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  1. 1

    Between the West and Asia: "Humanistic" Japanese Family Planning in the Cold War.

    Homei A

    East Asian Science, Technology and Society. 2016 Dec; 10(4):445-467.

    This paper studies the formation of Japanese ventures in family planning deployed in various villages in Asia from the 1960s onward in the name of development aid. By critically examining how Asia became the priority area for Japan's international cooperation in family planning and by analyzing how the adjective "humanistic" was used to underscore the originality of Japan's family planning program overseas, the paper shows that visions of Japanese actors were directly informed by Japan's delicate position in Cold War geopolitics, between the imagined West represented by the United States and "underdeveloped" Asia, at a time when Japan was striving to (re-)establish its position in world politics and economics. Additionally, by highlighting subjectivities and intra-Asian networks centered on Japanese actors, the paper also aims to destabilize the current historiography on population control which has hitherto focused either on Western actors in the transnational population control movement or on non-Western "acceptors" subjected to the population control programs.
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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    The theory of epidemiologic transition: the origins of a citation classic.

    Weisz G; Olszynko-Gryn J

    Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences. 2010 Jul; 65(3):287-326.

    In 1971 Abdel R. Omran published his classic paper on the theory of epidemiologic transition. By the mid-1990s, it had become something of a citation classic and was understood as a theoretical statement about the shift from infectious to chronic diseases that supposedly accompanies modernization. However, Omran himself was not directly concerned with the rise of chronic disease; his theory was in fact closely tied to efforts to accelerate fertility decline through health-oriented population control programs. This article uses Omran's extensive published writings as well as primary and secondary sources on population and family planning to place Omran's career in context and reinterpret his theory. We find that "epidemiologic transition" was part of a broader effort to reorient American and international health institutions towards the pervasive population control agenda of the 1960s and 1970s. The theory was integral to the WHO's then controversial efforts to align family planning with health services, as well as to Omran's unsuccessful attempt to create a new sub-discipline of "population epidemiology." However, Omran's theory failed to displace demographic transition theory as the guiding framework for population control. It was mostly overlooked until the early 1990s, when it belatedly became associated with the rise of chronic disease.
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  3. 3

    Fatal misconception: the struggle to control world population.

    Connelly M

    Cambridge, Massachusetts, Belknap Press, 2008. xiv, 521 p.

    Rather than a conspiracy theory, this book presents a cautionary tale. It is a story about the future, and not just the past. It therefore takes the form of a narrative unfolding over time, including very recent times. It describes the rise of a movement that sought to remake humanity, the reaction of those who fought to preserve patriarchy, and the victory won for the reproductive rights of both women and men -- a victory, alas, Pyrrhic and incomplete, after so many compromises, and too many sacrifices. (Excerpt)
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  4. 4

    From family planning to HIV / AIDS in Vietnam: Shifting priorities, remaining gaps.

    Le Minh Giang; Nguyen Thi Mai Huong

    In: SexPolitics: Reports from the front lines, edited by Richard Parker, Rosalind Petchesky and Robert Sember. [Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Associacao Brasileira Interdisciplinar de AIDS (ABIA), Sexuality Policy Watch, 2008]. 277-309.

    Globally, both the disjunction between sexual and reproductive health and HIV/AIDS, and the fact that HIV/AIDS has taken over the political and funding agenda, are well noted. A recent editorial in the journal, Reproductive Health Matters, summed up this trend, noting that although HIV/AIDS has been with us for more than two decades, "now, suddenly, following rapid shifts in political leadership, priority setting, power brokering, and funding policies in international health and development circles, it is widely considered an unassailable fact that in the global 'competition' for resources and attention, sexual and reproductive health has less priority and has lost out to AIDS, as if addressing the one had no connection with addressing the other". Has this trend been realized in Vietnam? If so, what are some of the factors that have shaped this trend and which of its characteristics should Vietnam take into account moving forward? (excerpt)
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  5. 5

    Family planning and the World Bank in Jamaica.

    King T

    In: The global family planning revolution: three decades of population policies and programs, edited by Warren C. Robinson and John A. Ross. Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2007. 155-174.

