Your search found 105 Results
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2015 Nov. 2 p. (Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP); Policy Brief)This policy brief defines PrEP, presents the World Health Organization's current recommendations for PrEP use and the evidence for it, discusses PrEP's expected cost-effectiveness, and lists considerations for PrEP implementation.
Guidelines on HIV self-testing and partner notification: Supplement to consolidated guidelines on HIV testing services.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2016 Dec. 104 p.This supplement to the consolidated guidelines on HIV testing services released in 2015 includes new recommendations and additional guidance on HIV self-testing (HIV ST) and assisted HIV partner notification services (PNS) to the following groups: general populations; pregnant and postpartum women; couples and partners; adolescents (10–19 years) and young people (15–24 years); key populations; and vulnerable populations. The supplement will support countries, program managers, health workers, and other stakeholders in achieving the United Nations (UN) 90-90-90 global HIV targets -- and specifically the first target of diagnosing 90 percent of all people with HIV. The supplement aims to: Support the implementation and scale-up of ethical, effective, acceptable, and evidence-informed approaches to HIV ST and PNS; Support the routine offer of voluntary assisted HIV PNS as part of a public health approach to delivering HIV testing services (HTS); Provide guidance on how HIV ST and assisted HIV PNS could be integrated into both community- and facility-based HTS approaches and be tailored to specific population groups; Support the introduction of HIV ST as a formal HTS intervention using quality-assured, approved products; Position HIV ST and assisted HIV PNS as HTS approaches that will contribute to closing the testing gap and achieving the UN’s 90-90-90 and 2030 global goals.
2015 Nov; New York, New York, UNICEF, 2015 Nov. 84 p.This report aims to build the evidence base on children and climate change by focusing on the major climate-related risks; children’s current and future exposure to these risks; and the policies required to protect children from these risks. The report has three sections. The first section explores the major climate-related risks and their potential impacts on children – how climate change might influence the burden of disease for children – and examines the cumulative impact of repetitive crises on children and families. The second section examines how children may be affected under various scenarios of action - from business-as-usual to ambitious action in addressing climate change. The final section outlines a series of broad policy recommendations to prevent further global warming, decrease children’s exposure and increase their resilience to climate change and environmental risks.
Characterizing the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the Middle East and North Africa: time for strategic action.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2010.  p. (World Bank Report No. 54889)This study is a continuation of the previous sector review, conducted in 2004. The 2008 review had two main objectives. This review is primarily an update on the situation. In its development strategy, Benin gave considerable importance to the health of its population. This effort is part of the long-term vision of the country. Improving health status, especially for the poor, is one of eight strategic directions for that vision. Similarly, on a more operational level, this objective is reflected in the current Growth Strategy for Poverty Reduction (GPRS 2007-2009). Benin is particularly committed towards the Millennium Development Goals, including 3 on the health sector. This review was also an opportunity to further analyze the constraints in the health system, consistent with the new strategy Health Nutrition and Population World Bank, Strategy adopted in 2007. But this exercise was not intended merely to be analytical. It also aimed to enrich the political dialogue between, on one hand, the actors in health and, secondly, the World Bank and other development partners. This effort relates more specifically to some themes such as governance, private sector involvement and alignment of partners' efforts (called technical and financial partners in Benin or PTFs). From this perspective, the journal is also a contribution to Benin's efforts to advance the IHP (International Health Partnership Plus). This initiative is now the main tool for implementing the Paris Declaration. In practice, the journal has sought to contribute to the consensus between the Ministry of Health and the donor group on the diagnosis of the health system and the changes needed to strengthen it. Several guidelines have emerged stronger from this discussion, particularly in the area of governance of the health system. Beyond the reinforcement of the various components of the health system, two fundamental principles should guide the transformation of this system: 1) A principle of corporate governance: through decentralization of the health system, health facilities must have their basic needs better taken into account (hence the need for bottom-up planning) and especially as more independent financially administrative; and 2) A principle of individual governance: health workers should be strongly encouraged to improve their performance (competence, productivity and compliance of patients). Given the limited success of measures to strengthen inspections and other controls "top-down, this incentive can only come from clients, either directly (i.e., bonuses based on cost recovery), or preferably indirectly with a mechanism for payment by results funded by the state and possibly partners.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2015  p. (UNAIDS 2015 - Reference; UNAIDS / JC2765)Implementing PrEP poses new challenges in planning, managing and funding combination prevention. Realizing the promise of PrEP will require governments, funders, civil society and other stakeholders to join forces to systematically address them–licensing antiretroviral medicines for PrEP use, setting priorities for locations and populations for implementation, making services user-friendly and ensuring adherence. These efforts are worthwhile based on their contribution to achieving the global targets of less than 500 000 people annually acquiring HIV in 2020 and the end of AIDS as a public health threat by 2030.
Anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in the world. Fourth global report. The WHO / IUATLD Global Project on Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Surveillance, 2002-2007.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2008.  p. (WHO/HTM/TB/2008.394)This is the fourth report of the WHO/IUATLD Global Project on Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Surveillance. The three previous reports were published in 1997, 2000 and 2004 and included data from 35, 58 and 77 countries, respectively. This report includes drug susceptibility test (DST) results from 91,577 patients from 93 settings in 81 countries and 2 Special Administrative Regions (SARs) of China collected between 2002 and 2006, and representing over 35% of the global total of notified new smear-positive TB cases. It includes data from 33 countries that have never previously reported. New data are available from the following high TB burden countries: India, China, Russian Federation, Indonesia, Ethiopia, Philippines, Viet Nam, Tanzania, Thailand, and Myanmar. Between 1994 and 2007 a total of 138 settings in 114 countries and 2 SARs of China had reported data to the Global Project. Trend data (three or more data points) are available from 48 countries. The majority of trend data are reported from low TB prevalence settings; however this report includes data from three Baltic countries and 2 Russian Oblasts. Trend data were also available from 6 countries conducting periodic or sentinel surveys (Cuba, Republic of Korea, Nepal, Peru, Thailand, and Uruguay). (excerpt)
Will increased awareness of the health impacts of climate change help in achieving international collective action?
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007 Nov; 85(11):826-829.Climate change is estimated to cause some 150 000 deaths annually, a figure that could double by 2030. The lack of a credible global system to reduce greenhouse gases is one example of the difficulties of finding a path for collective action on issues that affect the whole world. Could a better understanding of the impact climate change has on human health help break the political impasse? Environmental experts predict increasing temperatures, rising sea levels, that coastal areas will receive more rain and inland areas more droughts, and more frequent extreme weather events. However, estimating the burden of disease due to climate change is difficult. Climate change will have the most severe impact on countries with a low capacity to adapt. But if changes happen rapidly even rich countries will suffer problems such as heat stress, more respiratory illness, and changes in vector- and rodent-borne diseases. Some projections estimate that in 80 years climate change may double the population living in areas at risk for dengue fever and increase by 2-4% the proportion of people living in malaria risk areas. (excerpt)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007 Nov; 85(11):824-825.The most recent report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) found that there is overwhelming evidence that humans are affecting climate and it highlighted the implications for human health. The World Health Organization (WHO) is helping countries respond to this challenge, primarily by encouraging them to build and reinforce public health systems as the first line of defence against climate-related health risks. (excerpt)
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2007; 77 Suppl 6:133-137.National disease burdens are often not estimated at all or are estimated using inaccurate methods, partly because the data sources for assessing disease burden-nationally representative household surveys, demographic surveillance sites, and routine health information systems-each have their limitations. An important step forward would be a more consistent quantification of the population at risk of malaria. This is most likely to be achieved by delimiting the geographical distribution of malaria transmission using routinely collected data on confirmed cases of disease. However, before routinely collected data can be used to assess trends in the incidence of clinical cases and deaths, the incompleteness of reporting and variation in the utilization of the health system must be taken into account. In the future, sentinel surveillance from public and private health facilities, selected according to risk stratification, combined with occasional household surveys and other population-based methods of surveillance, may provide better assessments of malaria trends. (author's)
Lancet. 2006 Aug 19; 368(9536):629-630.The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) was founded by a Resolution of the World Health Assembly in September, 1965. At that time, although data were sparse, cancer was widely considered to be a disease of developed high-resource countries. Now, the situation has changed dramatically with the majority of the global cancer burden found in low-resource and medium-resource countries. It is estimated that in 2000 almost 11 million new cases of cancer were diagnosed worldwide, 7 million people died from cancer, and 25 million persons were alive with cancer. The continued growth and ageing of the world's population will greatly affect the future cancer burden. By 2030, it could be expected that there will be 27 million incident cases of cancer, 17 million cancer deaths annually, and 75 million persons alive with cancer. The greatest effect of this increase will fall on low-resource and mediumresource countries where, in 2001, almost half of the disease burden was from non-communicable disease. (excerpt)
Handbook for appropriate communication for behavior change. Information / education / communication. A cultural approach to HIV / AIDS prevention and care.
