Your search found 168 Results

  1. 1
    333417

    The state of world population 2011. People and possibilities in a world of 7 billion.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 2011. [132] p.

    The milestone of 7 billion is marked by achievements, setbacks and paradoxes. While women are on average having fewer children than they were in the 1960s, our numbers continue to rise. Globally, people are younger -- and older -- than ever before. In some of the poorest countries, high fertility rates hamper development and perpetuate poverty, while in some of the richest countries, low fertility rates and too few people entering the job market are raising concerns about prospects for sustained economic growth and about the viability of social security systems. While labour shortages threaten to stymie the economies of some industrialized countries, unemployed would-be migrants in developing countries are finding more and more national borders closed to them and the expertise they may have to offer. And while progress is being made in reducing extreme poverty, gaps between rich and poor are widening almost everywhere. The State of World Population 2011 explores some of these paradoxes from the perspective of individuals and describes the obstacles they confront -- and overcome -- in trying to build better lives for themselves, their families, communities and nations. Through personal stories, this report sheds light on the real-life challenges we face in our world of 7 billion. It is mainly a report from the field, from nine countries where the ordinary people who live there, the national experts who study demographic trends and the policymakers who must make decisions based on local conditions talk directly about their lives and work: China, Egypt, Ethiopia, Finland, India, Mexico, Mozambique, Nigeria and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. (Excerpt)
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  2. 2
    316765

    World population prospects: the 2006 revision. Highlights.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, 2007. [118] p. (ESA/P/WP.202)

    The 2006 Revision is the twentieth round of official United Nations population estimates and projections prepared by the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat. These are used throughout the United Nations system as the basis for activities requiring population information. The 2006 Revision builds on the 2004 Revision and incorporates both the results of the 2000 round of national population censuses and of recent specialized surveys carried around the world. These sources provide both demographic and other information to assess the progress made in achieving the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The comprehensive review of past worldwide demographic trends and future prospects presented in the 2006 Revision provides the population basis for the assessment of those goals. According to the 2006 Revision, the world population will likely increase by 2.5 billion over the next 43years, passing from the current 6.7 billion to 9.2 billion in 2050. This increase is equivalent to the size the world population had in 1950 and it will be absorbed mostly by the less developed regions, whose population is projected to rise from 5.4 billion in 2007 to 7.9 billion in 2050. In contrast, the population of the more developed regions is expected to remain largely unchanged at 1.2 billion and would have declined were it not for the projected net migration from developing to developed countries, which is expected to average 2.3 million persons annually. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    294510
    Peer Reviewed

    The demographic revolution and our common future.

    Diczfalusy E

    Maturitas. 2001 Feb 28; 38(1):5-15.

    The global population reached two billion people in 1927 and six billion in 1999. If the medium variant projection of the United Nations were to materialize, the Earth's population would reach nine billion in 2054. However, such a brave new world will be inhabited by a brave old humankind; in 2050, 16.4% of the world population and 27.6% of the European population are projected to be 65 years and above, and in 14 countries, including nine European ones, more than 10% of the total population will be 80 years or older. The United Nations also project a world-wide decline in the number of children and in total fertility, and by 2050, there will be more elderly than children in several parts of the world, particularly in Europe. It seems likely that many of our classical institutions, for instance healthcare -- unless reformed -- will cater increasingly for the needs of a population structure that no longer exists. The World Health Organization projects that by the year 2020, global health trends will be dominated by the ageing of the world population, the HIV:AIDS epidemic, tobacco-related mortality and declining child mortality. Furthermore, the leading causes of disease burden will be heart disease, depression and traffic accidents. How can we meet the giant challenges of the 21st century? In the view of the author, the most rational remedy must be a quantum leap in research in general and in medical research in particular. (author's)
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  4. 4
    184996
    Peer Reviewed

    Prophylactic use of cotrimoxazole against opportunistic infections in HIV-positive patients: knowledge and practices of health care providers in Cote d'Ivoire.