    In Jamaica, as in many countries, the pioneers of family planning were men and women who sought to improve the well-being of their impoverished women compatriots, and who perhaps were also conscious of the social threats of rapid population growth. When, eventually, population control became national policy, the relationship between the initial private programs and the national effort did not always evolve smoothly, as the Jamaican experience shows (see box 10.1 for a timeline of the main events in relation to family planning in Jamaica). A related question was whether the family planning program should be a vertical one, that is, with a staff directed toward a sole objective, or whether it should be integrated within the public health service. These issues were not unique to Jamaica, but in one respect Jamaica was distinctive: it was the setting for the World Bank's first loan for family planning activities. Family planning programs entailed public expenditures that were quite different from the infrastructure investments for which almost all Bank loans had been made, and the design and appraisal of a loan for family planning that did not violate the principles that governed Bank lending at the time required a series of decisions at the highest levels of the Bank. These decisions shaped World Bank population lending for several years and subjected the Bank to a good deal of external criticism. For that reason, this chapter focuses on the process of making this loan. (excerpt)
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  6. 6

    Constructing population control: Social and material factors in norm emergence and diffusion.

    Landolt LK

    Global Society. 2007 Jul; 21(3):393-414.

    To demonstrate that norms have independent causal power, constructivists de-emphasise material factors related to state interests and highlight social factors. Similarly, they conceptualise international organisations as autonomous from state influence, and focus on cases featuring non-state actors that stimulate a "tipping point" of norm diffusion among states in advance of state sponsorship. By contrast, this article utilises an historical materialist approach that admits both social and material data to examine the contrasting case of population control. It finds that US corporate foundations, eugenist demographers, feminist birth control activists and related NGOs conceptualised and promoted population control in the United States, at the United Nations, and across developing countries. However, the tipping point of norm diffusion occurred only after the United States publicly advocated population control. Indeed, material and social factors were inextricably bound together. (author's)
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  7. 7

    Sex without birth or death: a comparison of two international humanitarian movements. Draft.

    Cleland J; Watkins SC

    [Unpublished] 2005. Presented at the 2005 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, March 31 - April 2, 2005. 22 p.

    The aim of this paper is to identify the lessons of the earlier population movement for AIDS control. We begin at the international level, where problems and solutions were defined, funding raised, interventions conceived. Although the problems and solutions were perceived as global, the multilateral and bilateral agencies that directed the interventions necessarily had to work through the governments of sovereign states, or at the least with their permission. We then examine the local responses that, in the case of the population movement, led to fertility decline and, we predict, will lead to a downturn in the spread of HIV. In our conclusions, we attempt to distill the key points of these sagas: what have we learned about the process of delinking sex from birth that is relevant for current humanitarian efforts to sever the connection between sex and death? (excerpt)
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  8. 8
    Peer Reviewed

    Reaching the MDGs: Why population, reproductive health and gender matter.

    Obaid TA

    Asia-Pacific Population Journal. 2006; 21(2-3):9-20.

    The 2005 World Summit was an important event for those of us working to realize commitments made at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo over ten years ago to improve the lives of poor women and men in the developing world. At the United Nations Headquarters in New York, the largest ever gathering of world leaders in history convened in September 2005 resolved to achieve universal access to reproductive health by 2015, promote gender equality and end discrimination against women - the pillars of the ICPD Programme of Action. The World Summit's success does not mean the challenges to achieve the goals contained in the ICPD Programme of Action have ended. Ideological and conservative opposition remains. In some countries where the right policies and effective models are in place, resource and capacity constraints make it difficult to scale-up, monitor and coordinate development programmes. In addition, in places where development programmes have shown demonstrable results, the development community has had limited success in reaching and transforming the lives and futures of the poorest and most disadvantaged. (excerpt)
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  9. 9

    Achieving the ICPD goals: reproductive health commodity requirements, 2000-2015.

    Bulatao R

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2005. [80] p.

