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New York, New York, UNFPA, 2015. 56 p.This report, the first such published by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), looks at FGM through the lens of population dynamics and the demographic dividend, based on current evidence and data. It offers quantitative information that both supports evidence-based programming, and frames financial implications for Member States and international donors. Evidence to define the size of the target population and orient actions around areas of greatest impact is of high value in developing interventions and formulating policies. UNFPA remains strongly committed to engaging with Member States, civil society, UN agencies and all other stakeholders to accelerate the elimination of FGM worldwide. Protecting girls upholds their sexual and reproductive health and rights, and enables them to realize their full potential.
New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division, 2012. 118 p. (Working Paper No. ESA/P/WP.228)The 2012 Revision is the twenty-third round of official United Nations population estimates and projections, prepared by the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat. The 2012 Revision builds on the previous revision by incorporating the results of the 2010 round of national population censuses as well as findings from recent specialized demographic surveys that have been carried out around the world. These sources provide both demographic and other information to assess the progress made in achieving the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The comprehensive review of past worldwide demographic trends and future prospects presented in the 2012 Revision provides the population basis for the assessment of those goals. The results of the 2012 Revision incorporate the findings of the most recent national population censuses, including from the 2010 round of censuses, and of numerous specialized population surveys carried out around the world. The 2012 Revision provides the demographic data and indicators to assess trends at the global, regional and national levels and to calculate many other key indicators commonly used by the United Nations system.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2015.  p.In 2015 the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) come to the end of their term, and a post-2015 agenda, comprising 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), takes their place. This WHO report looks back 15 years at the trends and positive forces during the MDG era and assesses the main challenges that will affect health in the coming 15 years.
Focus UNFPA: Four recommendations for action. Report of the CGD Working Group on UNFPA’s Leadership Transition.
Washington, D.C., Center for Global Development, 2011.  p.The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) was established in 1969 to generate resources for family planning and provide global leadership on population issues. Since then, the diverse needs of countries and evolving global views of population have placed complex issues on UNFPA’s doorstep. The Center for Global Development Working Group on UNFPA’s Leadership Transition recommends that UNFPA narrow its focus to again become one of the most important and visible vehicles for promoting sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights globally and in developing countries. Supported by experts within and outside the United Nations (UN), UNFPA should also help countries take account of population issues in the process of pursuing sustainable development. The time is right to reinvigorate UNFPA. Seventeen years after the groundbreaking International Conference on Population and Development, UNFPA needs to make itself the lead agency for population, sexual and reproductive health, and reproductive rights in the UN system, as well as be more visible externally. Recommendation 1: Establish and pursue a limited set of priorities closely related to UNFPA’s unique mission. Recommendation 2: Refine goals and transparently measure progress. Recommendation 3: Align human resources with a focused and renewed mission. Recommendation 4: Rebrand UNFPA as the lead agency for sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights.