    Brou H; Desgrees-Du-Lou A; Souville M; Moatti JP; Msellati P

    AIDS Care. 2003 Oct; 15(5):629-637.

    We present here the results of a survey conducted in Côte d’Ivoire, Africa, among health care providers, on the knowledge of prophylactic use of cotrimoxazole to prevent opportunistic infections in HIV-infected persons. The survey was conducted in 15 health centres, involved or not in the ‘initiative of access to treatment for HIV infected people’. Between December 1999 and March 2000, 145 physicians and 297 other health care providers were interviewed. In the analysis, the health centres were divided into three groups: health centres implicated in the initiative of access to treatment for HIV-infected people with a great deal of caring for HIV-infected people, health centres implicated in this initiative but caring for few HIV-infected people, and health centres not specifically involved in the care of HIV-infected people. Six per cent of physicians and 50% of other health care providers had never heard of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. The level of information about this prophylaxis is related to the level of HIV-related activities in the health centre. Among health care providers informed, knowledge on the exact terms of prescription of the cotrimoxazole is poor. In conclusion, it appears that the recommendations for primary cotrimoxazole prophylaxis of HIV-infected people did not reach the whole health care provider population. Most physicians are informed but not other health workers, even if the latter are often the only contact of the patient with the health centre. The only medical staff correctly informed are the physicians already strongly engaged in the care of HIV-infected people. (author's)
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  5. 5
    182132
    Peer Reviewed

    Street children in Nairobi: Hakuna Matata?

    Van Acker J; Oostrom B; Rath B; de Kemp R

    Journal of Community Psychology. 1999 Jul; 27(4):393-404.

    In many Third World countries there is a large population of street children. The causes of this phenomenon are diverse; for example, rapid urbanization, worsening economic trends, and rampant population growth. This study reveals the range of difficulties that plague projects for street children in Nairobi, Kenya. The data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews. In total, seven projects were visited and 68 street children were interviewed. Recommendations to improve assistance to and care of street children in Nairobi are presented. (author's)
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  6. 6
    171805

    The Secretary-General's global call to action against HIV / AIDS. Fact sheet.

    United Nations Special Session on HIV / AIDS (2001: New York)

    New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Public Information, 2001 Jun 9. [2] p. (DPI/2214/F)

    This fact sheet presents five priorities for action, six key factors to achieve these goals, and recommends partnering to carry out the campaign.
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  7. 7
    224545

    1993 demographic yearbook. 45th. 1993 annuaire demographique.

    United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Statistical Division

    New York, New York, United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Statistical Division, 1995. x, 1,032 p. (No. ST/ESA/STAT/SER.R/24)

    This is a comprehensive collection of international demographic statistics published annually by the United Nations. "The tables in this issue of the Yearbook are presented in two parts, the basic tables followed by the tables devoted to population censuses, the special topic in this issue. The first part contains tables giving a world summary of basic demographic statistics, followed by tables presenting statistics on the size, distribution and trends in population, natality, foetal mortality, infant and maternal mortality, general mortality, nuptiality and divorce. In the second part, this issue of the Yearbook serves to update the census information featured in the 1988 issue. Census data on demographic and social characteristics include population by single years of age and sex, national and/or ethnic composition, language and religion. Tables showing data on geographical characteristics include information on major civil divisions and localities by size-class. Educational characteristics include population data on literacy, educational attainment and school attendance. In many of the tables, data are shown by urban/rural residence."
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  8. 8
    102037

    Delegates' guide to recent publications for the International Conference on Population and Development.

    Cooperating Agencies Working Group on Materials Development and Media Activities

    Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Center for Communication Programs, 1994. [6], 75 p.