    Contraceptives, drugs, and medical supplies required for reproductive health services in developing regions cost US$1.84 billion in 2000, will cost $2.34 billion in 2005, and will rise in cost to $3.43 billion by 2015. Annual costs will be 86 per cent higher, in constant dollars, in 2015 than in 2000 (Figure 1). These estimates cover contraceptives for family planning, condoms for protection against HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, and drugs and medical supplies for safe deliveries and other reproductive health services. Drugs and medical supplies make up over half the total cost, contraceptives around one-third, and condoms for protection the remaining one-eighth or so. The estimates are detailed in this report, which attempts to assess the overall costs of reproductive health commodities, which UNFPA has traditionally had a major role in helping provide for developing regions. These commodities are essential to achieve the goal of providing universal access to reproductive health care, as mandated in 1994 by the International Conference on Population and Development. The report is not intended to specify the quantities and cost of commodities needed in particular countries but rather tries to arrive at estimates of global requirements. Nevertheless, the calculations are based on detailed consideration of regional and even country data where they are available. The report assesses the number of cases in developing regions of each relevant reproductive health condition, projects these numbers over 15 years, determines the commodities required as part of appropriate treatment, estimates the proportion of cases that do receive such treatment, specifies how coverage should rise in the future, and calculates the commodity costs for all the cases to be covered. (excerpt)
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  10. 10

    Annual report 2004.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 2005. [35] p.

    As of 2004, progress in reproductive health is evident in many countries, where family planning is the norm and fewer women are dying in childbirth. But much more needs to be done, especially in those countries with far to go in meeting development goals. Three actions are central to saving women's lives: family planning, skilled attendance at birth, and access to emergency obstetric care. Ten years after the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, more than half a million women still die each year from complications of pregnancy and childbirth. Lack of care heightens the risk to mothers and babies: one third of all pregnant women worldwide receive no health care during pregnancy, and 60 per cent of all deliveries take place outside of health facilities. Poverty makes the dangers even greater: the lifetime risk of a woman dying in pregnancy or childbirth in sub-Saharan Africa is 1 in 16, compared to 1 in 2,800 in developed countries. The Cairo conference called for universal access to reproductive health care by 2015. (excerpt)
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  11. 11
    Peer Reviewed

    The evolution of population policies in Kenya and Malawi.

    Chimbwete C; Watkins SC; Zulu EM

    Population Research and Policy Review. 2005 Jan; 24(1):85-106.

    Our case studies of the evolution of population policies in Kenya and Malawi offer insights into the interaction between the global population movement and national governments. The comparison is useful because it permits identifying the common strategies of a global movement, strategies that are likely to be evident elsewhere; it also permits identifying differences in national responses related to particular domestic contexts. We find a common repertory of movement strategies to influence the governments of Kenya and Malawi to adopt a neo-Malthusian population policy and to implement a family planning program. However, these strategies were promoted more or less aggressively depending on the national response and the chronological period. National responses were related to differences in the governments' approaches to nation-building, their willingness to accept foreign influence and the importance they placed on preserving cultural traditions, and to their assessment of benefits they would gain from responding favorably to movement proposals. The data come from written accounts and from interviews with international actors and Kenyan and Malawian elites who participated in the policy development process. (author's)
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  12. 12

    Lack of political commitment hampering population progress in Latin America; uncontrolled growth of cities and aging becoming serious problems. [La falta de compromiso político obstaculiza el progreso de la población en América Latina: el crecimiento descontrolado de las ciudades y el envejecimiento de la población se convierten en problemas graves]

    UN Chronicle. 1987 Nov; 24(4):[2] p..

    Awareness of the importance of population has not yet been translated into political commitment in most Latin American countries. This is happening despite a population growth rate second only to that of Africa and the worst economic crisis in the region's history. Population is not generally being taken into account in development plans. The population units established precisely for that purpose have not yet produced the expected results. The uncontrolled growth of cities and the increase in the number of the aged are two other worrying issues in the continent. These are among the conclusions reached by UNFPA in its 1986 report. (excerpt)
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  13. 13

    The 20-year Programme of Action - Cairo Programme of Action on population and development.

    UN Chronicle. 1994 Dec; 31(4):[7] p..