[Washington, D.C.], Center for Global Development, 2011 Mar.  p. (CGD Brief)With a new executive director appointed in November 2010, the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) is in a position to re-assert its role and lead the world’s effort toward landmark achievements in improving women’s health and well-being. The Fund’s performance will literally be a matter of life or death for millions of women and children. The numbers speak for themselves: an estimated 215 million women lack access to modern contraceptives, and there are approximately 350,000 maternal deaths each year. As the lead agency for the United Nations’ work on population and reproductive health, UNFPA can reduce this terrible and unnecessary toll of lost lives. The Center for Global Development Working Group on UNFPA’s Leadership Transition urges the Fund to sharpen its focus in pursuing the Programme of Action developed at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. Specifically, the Working Group recommends the following steps to Executive Director Babatunde Osotimehin: Establish and pursue a limited set of priorities closely related to UNFPA’s unique mission; Improve UNFPA’s performance measurement and reporting; Align UNFPA’s human resources with its renewed agenda; Define and communicate UNFPA’s role in population, sexual and reproductive health, and reproductive rights.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2009. 94 p.Women bear the disproportionate burden of climate change, but have so far been largely overlooked in the debate about how to address problems of rising seas, droughts, melting glaciers and extreme weather, concludes The State of World Population 2009, released by UNFPA, the United Nations Population Fund. The poor are especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change, and the majority of the 1.5 billion people living on $1 a day or less are women. The poor are more likely to depend on agriculture for a living and therefore risk going hungry or losing their livelihoods when droughts strike, rains become unpredictable and hurricanes move with unprecedented force. The poor tend to live in marginal areas, vulnerable to floods, rising seas and storms. The report draws attention to populations in low-lying coastal areas that are vulnerable to climate change and calls on governments to plan ahead to strengthen risk reduction, preparedness and management of disasters and address the potential displacement of people. Research cited in the report shows that women are more likely than men to die in natural disasters-including those related to extreme weather -- with this gap most pronounced where incomes are low and status differences between men and women are high. The State of World Population 2009 argues that the international community's fight against climate change is more likely to be successful if policies, programmes and treaties take into account the needs, rights and potential of women. The report shows that investments that empower women and girls -- particularly education and health -- bolster economic development and reduce poverty and have a beneficial impact on climate. Girls with more education, for example, tend to have smaller and healthier families as adults. Women with access to reproductive health services, including family planning, have lower fertility rates that contribute to slower growth in greenhouse-gas emissions in the long run.
CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2007 Oct 9; 177(8):846.Recently the World Health Organization reported 2005 fertility rates per woman and gross national incomes per capita from its 193 member countries. Figure 1 shows these data for the 20 countries with the highest and lowest fertility rates for which gross national income data were available and for the G7 countries (Canada, United States, France, United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Japan) for comparison. Countries with the highest fertility rates per woman tended to have a much lower gross national income per capita than countries with the lowest fertility rates. They also tended to be or to have recently been politically unstable. (The fertility rates per woman for Timor-Leste and Afghanistan were 7.8 and 7.3 respectively but are not included in Figure 1 because data for their gross national income were not available.) A fertility rate per woman of just over 2.0-2.1 is recognized as being necessary to maintain a country's population size. Countries with a rate below this, which included most of the G7countries, must rely on immigration if this is their intent. (full text)
Review and appraisal of the progress made in achieving the goals and objectives of the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development: the 2004 report.
New York, New York, United Nations, 2004.  p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/235)This report is divided into an introduction and seven sections. The first two sections provide an overview of population levels and trends, and population growth, structure and distribution in the world and its major regions. These are followed by four sections focusing on clusters of issues: reproductive rights and reproductive health, health and mortality, international migration, and population programmes. The final section summarizes the major conclusions of the report. Reflected in the discussions in all the sections, both explicitly and implicitly, are three interrelated factors that affect implementation of all the recommendations of the Programme of Action, namely, availability of financial and human resources, institutional capacities, and partnerships among Governments, the international community, non-governmental organizations and the civil society. The full implementation of the Programme of Action requires concerted action on these three fronts. (excerpt)