    The chapters of this listing of recent publications correspond to the chapters in the Draft Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. Thus, publications are grouped under the headings: 1) interrelationships between population, sustained economic growth, and sustainable development; 2) gender equality, equity, and empowerment of women; 3) the family and its roles, composition, and structure; 4) population growth and structure; 5) reproductive rights, sexual and reproductive health, and family planning; 6) health, morbidity, and mortality; 7) population distribution, urbanization, and internal migration; 8) international migration; 9) population, development, and education; 10) technology, research, and development; 11) national action; 12) international cooperation; and 13) partnership with the nongovernmental sector. There are no entries that correspond to the Programme of Action chapters which present the Preamble, Principles, or Follow-up to the Conference. More than 40 organizations listed publications in this guide and agreed to provide copies free of charge to official ICPD delegates as long as supplies last. A full list of organization names, contact persons, addresses, and telephone and fax numbers is also given.
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  9. 9
    099402

    National report on population. Prepared for the International Conference on Population and Development, September 1994.

    Tunisia. Ministry of Planning and Regional Development

    [Tunis], Tunisia, Ministry of Planning and Regional Development, 1994 Aug. 57 p.

    Tunisia's country report for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development opens with a brief discussion of the country's history and development achievements (the population growth rate has been reduced from 3.2% in the beginning of the 1960s to less than 2%, and Tunisia has achieved significant improvement over the past 2 decades in human development indices). Tunisia's population policy has gone through 3 stages: the establishment of an important legal framework during the 1950s and 60s, the creation of a National Family and Population Board and establishment of basic health care facilities during the 1970s, and an emphasis on environmentally-responsible development with an attempt to strengthen the integration of population policies into development strategies beginning in the 1980s. The report continues with an overview of the demographic context (historical trends and future prospects). The chapter on population policies and programs covers the evolution and status of the policies; sectoral strategies; development and research; a profile of the family health, family planning (FP), IEC (information, education, and communication), and data collection and analysis programs. This chapter also provides details on policies and programs which link women and families to population and development and on those which concern mortality, population distribution, and migration. The third major section of the report presents operational features of the implementation of population and FP programs, in particular, political support, program formulation and execution, supervision and evaluation, financing, and the importance and relevance of the world plan of action for population. Tunisia's national action plan for the future is discussed next in terms of new problems and priorities and a mobilization of resources. This section also includes a table which sets out the components, goals, strategies, and programs of action of the population policy. In conclusion, it is stated that Tunisia's population policy fits well with the world program of action because it promotes human resources and sustainable development and respects international recommendations about human rights in general and the rights of women in particular.
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  10. 10
    099407

    Population and development issues in Botswana: a national report for the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo - September 1994.

    Botswana. Ministry of Finance and Development Planning

    [Gaborone], Botswana, Ministry of Finance and Development Planning, 1993 Sep. [4], 43 p.

    This review of Botswana's experience with population issues and programs served both as input for the 1994 International Conference on Population and development and as an opportunity to highlight current concerns and their implications for future development. After 2 decades in which the economy grew more rapidly than the population, Botswana is experiencing a slow-down in economic growth which lends a certain urgency to creating a plan of action in regard to population growth and development. After an introductory chapter, the demographic context is reviewed in terms of trends, components of change, mortality, fertility, migration, and urbanization. Factors which have contributed to these changes, such as education, improvements in health, and growing employment are analyzed, and the role of the government is outlined. Important findings included in the report are improvements from 1981 to 1991 such as an increase in life expectancy at birth (56.3 to 62.7 years), a decrease in the infant mortality rate (71 to 45.1/1000), a decline in the total fertility rate (from an adjusted figure of 7.1 to 5.3), and an increase in those working for cash (from 48 to 80.1% of total employment). The report also identifies persistent problems such as unemployment, poverty, unwanted pregnancies, AIDS, unsafe abortions, and environmental degradation. The third chapter provides an important exploration of the links among population variables, economic development, and the environment and focuses on the impact of and on the labor force, basic needs, education, health, the infrastructure and communication, sanitary conditions, energy sources, food and clothing, and natural resources. In the next chapter, the implicit population policies and development planning issues are examined. At present, Botswana has only an implicit population policy contained in its national development plan, although efforts are underway to devise a distinct national population policy. Chapter 5 describes various types of service delivery offered by the maternal-child health (MCH) and family planning (FP) programs. Progress in the MCH/FP programs is shown by targets achieved in various indicators such as the percentage of women attending prenatal care clinics and knowledge of at least one FP method. The serious problems of maternal mortality and morbidity and of teenage pregnancy will be obvious priorities for a national safe motherhood program. In conclusion, the main findings of the report are summarized, and the future strategy for sustainable population and development is discussed in terms of new economic and social development opportunities, policy planning, data collection and analysis, training, and information, education, and communication needs.
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  11. 11
    099397