    The 16-Chapter Cairo Programme of Action reaffirms the connection among population growth, poverty, patterns of production and consumption and the environment. it states: "Progress in any component can catalyse improvement in others." The Programme emphasizes the need for harmonizing population trends and patterns of development in order to increase the standard of living of current populations, while at the same time not jeopardizing the needs of future generations. It also emphasizes the imperatives of empowering women and guaranteeing choice in regard to family planning, and stresses that advancing gender equality and ensuring women's ability to control their own fertility are "cornerstones" of population and development programmes. The principle of "sovereignty", which guarantees that each country would decide for itself which programme recommendations are relevant to its conditions and needs, is also enshrined in the Programme. (excerpt)
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  14. 14

    U.N. Population. In population: proud achievements and challenges ahead.

    Fornos W

    Population 2005: News and views on further implementation of Cairo Program of Action. 2003 Sep; 5(3):4-6.

    I further dedicate this award to those men and women who are active today in the population field - including, of course, those serving at the grass roots level in outstanding organizations throughout the world, such as the Family Planning Association of Kenya, this year's institutional winner -- as well as to those who will follow in our toot- steps. They need not be reminded that a few rays of light shining in does not mean that we have reached the end of the tunnel, While the current generation of leadership in the population field has focused on helping couples to have only the family size they want, the next generation must tackle issues growing in their enormity and importance -- issues including aging, migration, urbanization, and deadly diseases, The recent announcement by the United Nations Population Division that world population may now stabilize at 8.9 billion is welcome news. The projection attests to the fact that we know what works. It attests to the fact that where and when couples the world over have access to the necessary information, means, and methods to control their fertility, they are motivated to have smaller families. (excerpt)
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  15. 15

    Thirty years of global population changes.

    Caldwell JC

    In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 2-23.

    In demographic terms, the last thirty years have been quite distinct from the period that preceded it, or, indeed, from any other period in history. The global fertility level had been almost stable for at least twenty years prior to 1965-1969, with a total fertility rate just under 5 children per woman, and this stability did not hide countervailing forces in different parts of the world. The developed countries, whether they had participated or not in the post-World War II “baby boom,” showed no strong trends in fertility, with a total fertility rate remaining around 2.7. The same lack of change characterized the developing countries, but there the total fertility rate was well over 6, as it may well have been for millennia. (excerpt)
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  16. 16

    Financial resource flows for population activities in 1999.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 2001. xii, 98 p.

    Financial Resource Flows for Population Activities in 1999 is the thirteenth edition of a report previously published by UNFPA (United Nations Population Fund) under the title of Global Population Assistance Report. The United Nations Population Fund has regularly collected data and reported on flows of international financial assistance to population activities. The Fund's annual Reports focused on the flow of funds from donors through bilateral, multilateral and non-governmental channels for population assistance to developing countries I and countries with economies in transition. Also included were grants and loans from development banks for population activities in developing countries. In light of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development and, at the request of the Commission on Population and Development, UNFPA updated its reporting system and began collecting data on domestic resource expenditures in developing countries in addition to data on international population assistance. This report contains information on international assistance from 1990 to 1999 and domestic resource flows to population activities from 1997 to 1999. (excerpt)
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  17. 17
    Peer Reviewed

    Reactions of developing-country elites to international population policy.

    Luke N; Watkins SC

    Population and Development Review. 2002 Dec; 28(4):707-733.

    We begin by briefly describing the shift in population policies. We then set out two theoretical frameworks expected to account for national reactions to the new policy: first, the spontaneous spread of new cultural items and the coalescence of a normative consensus about their value, and second, the directed diffusion of cultural items by powerful Western donors. We then describe our data and evaluate its quality. Subsequently, we analyze the responses of national elites in our five study countries to the Cairo agenda in terms of discourse and implementation. In our conclusion, we evaluate these responses in terms of the validity of the two theoretical frameworks. (excerpt)
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  18. 18

    Woman heads Tokyo office of U.N. Population Fund.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    [London, England], IPPF, 2002 Oct 22. 1 p.

    Kiyoko Ikegami, 51, became the director of the first Tokyo office of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) last month. Believing that education is the key to eradicating poverty and controlling population growth, her first task is to improve public recognition of the organization's activities. (excerpt)
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  19. 19

    International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 5-13 September, 1994. Editorial advisory.


    London, England, EarthAction, 1994 Aug. 4 p.

