excerpt)
Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):27-48.The International Conference Trends and Problems of the World Population in the 21st Century. 50 years since Rome 1954, was held in Rome, under the High Patronage of the President of the Italian Republic, at the "Accademia dei Lincei" on the 26th and 27th of May 2005 and at University of Rome "La Sapienza" on the 28th of May 2005. Organized by the Accademia dei Lincei, the University of Rome "La Sapienza" and its Department of Demograpy, the Conference was financially supported by the Banca d' Italia and the Compagnia di San Paolo. After the five fundamental United Nations Conferences on Population - held in Rome in 1954 and in Belgrade in 1965, and the following, intergovernmental, held in Bucarest in 1974, Mexico City in 1984 and in Cairo in 1994 - this Conference has been a new, important occasion for the analysis and the debate on population problems bringing them back to Rome after the first pionieristic, merely academic, Conference organized by the United Nations in Rome in September 1954. At that time in Rome the debate highlighted trends and problems that would have characterized the world population during the second half of the 20th century and that have contributed in defining the population policy carried out by the UN and by the single countries. This time, once again in Rome, the aim has been to identify trends and problems that are likely to affect the world population in the first half of the 21st century and to provide cues able to define and build population policies. In one word to revitalize the debate on population issues which have been, for some time, languishing both in the UN and in many countries. (excerpt)
United States. Exploring the environment / population links and the role of major donors, foundations and nongovernmental organizations.
In: No vacancy: global responses to the human population explosion, edited by Michael Tobias, Bob Gillespie, Elizabeth Hughes and Jane Gray Morrison. Pasadena, California, Hope Publishing House, 2006. 103-196.The mission of the World Bank is to fight poverty and improve the living standards of people in the developing world. It is a development bank which provides loans, policy advice, technical assistance and knowledge-sharing services to low- and middle-income countries to reduce poverty. It also promotes growth to create jobs and to empower poor people to take advantage of these opportunities. The World Bank works to bridge the economic divide between rich and poor countries. As one of the world's largest sources of development assistance, it supports the efforts of developing countries to build schools and health centers, provide water and electricity, fight disease and protect the environment. As one of the United Nations' specialized agencies, it has 184 member countries that are jointly responsible for how the institution is financed and how its money is spent. There are 10,000 development professionals from nearly every country in the world who work in its Washington DC headquarters and in its 109 country offices. The World Bank is the world's largest long-term financier of HIV/AIDS programs and its current commitments for HIV/AIDS amount to more than $1.3 billion --half of which is targeted for sub-Saharan Africa. (excerpt)
Lack of political commitment hampering population progress in Latin America; uncontrolled growth of cities and aging becoming serious problems. [La falta de compromiso político obstaculiza el progreso de la población en América Latina: el crecimiento descontrolado de las ciudades y el envejecimiento de la población se convierten en problemas graves]
UN Chronicle. 1987 Nov; 24(4): p..Awareness of the importance of population has not yet been translated into political commitment in most Latin American countries. This is happening despite a population growth rate second only to that of Africa and the worst economic crisis in the region's history. Population is not generally being taken into account in development plans. The population units established precisely for that purpose have not yet produced the expected results. The uncontrolled growth of cities and the increase in the number of the aged are two other worrying issues in the continent. These are among the conclusions reached by UNFPA in its 1986 report. (excerpt)
Triumph or threat? The birth of a baby boy in Yugoslavia is cause for celebration and concern - five billionth person.
UN Chronicle. 1987 Nov; 24(4): p..Secretary-General Javier Perez de Cuellar took tiny Matej Gaspar in his arms a few minutes after he was born and proclaimed him the five billionth person on the planet. It was a fine Saturday morning in Zagreb, Yugoslavia, capital of the Croatian Republic. Matej was born at 8:25 a.m. on 11 July 1987. The healthy, blond, 7 pound, 9 ounce boy is the second child of Sanja and Dragutin Gaspar. Matej's mother is a nurse, his father an electrician. "You should be thankful that your son has been born in prosperity", the Secretary-General said to the smiling 23-year old mother while flashbulbs popped and more than 150 journalists from all over the world jostled to cover the scene. He noted that 9 out of 10 children in the world were born in developing countries. (excerpt)
FAO sees decline in 'undernutrition', but the number of hungry continues to grow - Food and Agriculture Organization.