    The International Conference on Population and Development, September 5-13, 1994, Cairo, Egypt. Nepal's country report.

    Nepal. National Planning Commission

    Kathmandu, Nepal, National Planning Commission, 1993 Sep. vi, 49 p.

    Prepared for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, this country report from Nepal opens with a description of the geographic features and administrative regions, zones, and districts of the country. 91% of the population of Nepal is rural, and agriculture accounts for 57% of the gross domestic product. Nepal has made some socioeconomic gains from 1961 to 1991 which are reflected in improved life expectancy (from 34 to 54.4 years), a decline in the infant mortality rate (from 200 to 102), and an improvement in the literacy rate (from 9 to > 40%). However, the per capital income of US $180 and rapid population growth have impeded improvement in the standard of living. The new government of Nepal is committed to establishing a better balance between population and the environment. This report provides a discussion of population growth and structure; population distribution, urbanization, and migration; the environment and sustainable development; the status of women; population policies and programs (highlighting the population policy of the plan for 1992-97); the national family planning program and health programs; and intervention issues. A 15-point summary is provided, and details of the objectives, priorities, and major policy thrust in regard to population and development of the Eight Plan (1992-97) are appended.
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  12. 12
    240584

    Demographic yearbook. Special issue: population ageing and the situation of elderly persons. Annuaire demographique. Edition speciale: vieillissement de la population et situation des personnes agees.

    United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Statistical Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, Statistical Division, 1993. viii, 855 p.

    This is the second of two volumes presenting global demographic data for 1991. "In this volume, the focus is on population ageing and on characteristics of the elderly population. The tables show how the age structure of the population has changed in the process of the demographic transition. Also presented are changes in fertility, mortality and living arrangements over the period of forty years from 1950-1990. Characteristics of the elderly population are shown on urban/rural residence, marital status, literacy, economic characteristics and disability. A special section on the living arrangements of elderly persons as developed from population censuses complements this picture. Throughout the Yearbook data are shown by urban/rural residence." (EXCERPT)
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  13. 13
    040281

    [Workshop on Sensitization of Communication Professionals to Population Problems, Dakar, 29 August, 1986 at Breda] Seminaire atelier de sensibilisation des professionnels de la communication aux problemes de population, Dakar du 25 au 29 Aout 1986 au Breda.

    Senegal. Ministere du Plan et de la Cooperation

    Dakar, Senegal, UNICOM, Unite de Communication, 1986. 215 p. (Unite de Communication Projet SEN/81/P01)

    This document is the result of a workshop organized by the Communication Unit of the Senegalese Ministry of Planning and Cooperation to sensitize some 30 Senegalese journalists working in print and broadcast media to the importance of the population variable in development and to prepare them to contribute to communication programs for population. Although it is addressed primarily to professional communicators, it should also be of interest to educators, economists, health workers, demographers, and others interested in the Senegalese population. The document is divided into 5 chapters, the 1st of which comprises a description of the history and objectives of the Communication Unit, which is funded by the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). Chapter 1 also presents the workshop agenda. Chapter 2 provides an introduction to population problems and different currents of thought regarding population since Malthus, a discussion of the utilization and interpretation of population variables, and definitions of population indicators. The 3rd chapter explores problems of population and development in Senegal, making explicit the theoretical concepts of the previous chapter in the context of Senegal. Topics discussed in chapter 3 include the role of UNFPA in introducing the population variable in development projects in Senegal; population and development, the situation and trends of the Senegalese population; socioeconomic and cultural characteristics of the Senegalese population; sources of sociodemographic data on Senegal; the relationship between population, resources, environment and development in Senegal; and the Senegalese population policy. Chapter 4 discusses population communication, including population activities of UNESCO and general problems of social communication; a synthesis and interpretation of information needs and the role of population communication; and a summary of the workshop goals, activities, and achievements. Chapter 5 contains annexes including a list of participants, opening and closing remarks, an evaluation questionnaire regarding the workshop participants, and press clippings relating to the workshop and to Senegal's population.
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  14. 14
    273090