    Rapid population growth means that the Earth must support 90 million more people each year. Delegates from countries around the globe will convene for eight days in September 1994 at the United Nations Conference on Population and Development in Cairo to work on a plan of action to reduce this rapid growth. The conference will consider the impact of the growth on the environment and on economic development, family planning and reproductive health care, and education and economic opportunity for women. UN agencies will call upon governments to honor their commitments to meet people's basic needs of education, primary health care, family planning, and clean water. This editorial advisory is intended to help editorial writers, columnists, and news journalists interested in covering the issue. It explains why meeting basic human needs leads to lower birth rates and what percentage of domestic budgets and international aid are required to achieve the goal. Basic needs could be met with 20% of government budgets in the South and 20% of development assistance from the North without any increase in overall government spending. The South currently allocates, however, only 13% while the bilateral donors to the North allocate 7%.
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  20. 20

    The world population plan of action and the Mexico draft recommendations: analytical comparisons and index.

    United Nations. Department of Internation Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    [Unpublished] 1984 Jul 23. 136 p. (ESA/P/WP/85)

    This document, prepared primarily for use within the UN Secretariat, systematically compares the recommendtions of the World Population Plan of Action (WPPA) and the Mexico Draft recommendations for the implementation of the WPPA. There are 109 recommendations in the WPPA, and 85 in the Mexico Draft; they are compared using a 2-column format. An index provides cross referencing. Topics covered include the family and the staus of women, population characteristics (addressing, in particular, the implications of the increasing proportion of young persons in populations of developing countries), and the links between morbidity and mortality and family planning. For example, the WPPA notes that "mortality reduction may be a prerequisite to a decline in fertility." In light of this, the Mexico Draft recommends that governments take immediate action to increase infant survival by expanding the use of oral rehydration therapy, immunization, and the promotion of breast feeding. In addition, nutrient supplements and appropriate day-care facilities should be provided for nursing mothers in the labor force. Other areas addressed include the need to promote the development of management in all fields related to population. This need can be met with a worldwide system of institutions designed totrain personnel. Present educational institutions should expand their curricula to include the study of population dynamics and policy. Developing countries should be provided with technical equipment and financial support to improve library facilities, computer services, data-gathring, and analysis. While international cooperation is considered crucial to the implementation of the WPPA, national governments are urged to make the attainment of self-reliance in the management of their population programs a high priorit. In recognition of the diversity of national goals, no recommendations are made regarding a world family-size norm.
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  21. 21

    Haiti. Project paper. Family planning outreach.

    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]. International Development Cooperation Agency

    [Unpublished] 1981 Aug 28. 222 p. (AID/LAC/P-085)

    The background, goals, projected activities and beneficiaries, financial requirements, and implementation plans for a Family Planning Outreach Project in Haiti are detailed. The project is intended to assist the Government of Haiti to establish a cost-effective national family planning program. Population growth continues to accelerate in Haiti, despite high infant and child mortality, significant emigration, and declining fertility. The government does not have an articulated population policy. Although family planning and maternal and child health services have been in existence since 1971, there is no effective access to these services. This project is viewed as a means of achieving a substantial and sustained reduction in family size and improving health status. It is also a means of strengthening the Haitian family so it can participate more directly in the national development process. The purpose of the project will be accomplished through the following activities: 1) improvement of the organization and management of the national family planning program; 2) improvement of the quality and quantity of maternal and child health and family planning services; 3) expansion of the participation of private and voluntary organizations, other governmental, and local community groups in service provision; 4) increase in the availability of contraceptives at reasonable prices through rural and urban commercial channels; and 5) formulation of appropriate population and family planning policies. By the end of the project, all government health facilities and 75% of private facilities will actively counsel and provide family planning services; integrated models of community health and family planning services will have been developed to serve 60% of the population; basic drugs and contraceptives will be available at reasonable subsidized prices throughout the country; and 25% of women ages 15-45 at risk of pregnancy will be continuing users of effective contraceptive methods. The project will be implemented by the existing infrastructure of private and public organizations, primarily by the Department of Public Health and Population and its Division of Family Hygiene. The US Agency for International Development (USAID) is providing US$9.615 million (54%) toward the estimated US$17.980 million cost of the 5-year project. An additional US$6.555 million (36%) will be provided by the Government of Haiti.
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  22. 22

    The specialized agencies: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD).