UN Chronicle. 1986 Apr; 23: p..For the first time in 40 years a decline in the incidence of undernutrition in the developing world has been detected by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Rapid population growth, however, has pushed the number of hungry people slightly upwards, according to FAO's Fifth World Food Survey, published in December. "There is evidence of a turn in the tide', FAO Director-General Edouard Saouma states in the foreword to the Survey. But he cautions that there are no grounds for complacency. "As we have seen from the current African food crisis, widespread malnutrition can all too quickly turn into actual famine and starvation'. The Survey provides both high and low estimates of the undernourished, which reflect two interpretations of the body's energy requirements. According to lower estimates, at least 335 million people in the developing market economies were undernourished in 1979-1981, some 10 million more than a decade before. However, the proportion of people suffering from hunger dropped from 19 to 15 per cent of the total population. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1997 Fall; 34(3): p..In the middle of 1996, world population stood at 5.77 trillion persons. Between 1990 and 1995, it grew at the rate of 1.48 per cent per annum, with an average of 81 million persons added each year. This is below the 1.72 per cent per annum at which population had keen growing between 1975 and 1990, and much below the 87 million added each year between 1985 and 1990, which now stands as the peak period in the history of world population growth. These figures are from the recently released 1996 Revision of the official United Nations population estimates and projections, prepared by the Population Division of the Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. The report indicates that currently 4.59 billion persons--80 per cent of the world's population--live in the less developed regions and 1.18 billion live in the more developed regions. The average annual growth rate is about 1.8 per cent in the less developed and 0.4 per cent in other regions. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1998 Winter; 35(4): p..According to the 1998 revised estimates and projections of the United Nations, the world population currently stands at 5.9 billion persons and is growing at 1.33 per cent per year, an annual net addition of about 78 million people. World population in the mid-twenty-first century is expected to be in the range of 7.3 to 10.7 billion, with a figure of 8.9 billion by the year 2050 considered to be most likely. Global population growth is slowing, thanks to successful family planning programmes. But because of past high fertility, the world population will continue to grow by over 80 million a year for at least the next decade. In mid-1999, the total will pass 6 billion-twice what it was in 1960. More young people than ever are entering their childbearing years. At the same time, the number and proportion of people over 65 are increasing at an unprecedented rate. The rapid growth of these young and old new generations is challenging societies' ability to provide education and health care for the young, and social, medical and financial support for the elderly. (excerpt)
International thinking on population policies and programmes from Rome to Cairo: Has South Africa kept pace?
South African Journal of Demography. 1996; 6(1):49-56.This paper reviews global thinking on population policy expressed at the world conferences on population matters from 1954 to 1994. The review is complemented by an overview of trends in South Africa that constituted a de jure population policy during the apartheid era. There is also a brief discussion of the Population Green Paper tabled in 1995, aimed at the establishment of a national population policy for South Africa. This is evaluated against the Programme of Action decided on at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo, Egypt, in 1994. There is an indication that finally, South Africa can be said to be genuinely moving in the direction of respect for human rights in its population policies in harmony with global convention. In a sense, it is catching up with global trends in the population field after years of isolation resulting from sanctions against the apartheid government. (author's)
Habitat Debate. 2001 Jun; 7(2): p..It is projected that the world population will rise from 5.7 billion in 1995 to 8.9 billion in 2050, growing at the rate of 1.3 per cent per annum in the period 1995- 2000 to 0.3 per cent per annum in the period 2045-2050. The assumption is that there will be a massive fertility decline in the majority of countries, a scenario expected to produce ageing populations, i.e. populations in which the proportion of children is declining and that of older persons is increasing. Voluntary and Forced Migration The world is polarized between the net-immigration in more developed countries and the net-emigration in the developing world. The developed world receives immigrants mainly from Asia and Latin America, and to a certain extent, Africa. Immigration patterns suggest that countries in Europe and North America are becoming less homogenous in terms of race and culture. (excerpt)