    Social studies and population education. Book Three: man in his environment.

    University of Sierra Leone. Institute of Education

    Freetown, Sierra Leone, Ministry of Education, 1984. 93 p. (UNFPA/UNESCO Project SIL/76/POI)

    The National Programme in Social Studies in Sierra Leone has created this textbook in the social sciences, with an emphasis on population education, for 2ndary school students. Unit 1, "Man's Origin, Development and Characteristics," describes Darwin's theory of evolution and explains how overproduction causes problems of rapid population growth and poor quality of life. Special attention is given to the problem of high infant mortality in Sierra Leone. Unit 2, "Man's Environment," discusses the interrelationships and interdependence among elements in the ecosystem, the food pyramid, and the effects of man's activities and numbers on the ecosystem. Unit 3, "Man's Culture," focuses on the processes of socialization and the different agents of socialization: the family, the group, the school, and the community. Unit 4, "Population and Resources," discusses human and natural resources as well as conservation measures. It also discusses the population composition, its effect on resources, and the uses and significance of population data. Unit 5, "Communication in the Service of Man," covers land, water and air transport; the effects of transport developments in Sierra Leone; and implications for population of changes in transport activities. Unit 6, "Global Issues: Achievements and Problems," deals with the young population, characteristics of the adolescent, common social problems among young people, and the role of the family unit. National and international action is also discussed.
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  15. 15
    273088

    Social studies and population education. Book One: man in his environment.

    University of Sierra Leone. Institute of Education

    Freetown, Sierra Leone, Ministry of Education, 1984. 80 p. (UNFPA/UNESCO Project SIL/76/POI)

    The National Programme in Social Studies in Sierra Leone has created this text in social studies, with an emphasis on population education, for 2ndary school students. Unit 1, "Man's Origins, Development and Characteristics," covers traditional, religious and scientific explanations of man's origin; man's characteristics and the effects of these characteristics; and the beginnings of population growth and the characteristics of human population. In Unit 2, "Man's Environment," the word environment is defined and geographical concepts are introduced. Unit 3, "Man's Culture," defines institution and discusses family types, roles and cycles, as well as traditional ceremonies and cultural beliefs about family size. Unit 4, "Population and Resources," primarily deals with how the family meets its needs for food, shelter and clothing. It also covers the effects of population growth. Unit 5, "Communication in the Service of Man," discusses the means and growth of communication and collecting vital information about the population. The last unit defines global issues and discusses the interdependence of nations, issues affecting nations at the individual and world level, and the UN.
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  16. 16
    030964

    The state of the world's women 1985: World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women, Equality, Development and Peace, Nairobi, Kenya, July 15-26, 1985.

    New Internationalist Publications

    [Unpublished] 1985. 19 p.