Vietnam Population News. 2007 Apr-Jun; (43):3-6.On 5 May 2007, Madame Le Thi Thu, Minister-Chair-woman of VCPFC, and heads of ministries and sectors warmly welcomed Ms. Ann M. Veneman, UNICEF's Executive Director. At the meeting, Madame Thu gave a brief on Viet Nam's achievements in child care, education and protection during the past few years and future work orientation. Children's living standards have been unceasingly improved, children's rights have been step by step met in terms of physical, intellectual, spiritual and morality. She hoped to receive the efficient support of UNICEF. Ms. Ann M. Veneman is impressed by Viet Nam's achievements. She said that UNICEF would have focus to HIV/AIDS, childhood injury, and under-five underweight. She recommended Viet Nam to pay more attention to causes of those issues, especially setting up databases and provide data/indicators that can be compared with other countries in the region. During her visit, Ms. Ann M. Veneman also met with Government officials to discuss about related matters. She said Viet Nam is likely to be one of the countries to reach the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targets, with some of these targets ahead of 2015. Despite the significant progress achieved, there remain challenges, such as disparity between the rich and poor, impacts of HIV on children and protecting children from injury and harm. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Human Development Network, 2007 Apr.  p. (HNP Discussion Paper)The objective of this paper is to discuss some obstacles and opportunities presented by population processes in order to prioritize areas for investment and analytical work as background information for the 2007 HNP Sector Strategy. Within HNP, two areas fall within population: (1) reproductive, maternal, and sexual health issues, and the health services that address them; and (2) levels and trends in births, deaths, and migration that determine population growth and age structure. Many of the aspects of delivery of sexual and reproductive health services are addressed in the overall sector strategy. This paper, therefore, focuses on the determinants and consequences of demographic change, and on policies and interventions that pertain to fertility and family planning. Fertility has declined in most of the low- and middle-income countries, with TFRs converging toward replacement level, except in 35 countries, mainly in Sub-Saharan Africa, where a broad-based decline in fertility has not occurred. As the priorities of donors and development agencies have shifted toward other issues, and global funds and initiatives have largely bypassed funding of family planning, less attention is being focused on the consequences of high fertility. Reproductive health is conspicuously absent from the MDGs, and assistance to countries to meet the demand for family planning and related services is insufficient. The need for Bank engagement in population issues pertains to economic growth and poverty reduction, as well as inequities in terms of the impact of high fertility on the poor and other vulnerable groups. Evidence indicates that large family size reduces household spending per child, possibly with adverse effects on girls, and the health of mothers and children are affected by parity and birth intervals. Equity considerations remain central to the Bank's work as poor people are less likely to have access to family planning and other reproductive health services. Other vulnerable groups that are less likely to be served by reproductive health services include adolescents and rural populations. Additionally, improved education for girls, equal opportunities for women in society, and a reduction of the proportion of households living below the poverty line are necessary elements of a strategy to achieve sustainable reductions in fertility. The Bank has a comparative advantage to address these issues at the highest levels of country policy setting, and its involvement in many sectors can produce synergies that will allow faster progress than a more narrow focus on family planning services. (author's)
Asia-Pacific Population Journal. 2007 Apr; 22(1):3-7.While the science of demography addresses the whole of the human population, substantive demographic research is most often focused on populations with common characteristics. For the last six decades the nation state has been the social unit that has dominated demographic research. The reasons for this focus make perfect sense. Nations define their populations in terms of citizenship and define the ways in which people will be identified in any effort to count the numbers. They have the authority, the interest and the resources to carry out collections of information about members of these defined populations. As members of the United Nations they collaborate with other nations to develop the methodological and technical tools used to analyse national population numbers in ways that are relevant to state policies and actions. In short, the nation is the foundation unit for understanding human population composition and growth. Global population numbers are estimated by compiling the information collected by nations. Interest in populations of units smaller than the nation also relies on national statistical collections and national definitions of component populations, but for most users of data the focus is on the nation, and not the units beyond or below that political entity. (excerpt)
Female Migrants: Bridging the Gaps throughout the Life Cycle. Selected papers of the UNFPA-IOM Expert Group Meeting, New York, 2-3 May 2006.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2006. 136 p.Women make up nearly half of all migrants, an estimated 95 million of 191 million people living outside their countries of origin in 2005. Having said this, after many years of observing migration and collecting data there is remarkably little reliable information about women as migrants. This anomaly underlines their continuing invisibility to policymakers and development planners. The High-Level Dialogue on International Migration and Development by the General Assembly on 14-15 September 2006 offers the best opportunity in a generation to address the rights, needs, capabilities and contribution of women migrants. Equal numbers do not confer equality of treatment. Women have fewer opportunities than men for legal migration; many women become irregular migrants with concomitant lack of support and exposure to risk. Whether they migrate legally or not, alone or as members of a family unit, women are more vulnerable than men to violence and exploitation. Their needs for health care, including reproductive health care, and other services are less likely to be met. They have more limited opportunities than men for social integration and political participation. Migration can be beneficial, both for women and for the countries which send and receive them. Women migrants make a significant economic contribution through their labour, both to their countries of destination and, through remittances, to their countries of origin. In societies where women's power to move autonomously is limited, the act of migration is in itself empowering. It stimulates change in women migrants themselves, and in the societies which send and receive them. In the process women's migration can become a force for removing existing gender imbalances and inequities, and for changing underlying conditions so that new imbalances and inequities do not arise. Women's voluntary migration is a powerful force for positive change in countries both of origin and of destination. (excerpt)