    International Bank for Reconstruction and Development [IBRD]

    In: United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) The United Nat ions and population: Major resolutions and instruments. New York, Oceana, 1974. (Law and Population Book Series, No. 7) p. 211-212

    Selected purposes of the International Bank for Reconstruction and D evelopment (IBRD), as described under Article One of the Articles of Agreement of IBRD, include: 1) Reconstruction and development assistance to member states through facilitating capital investment for production purposes, including restoration and reconversion of production facilities to peacetime needs and stimulating of industrial and resource development in developing countries; 2) Promotion of the balanced, long- range growth of international trade through encouragement of international investment for the development of production and economic well-being of the population of member states; and 3) Arrangement of loans made or guaranteed by the Bank through other channels in order that more urgent large and small projects receive first priority. A second section briefly describes the contents of an IBRD sector working paper on population planning.
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  23. 23

    Review of family planning aspects of family health with special reference to UNICEF/WHO assistance.


    Paper presented at the Nineteenth Session of the UNICEF/WHO Joint Committee on Health Policy, Geneva, February 1-2, 1972. 40 p

    Family planning is an integral part of the health care of the family and has a striking impact of the health of the mother and children. Many aspects of family planning care require the personnel, skills, techniques, and facilities of health services and is thus of concern to UNICEF and WHO. Once individual governments have determined basic matters of family planning policy and methods, UNICEF and WHO can respond to requests for assistance on a wide range of activities, with the primary goal being the promotion of health care of the family. Emphasis will be placed on achieving this by strengthening the basic health services that already have a solid foundation in the community. The past experience of UNICEF and WHO should provide valuable guidance for assistance to the health aspects of family planning, particularly as they relate to the planning and evaluation of programs; organization and administration; public education; the education and training of all medical personnel; and the coordination of family health activities both inside and outside the health sector. The review recommends that UNICEF and WHO first regard the capacity of the host country to absorb aid and maintain projects, and that specific family planning activities, such as the provision of supplies, equipment, and transport, be introduced only when the infrastructure is actually being expanded. Capital investment should be viewed in relation to the government's ability to meet budgetary and staff requirements the new facilities demand.
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  24. 24

    The blurred line between aiding progress and sanctioning abuse: United States appropriations, the UNFPA and family planning in the P.R.C.

    Gellman TA

    New York Law School Journal of Human Rights. 2000; 17(3):1063-1104.

    This note discusses the trend in People's Republic of China programs, international standards of human rights, legislative trends, and the United States budget for fiscal years 2000 and 2001 as they apply to family planning programs. Specifically, this discussion shows why Congress should condition funding of these programs based on assurances of compliance with human rights standards. Part I presents an overview of the P.R.C. programs. Part II reviews internationally accepted standards of human rights concerning reproduction and population control, as well as China's violations of these rights. Part III describes UNFPA funding of the P.R.C.'s programs, emphasizing their latest 4-year program. Part IV discusses the legislative trend since 1985 of limiting or halting funding to the programs, and the current state of the federal budget regarding these appropriations. Part V discusses the global gag rule and the necessity of its removal. Part VI considers recently proposed legislation regarding funding family planning. Finally, the conclusion proposes a possible solution to the family planning dilemma in the face of both the continuing need for assistance and the continued existence of human rights abuses. (excerpt)
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  25. 25
    Peer Reviewed

    USA bars funds slated for UN Population Fund.

    McCarthy M

    Lancet. 2002 Jul 27; 360(9329):313.

    On July 22, 2002, the State Department announced that the Bush administration will withhold US$34 million from the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) that Congress had allocated, charging that the UNFPA supports the programs in China that force women to have abortions and to undergo involuntary sterilization. In contrast, an independent panel, which was sent to evaluate UNFPA programs in China, reported that it found no evidence that UNFPA has knowingly supported or participated in the management of a program of coercive abortion or involuntary sterilization. Thus, the panel recommended that the US funds be released. However, the panel did find that government programs still retained coercive elements in law and practice and the panel recommended that no US funds be given directly to the Chinese population programs.
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