    This report, based on results of a questionnaire completed by 121 national governments as well as independent research by UN agencies, assesses the status of the world's women at the end of the UN Decade for Women in the areas of the family, agriculture, industrialization, health, education, and politics. Women are estimated to perform 2/3 of the world's work, receive 1/10 of its income and own less than 1/100 of its property. The findings revealed that women do almost all the world's domestic work, which combined with their additional work outside the home means that most women work a double day. Women grow about 1/2 the world's food but own very little land, have difficulty obtaining credit, and are overlooked by agricultural advisors and projects. Women constitute 1/3 of the world's official labor force but are concentrated in the lowest paid occupations and are more vulnerable to unemployment than men. Although there are signs that the wage gap is closing slightly, women still earn less than 3/4 of the wage of men doing similar work. Women provide more health care than do health services, and have been major beneficiaries of the global shift in priorities to primary health care. The average number of children desired by the world's women has dropped from 6 to 4 in 1 generation. Although a school enrollment boom is closing the gap between the sexes, women illiterates outnumber men by 3 to 2. 90% of countries now have organizations promoting the advancement of women, but women are still greatly underrepresented in national decision making because of their poorer educations, lack of confidence, and greater workload. The results repeatedly point to the major underlying cause of women's inequality: their domestic role of wife and mother, which consumes about 1/2 of their time and energy, is unpaid, and is undervalued. The emerging picture of the importance and magnitude of the roles women play in society has been reflected in growing concern for women among governments and the community at large, and is responsible for the positive achievements of the decade in better health care and more employment and educational opportunities. Equality for women will require that they have equal rights, responsibilities, and opportunities in every area of life.
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  17. 17
    273055

    Statement by the leader of the Ethiopian Delegation to the International Conference on Population, Mexico City, 6-13 August, 1984.

    Ethiopia. Delegation to International Conference on Population, 1894

    [Unpublished] 1984 Aug. Presented at the International Conference on Population, Mexico City, August 6-13, 1984. 6 p.

    Since Ethiopia's land reform act of 1975 and the nationalization of its major industrial and financial institutions, the government has organized society, has raised the level of literacy from 7% to 63%, and has conducted a 1st population and housing census. Now, in a 10-Year Perspective Plan, population policy is identified as a major issue, reflecting the country's concern over its present high rate of population growth--2.9%/year--and its infant mortality rate of 144/1000 live births, with life expectancy at only 46 years. Health care stratgy, including safe drinking water, is another top government priority, as is improving the status of women. Family planning services are offered, and Ethiopia holds that international assistance should reflect national sovereignty rather than being conditional to any particular family planning policy.
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  18. 18
    010086

    Research on the menopause.

    World Health Organization. Scientific Group

    World Health Organization Technical Report Series. 1981; (670):1-120.

    This report includes the collective views of a World Health Organization (WHO) Scientific Group on Research on the Menopause that met in Geneva during December 1980. It includes information on the following: 1) the endocrinology of the menopause and the postmenopausal period (changes in gonadotropins and estrogens immediately prior to the menopause and changes in gonadotropin and steroid hormone levels after the menopause); 2) the age distribution of the menopause (determining the age at menopause, factors influencing the age at menopause, and the range of ages at menopause and the definition of premature and delayed menopause); 3) sociocultural significance of the menopause in different settings; 4) symptoms associated with the menopause (vasomotor symptoms, psychological symptoms, disturbances of sexuality, and insomnia); 5) disorders resulting from, or possibly accelerated by, the menopause (osteoporosis, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and arthritic disorders); 6) risks, with particular reference to neoplasia, of therapeutic estrogens and progestins given to peri- and postmenopausal women (endometrial cancer, breast cancer, and gallbladder disease); 7) fertility regulating methods for women approaching the menopause (fertility and the need for family planning in women approaching the menopause, problems of family planning in perimenopausal women, and considerations with regard to individual methods of family planning in women approaching the menopause); and 8) estrogen and the health care management of perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. At this time some controversy exists as to whether there is a menopausal syndrome of somatic and psychological symptoms and illness. There are virtually no data on the age distribution of the menopause and no information on its sociocultural significance in the developing countries. The subject of risks and benefits of estrogen therapy in peri- and postmenopausal women is of much importance in view of the large number of prescriptions issued for this medication in developed countries, which indicates their frequrnt use, and the different interpretations and opinions among epidemiologists and clinicians on both past and current studies on this subject. Specific recommendations made by the Scientific Group appear at the end of each section of the report. The following were among the general recommendations made: WHO sponsored research should be undertaken to determine the impact on health service needs of the rapidly increasing numbers of postmenopausal women in developing countries; uniform terminology should be adopted by health care workers with regard to the menopause; uniform endocrine standards should be developed which can be applied to the description of peri- and postmenopausal conditions and diseases; and descriptive epidemiological studies of the age at menopause should be performed in a variety of settings.
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  19. 19
    802686

    Fictitia. [Training module]

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Programme for Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases

    [Geneva, WHO, 1980]. 19 p.