Population and Development Review. 2006; 32 Suppl:1-51.By the end of the twentieth century, although expansion of population numbers in the developing world still had far to run, the pace had greatly slowed: widespread declines in birth rates had taken place and looked set to continue. To what degree population policies played a significant role in this epochal transformation of demographic regimes remains a matter of conjecture and controversy. It seems likely that future observers will be impressed by the essential similarities in the path to demographic modernity that successive countries have taken in the last few centuries, rather than discerning a demographic exceptionalism in the most recent period--with achievement of the latter credited to deliberate policy design. But that eventual judgment, whatever it may be, needs to be based on an understanding of how demographic change over the last half-century has been perceived and the responses it has elicited--an exercise in political demography. Such an exercise, inevitably tentative given the recency of the events, is essayed in this chapter. (excerpt)
Population / development / environment trends in a globalized context: challenges for the 21st century.
Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):247-278.This paper begins with a brief review of ongoing trends in development patterns and population dynamics, with emphasis on the impacts of globalization. This assessment suggests that, in the foreseeable future, the most pertinent PDE questions will relate to the distribution of population over space and leads to the question - how can we best address the issue of environment and space? The sustainable use of space is posited here as a helpful approach and its usage is exemplified with respect to the main PDE problem of the 21st century, namely - urban growth. Finally, the paper addresses the question - what are the environmental implications of unparalleled growth in towns and cities, and what issues need to be addressed in this connection? (excerpt)
Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):215-246.Since the Rome Population Conference the perceptions of the relationship between population dynamics and food security have undergone significant changes, ranging from fear of unyielding famines caused by explosive population growth to strong confidence in the capacity of the world to stand up to the challenge of growth. Many novel factors, unpredictable at the time, radically changed the scene throughout the half century. Unprecedented population growth happened during times of growing incomes and soaring agricultural production. Emerging actors such as the international agricultural research system played an important role, while emerging factors such as the AIDS epidemic have changed the parameters of the equation. With a world population that will significantly increase in the twenty first century, and that will, for the first time in history, be more urban than rural, not only will the total demand for food be greater than it has ever been, but the nature of that demand will be different. In many countries, changes have been taking place in dietary habits, as well as in methods of food production, processing and marketing, while international trade in raw commodities and processed foods has also grown substantially. (excerpt)
Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):141-163.World demographic growth at the time of the Rome Conference in 1954 was characterized by unprecedented high rates of natural increase. This was the consequence of the combined effect of faster declines in death rates and sustained high birth rates. As a result, world population would double from three to six billion between 1960 and 1999 and from 5 to 6 billion in just 12 years (1987-1999), while it had taken the world four times as much to double from 1.5 to 3 billion and nearly a millennium to reach the first billion. What triggered this growth were primarily unprecedented mortality declines, a better control of major killer diseases and increases in survival particularly in the developing countries (life expectancy increased from 41 to 65 years on average over the last three decades). With such unprecedented growth rates, the theory of demographic transition acquired particular policy significance in the late 1950s to raise a serious concern about the impact of current and projected growth rates both within countries and internationally at the economic, social and geopolitical levels. This theory would soon become the driving force behind all population policy objectives aimed at third world countries where governments were encouraged to formulate population policies, establish policy institutions and programme structures to implement family planning programmes, bring about smaller-sized families and help couples avoid unwanted pregnancies. (excerpt)
Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):69-90.For most of human history, life was especially brutal. The growth of world population was kept in check largely by famines, deadly diseases and wars. Living conditions were poor and death rates were high. Infant and child deaths and maternal mortality were common, and few reached 60 years of age. And prior to 1800, centenarians, those aged 100 or older, are not believed to have lived. As a result of high birth and death rates, world population grew slowly for most of the past. Two thousand years ago, world population is believed to have been around 300 million people. Near the close of the 15th century world population was approaching the half billion mark. And when Malthus wrote his essay on population at the end of the 18th century, world population had not yet reached the one billion mark. Up until the modern era, nearly all of the world's population lived off the countryside. A thousand years ago, a few percent of the world's population of roughly 300 million lived outside rural areas. Even in 1700, the proportion urban had changed little and only five cities had more than a half a million inhabitants: Istanbul, Tokyo, Beijing, Paris and London. By 1800, about three percent of the world's population of some 1 billion lived in cities or urban places. By 1900, about 15 percent of the world's population of 1.6 billion resided in urban areas and the number of cities with more than a half a million inhabitants had increased eight-fold. (excerpt)
From Rome 1954 to Rome 2005 and beyond. Introductory remarks on the past and future of population problems.
Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):49-68.50 years on, Rome is once again at the centre of the scientific, and therefore political, debate on population problems. It is a great pleasure and a great honour to introduce here, in this prestigious Academy together with a small but highly qualified scientific and technical/political community, a Conference in order to discuss population problems with a holistic approach. An Irish colleague wrote to congratulate me on this initiative, highlighting how it will once again make it possible to discuss substantial population-related problems on an international level. Indeed when examining political and operative directives, this subject has been frequently neglected in the recent sessions of the United Nations Commission on Population and Development, whose once large number of experts participation is gradually falling. (excerpt)
Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):27-48.The International Conference Trends and Problems of the World Population in the 21st Century. 50 years since Rome 1954, was held in Rome, under the High Patronage of the President of the Italian Republic, at the "Accademia dei Lincei" on the 26th and 27th of May 2005 and at University of Rome "La Sapienza" on the 28th of May 2005. Organized by the Accademia dei Lincei, the University of Rome "La Sapienza" and its Department of Demograpy, the Conference was financially supported by the Banca d' Italia and the Compagnia di San Paolo. After the five fundamental United Nations Conferences on Population - held in Rome in 1954 and in Belgrade in 1965, and the following, intergovernmental, held in Bucarest in 1974, Mexico City in 1984 and in Cairo in 1994 - this Conference has been a new, important occasion for the analysis and the debate on population problems bringing them back to Rome after the first pionieristic, merely academic, Conference organized by the United Nations in Rome in September 1954. At that time in Rome the debate highlighted trends and problems that would have characterized the world population during the second half of the 20th century and that have contributed in defining the population policy carried out by the UN and by the single countries. This time, once again in Rome, the aim has been to identify trends and problems that are likely to affect the world population in the first half of the 21st century and to provide cues able to define and build population policies. In one word to revitalize the debate on population issues which have been, for some time, languishing both in the UN and in many countries. (excerpt)
Commission gives high priority to monitoring global trends - UN Population Commission meeting, Mar 28-31, 1994 - includes information on preparation of action program to be recommended at the Sep 5-13, 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, Egypt.
UN Chronicle. 1994 Jun; 31(2): p..The effect of population growth on the environment, the role and status of women, and the demographic implications of development Policies were among major topics discussed by the Population Commission at its twenty-seventh session (28-31 March, New York). "The most important lesson we have learned is that population growth and other demographic trends can only be affected by investing in people and by promoting equality between women and men", Dr. Nafis Sadik, Executive Director of the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) and Secretary-General of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, told the 26-member body. In the single text approved during the session, for adoption by the Economic and Social Council, the Commission asked that high priority be given to monitoring world population trends and policies, and to strengthening multilateral technical cooperation to address population concerns. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations, 2001.  p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/207)The Population Division of the United Nations has a long tradition of studying population ageing, including estimating and projecting older populations, and examining the determinants and consequences of population ageing. From the groundbreaking report on population ageing in 1956, which focused mainly on population ageing in the more developed countries, to the first United Nations wallchart on population ageing issues published in 1999, the Population Division has consistently sought to bring population ageing to the attention of the international community. The present report is intended to provide a solid demographic foundation for the debates and follow-up activities of the Second World Assembly on Ageing. The report considers the process of population ageing for the world as a whole, for more and less developed regions, major areas and regions, and individual countries. Demographic profiles covering the period 1950 to 2050 are provided for each country, highlighting the relevant indicators of population ageing. (excerpt)
World population in 2300. Proceedings of the United Nations Expert Meeting on World Population in 2300, United Nations Headquarters, New York.
