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  1. 1

    Country statement submitted by the government of Poland.


    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 261-71.

    Economic changes in Poland have restricted social welfare development and services. Population has been below replacement level since 1989, and life expectancy has declined with a relatively high infant mortality. There is considerable emigration of the young and skilled, and 2.5 million were unemployed in 1992. There will be an increase in the population aged 45-64 years and among pensioners. Although there is no formal population policy, the government has aimed to reach replacement level fertility, to improve the quality of life, to balance the distribution of the population, and to formulate better international agreements on economic migration into and out of Poland. There is public concern about uncontrolled immigration from countries of the former Soviet Union, since Poland is a transit stop for refugees on their way to Germany or Scandinavia. Preferential treatment is been given to Polish migrants in the former Soviet Union. Illegal foreign labor has increased, and crime is a problem. There are plans for policy reform and for the establishment of an Immigration Office. Marriage is declining, and cohabitation is increasing. The birth rate declined from 19.7/1000 in 1983 to 14.3 in 1991. 8% of total births were to juveniles, 6% were born out of wedlock, and 8% were low birth weight. Contraception is available through pharmacies; sterilization is not performed, and abortion regulations are under debate. Unfavorable lifestyles and health behaviors contribute to a poor health situation and an increase in male mortality in all age groups. Circulatory system diseases are a primary cause of death, followed by cancers, injuries, and poisoning. Infant mortality was 15.0/1000 live births in 1991, mostly due to perinatal complications (50%) and developmental defects (27%). Hepatitis B infection is high in Poland, with 30 cases/1000; tuberculosis is declining, but was still high at 42.3/100,000 in 1990 and accounted for 40% of all infectious disease mortality. HIV infections numbered 1996 cases by 1991. Life expectancy is 66.1 years for males and 75.3 years for females. The Polish health strategy conforms to WHO directives and emphasizes general health promotion and at-risk populations. Poland is particularly concerned about population problems in the Eastern and Central European region and in countries of the former Soviet Republic.
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  2. 2

    Statement of Croatia.

    Kostovic I

    [Unpublished] 1994. Presented at the International Conference on Population and Development [ICPD], Cairo, Egypt, September 5-13, 1994. [3] p.

    In his address to the 1994 UN International Conference on Population and Development, the Deputy Prime Minister of Croatia pointed out that this was the first time Croatia had taken part in the Conference as an independent, sovereign, and democratic country. The primary obstacle to development and improving the well-being of people worldwide and in Croatia is war (which is currently raging in approximately 70 regions of the world). Fundamental principles adopted by the international community are being violated with nothing done to enforce them. Croatia is committed to strengthening and consistently implementing the international mechanisms for world peace. War has resulted in approximately 20 million refugees and displaced persons, and Croatia, with less than a tenth of a percent of the world's population, is absorbing 3% of the refugees. It is not enough to supply international aid to alleviate the burden, the causes of the crisis have to be dealt with. The war in Bosnia-Herzegovina and the occupied area of Croatia has led to a decline in the population of Croatia. The depopulation of Croatia has been exacerbated by a below-replacement level fertility rate, a negative longterm migration balance, and by the numbers of people killed in the war. It will take the support of the international community to help countries which are undergoing radical changes in their political and economic systems to successfully embrace democracy and a market economy. The UN must play a prominent role in exercising the political will to preserve peace in the world as a prerequisite for development.
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