    As part of a series of training modules which form a course, the purpose of which is to train health care practitioners and deliverers how to effectively set up an in-country program for control of diarrheal disease, this module presents ficticious data (demographics and population characteristics) about a made-up developing nation, Fictitia. Further modules in this series train users how to order priorities in a diarrheal control program, how to focus on targets and sub-targets in the population and delivery system, how to design an effectively administered diarrheal disease control program, and how to evaluate any such program once implemented in an actual developing nation. Since diarrheal disease is 1 of the largest causes of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 in developing nations of this world, WHO created these training manuals as exercises, which would provide skills, upon course completion, applicable to an actual developing nation on earth.
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  20. 20
    782141

    Steroid contraception and the risk of neoplasia.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Scientific Group

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1978. (World Health Organization Technical Report Series No. 619) 54 p

    Studies on steroid contraception (SC) and risk of neoplasia are reviewed. Methodological issues in neoplasia etiology studies include: 1) possibility of a latent period between exposure to cause and disease development; 2) cumulative effects of prolonged or repeated SC exposure; 3) discontinued drugs or dosage schedules; 4) time of exposure (adolescence or prenatal, e.g.); 5) isolation of specific causes among multiple risks; and 6) variations in neoplasma diagnoses. The 4 epidemiological approaches to SC-associated neoplasia studies have inherent shortcomings, but cohorts yield significant associations. Relative risk (ratio of disease incidence among exposed vs. nonexposed persons) is an index of association only, not evidence of cause and effect. Benign breast neoplasia risk was reduced by current SC use of >2 years, and weak evidence points to a residual protective effect, apparently associated with progestogen dose. Aggregated breast cancer data show no clear adverse or beneficial effect of SC use; however, evidence suggests SCs may increase breast cancer risk in population subgroups (e.g., young women). Only short-term evidence is available; hence, no inference of long-term SC breast cancer effects is possible. No beneficial effect of SCs on uterine fibroids is evident, but sequential SCs, no longer marketed, may have increased risk to endometrial carcinoma. Inconclusive data suggest SCs may decrease ovarian cancer risk. Increased risk of cervical dysplasia and carcinoma in situ is associated with SC use, especially long-term use by women with predisposing factors. Risk of hepatocellular adenoma of the liver increases with prolonged SC exposure, especially high dose. Relevance of existing data from more developed countries to disease risk in less developed ones is discussed, and recommendations made.
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  21. 21
    167753

    Defining civil society: the elusive term.

    Carothers T; Ottaway M

    Development Outreach. 2002 Winter; 4(1):19-20.

    Among political scientists and philosophers, an active debate over the definition of "civil society" has emerged over the years. Each definition given implies a different course in which donors should pursue to promote civil society, and through it, democracy. This paper reviews some of the major points of this debate and highlights what aid providers and democracy promoters mean when they talk of civil society. A fair amount of scholarly consensus exists around a broad view of civil society as one of the basic elements of a society, alongside the state and the market. Another influential alternative conception of civil society focuses less on the importance of specific types of organizations or associations than on the role that certain associations play in fostering norms of reciprocity and trust, or social capital. Moreover, the view that has most influenced donors is one according to which civil society consists only of voluntary associations that directly foster democracy and promote democratic consolidation. Furthermore, aid providers and democracy promoters appear to make up an antipolitical domain, a pristine realm in which a commitment to civic values and the public interest rules in place of traditional divisions, beliefs, and interests.
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  22. 22
    163241

    The pace of fertility transition: national patterns in the second half of the twentieth century. [El ritmo de la transición de la fertilidad: patrones nacionales en la segunda mitad del siglo veinte]

    Casterline JB

    Population and Development Review. 2001; 27 Suppl:17-52.