New York, New York, United Nations, 2004 Mar 24 x, 36 p. (ESA/P/WP.187/Rev.1)In order to address the technical and substantive challenges posed by the preparation of long-range projections at the national level, the Population Division convened two meetings of experts. The first meeting, the Technical Working Group on Long-Range Population Projections, was held at United Nations Headquarters in New York on 30 June 2003 and provided consultation on the proposed assumptions and methodology for the projection exercise. The second meeting, the Expert Meeting on World Population in 2300, was held at United Nations Headquarters on 9 December 2003. Its purpose was to examine the results of the long-range projections and to discuss lessons learned and policy implications. The Expert Group consisted of 30 invited experts participating in their personal capacity. Also attending were staff members of the Population Division and the Statistics Division, both part of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat. This document presents the report of the meeting of the Expert Group on World Population in 2300, along with the background paper prepared by the Population Division and the questions addressed by the meeting. The Population Division drew valuable guidance from the deliberations at the meeting as well as from comments submitted in writing by the experts. All of these inputs will be taken into consideration in preparing the final report on the long-range projections, as well as in future projection exercises. The Population Division extends its appreciation to all the experts for their suggestions and contributions to the preparation of the long-range projections. (excerpt)
Population dynamics and educational planning; a discussion of educational incentive programmes for reduced fertility.
Paris, France, UNESCO, 1974 May. 41 p.As a result the author was asked to enumerate in more detail his suggestions for educational incentives which were spelled out in background paper. BK/73/D/254-120 entitled "Educational Incentive Approaches in Population Planning". This paper is an imperfect attempt to add more clarity to an admittedly sketchy and unclear proposition. It is hoped that others will react to this paper and offer their points of view. It is also hoped that as a result of this effort and the efforts of others, one or more field experiments with educational incentive programmes for reduced fertility will be initiated. It is only after some hard data have been collected that conclusions can be drawn regarding the acceptability and applicability of such a programme on a large scale. (excerpt)
Integration: International Review of Population and Reproductive Health. 1999 Spring; (59):16-18.The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) has been providing technical assistance to countries to help them alleviate serious reproductive health and population problems and related issues such as high levels of fertility and maternal and infant mortality, rapid increase of population and persistently high risk of sexually transmitted diseases particularly among the youth. The multidisciplinary technical team called Country Support Team (CST) has made outstanding achievements in technical assistance. Organized and coordinated by UNFPA, CST consists of experts from the regional commissions of the United Nations Tea for Central such as ESCAP and ones from specialized agencies like ILO, WHO, UNESCO, UNFPA and UNIFEM. They are hired by these UN agencies but loaned to UNFPA to work as CTS experts. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2002 Mar 11.  p.This paper reviews the status of the fertility transition and the processes that have led to the nearly universal reductions of fertility achieved so far. The state of current knowledge, buttressed by the actual experience of a growing number of countries, suggests that lengthy periods of below-replacement fertility are likely to be common in the future. Revised guidelines for the United Nations 2002 Revision for the projection of fertility in today’s intermediate-fertility countries are proposed based on the recognition that replacement-level fertility is not necessarily hard-wired in the evolution of populations. The proposed guidelines imply that, under the medium variant, approximately 80 per cent of the world population will be projected to have below-replacement fertility before mid-century. (author's)