    This chapter examines the pace of fertility decline in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. It is noted that the size and structure of these countries' populations in the 21st century will be determined by the pace of fertility decline and by the level of post-decline fertility. An examination of empirical data on fertility transitions is discussed, documenting the variation in pace of decline at the national level. A shift to a conceptual framework is also made in order to understand the variation in the pace of fertility transitions. Moreover, rapid decline is cited as evidence against theories of fertility transition that revolve around reduction in the demand for children. Aside from reducing birth control costs significantly, improvements in access to birth control services lead to acceleration of fertility decline. Finally, the key determinants of the pace of fertility decline are emphasized in detail. These include: 1) the pace of social and economic change; 2) the pace of change in economic aspirations and expectations; 3) the pace of improvement in the provision of birth control services; 4) and the pace of reduction in the moral and social costs of birth control.
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  23. 23
    141984

    Proposals for key actions for the further implementation of the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development. Report of the Secretary-General.

    United Nations. Secretary-General

    [Unpublished] 1999. 20 p. (E/CN.9/1999/PC/4; 99-05549(E) 150399)

    This article presents proposals for key actions for the further implementation of the Program of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The paper presents the results and principal findings of a series of extensive reviews of improvements made and constraints encountered in implementing the Program of Action. The report is organized into seven sections, each of which outlines key future actions necessary to meet the goals and achievements agreed at the ICPD and endorsed by the General Assembly. The introductory section briefly outlines the major new focus on human well being, human rights, reproductive health, and women's empowerment embodied in the Program of Action. Section 1 focuses on population and development concerns including major population trends; changing age structure and aging of the population; internal and international migration; poverty, economic development and environment; population and education; and data systems and indicators. Section 2 explores gender equality, equity and women's empowerment, while section 3 discusses reproductive rights and reproductive health. Section 4 and 5 focus on collaborations and partnerships and mobilization of resources, respectively. Finally, section 6 derives some conclusions from the review.
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  24. 24
    145742

    National population policies: addendum.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division, 1999. 28 p.

    This article presents population policy data for 14 member states of the UN and non-member states that were not included in the original volume of the current addendum of the National Population Policies. These include the 11 newly independent states: 1 African state (Eritrea); 4 European states (Bosnia-Herzegovina, the Republic of Moldova, Slovakia, and Slovenia); and 6 Asian states (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan); and 3 small-island countries in Oceania, 1 in Micronesia (Palau), and 2 in Polynesia (Cook Islands and Niue). Country profiles are divided into government perceptions and policies and demographic and socioeconomic indicators. Factors considered include population growth, fertility and family planning, health and mortality, international migration, and spatial distribution.
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  25. 25
    142054

    Statement by representative of Ukraine.

    Ukraine

    [Unpublished] 1999. Presented at the United Nations Commission on Population and Development, Thirty-second session, New York, New York, March 22-31, 1999 [3] p.

    This is a statement concerning the "Report in world population and monitoring," by the representative of Ukraine at the Thirty-second session of the UN Commission on population and development, March 1999. The general social and economic situation in the Ukraine--particularly the consequences of last year's financial crisis--continues to have a negative impact on the development of basic demographic trends and population reproduction (population has been declining at an annual rate of almost 0.4 million). Reasons for population decrease include the following: (a) falling birth rate, (b) death (morbidity and mortality) due to the change in social and economic relationships, and (c) infectious diseases. The social and demographic situation in Ukraine is marked by the following trends: a progressive aging of the population and a worsening of the nation's general health. In response to these trends, the government of the Ukraine has implemented an Action Plan aimed at improving the country's demographic situation.
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