Paris, France, UNESCO, Division of Cultural Policies, 2001.  p. (Methodological Handbooks, Special Series, Issue No. 1; HIV / AIDS Prevention and Care: a Cultural Approach)The Joint UNESCO/UNAIDS Project "A Cultural Approach to HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care" was launched in mid-1998, in relation to the new approach to HIV/AIDS prevention and care inaugurated by UNAIDS. The UNAIDS strategy emphasizes the necessity of giving priority to the multidimensional configuration of the issue and to the diversity of its environment, in order to build comprehensive and adaptable strategies and policies. In this sense, "A Cultural Approach to HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care", represents a new contribution towards finding solutions to this apparently insuperable challenge. Its major methodological output aims at tailoring the content and pace of action to people's mentalities, beliefs, value systems, capacity to mobilize and, as a consequence to accordingly modify international and national strategies and policies, project design and field work. In this respect, this initiative clearly meets the principles and orientations of the Declaration of commitment on HIV/AIDS adopted by the Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly on HIV/AIDS (June 2001), that states the importance of emphasizing the role of cultural, family, ethical and religious factors in the prevention of the epidemic and in treatment, care and support, taking into account the particularities of each country as well as the importance of respecting all human rights and fundamental freedoms. On the basis of the research carried out to date, this handbook deals with building culturally appropriate Information/Education/Communication (IEC) material. After a conceptual introduction, it presents the methodological research to be carried out: evaluation of the current activities, understanding, sensitizing and mobilizing cultural references and resources accordingly. Then it identifies the proposed target audiences and their specific characteristics. Finally, it proposes appropriate IEC models, combining message elaboration and delivery. (excerpt)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 1954; 10:627-690.This report presents the results of a six-month survey of the nature and extent of venereal diseases in Turkey which was undertaken by the author, on behalf of WHO, at the request of the Turkish Government. The first part of the report outlines the present venereal-diseases-control system and includes descriptions of the work undertaken by public authorities, hospitals and dispensaries, mobile venereal-disease-control teams, and laboratories; in the second part, the author enumerates certain recommendations for the intensification of the current control programme. These recommendations are particularly concerned with the control of syphilis (since the incidence of other venereal diseases in Turkey is of very secondary importance), and with the expansion, standardization, and co-ordination of serodiagnostic facilities and services. It is suggested that there might be a gradual intensification and reorientation of the present programme. A proposed plan of operations for an eight-year period is described. (author's)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 1949; 2:139-154.International action on venereal diseases was considered urgent by the Interim Commission of WHO, which decided that a survey of the scientific, practical and other aspects of the problem should be made, with a view to developing practical plans for the international combating of venereal diseases. On the basis of a preliminary worldwide survey by the Secretariat with regard to the nature and extent of the problem, an expert committee was established, and at its first session outlined the principles and scope of an international venereal-disease programme, which subsequently became the basis for the programme approved by the first Health Assembly. Particular emphasis was placed on the continuation of the work on serological standardization of the Health Organization of the League of Nations, the establishment of norms for venereal-disease treatment, the promotion of wider availability of anti-venereal drugs, and the co-ordination of the WHO programme with those of other international organizations. (excerpt)
Schistosomiasis and water resources development: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimates of people at risk.
Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2006 Jul; 6(7):411-425.An estimated 779 million people are at risk of schistosomiasis, of whom 106 million (13.6%) live in irrigation schemes or in close proximity to large dam reservoirs. We identified 58 studies that examined the relation between water resources development projects and schistosomiasis, primarily in African settings. We present a systematic literature review and meta-analysis with the following objectives: (1) to update at-risk populations of schistosomiasis and number of people infected in endemic countries, and (2) to quantify the risk of water resources development and management on schistosomiasis. Using 35 datasets from 24 African studies, our meta-analysis showed pooled random risk ratios of 2.4 and 2.6 for urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis, respectively, among people living adjacent to dam reservoirs. The risk ratio estimate for studies evaluating the effect of irrigation on urinary schistosomiasis was in the range 0.02--7.3 (summary estimate 1.1) and that on intestinal schistosomiasis in the range 0.49--23.0 (summary estimate 4.7). Geographic stratification showed important spatial differences, idiosyncratic to the type of water resources development. We conclude that the development and management of water resources is an important risk factor for schistosomiasis, and hence strategies to mitigate negative effects should become integral parts in the planning, implementation, and operation of future water projects. (author's)
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2002 Aug. 6 p. (HIV Prevention Now Programme Briefs No. 7)Social and political conflicts and natural disasters uproot millions of people each year and constitute important aggravating factors fuelling the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV spread faster in communities where there is social disruption and instability, combined with poverty - conditions that are often at their most extreme during armed conflicts and in the aftermath of natural disasters. Addressing the needs of communities and individuals who have lost their security, their homes, and their access to support requires a broad set of humanitarian interventions -food, shelter, sanitation, health, social support and protection measures. These interventions are organized and take different priorities depending upon the local context and the "phase" of the emergency. Such phases are defined by the humanitarian community and range from the acute emergency (the destabilizing event that creates the emergency situation and immediate displacement) through subsequent phases of stabilization, reconstruction and return to normalcy. Within the context of broader humanitarian relief interventions, it is increasingly recognized that HIV/AIDS prevention and other essential sexual and reproductive health services must be seen as an integral part of the response and supported with resources and technical assistance. As such, UNFPA's participation in humanitarian response efforts has grown dramatically in the past few years. As this responsibility is expanded, it is essential for UNFPA staff - especially those in the field - to understand the common operational features and the scope of the Fund's interventions both in emergencies and in recovery situations. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2005 Nov 5; 366(9497):1586.Next week, on Nov 8, an important deadline for ratifying the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) approaches. Any country that has not ratified the convention by then will not become a full party to its governing body, which will meet for the first time at the Conference of the Parties in Geneva, Feb 6–17, next year. At that meeting parties will take decisions on technical, procedural, and financial issues relating to the implementation of the convention. The FCTC has been rightly hailed as a milestone for the promotion of public health worldwide and WHO can be proud of its achievement. So far, 94 countries have ratified the FCTC, 41 of these in 2005, with China, Rwanda, Nigeria, Cyprus, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo becoming the latest nations to do so this October. China, with the world’s largest cigarette market and with an estimated 350 million smokers, is a particularly important signatory. By ratifying the FCTC, China has taken an important and welcome step to protect its people’s health. Rapid economic changes make China’s large population especially vulnerable to a future epidemic of chronic diseases. (excerpt)
Strategy to accelerate progress towards the attainment of international development goals and targets related to reproductive health.
Reproductive Health Matters. 2005; 13(25):11-18.Reproductive and sexual ill-health account for 20% of the global burden of ill-health for women, and 14% for men. The strategy presented in this document is the World Health Organization’s first global strategy on reproductive health. It was adopted by the 57th World Health Assembly (WHA) in May 2004. Five priority aspects of reproductive and sexual health are targeted: improving antenatal, delivery, postpartum and newborn care; providing high-quality services for family planning, including infertility services; eliminating unsafe abortion; combatting sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, reproductive tract infections, cervical cancer and other gynaecological morbidities; and promoting sexual health. The strategy was developed as a result of extensive consultations in all regions with representatives from ministries of health, professional associations, non-governmental organizations, United Nations partners and other key stakeholders. It lays out actions needed for accelerating progress towards the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other international goals and targets relating to reproductive health, especially those from the International Conference on Population and Development in 1994 and its five-year follow-up. ‘‘The strong endorsement of this strategy by the WHA represents an unequivocal message that countries are committed to do all they can to achieve the goals and targets of the ICPD Programme of Action adopted in 1994.’’ (author's)
Consultative meeting on "Accelerating an AIDS Vaccine for Developing Countries: Issues and Options for the World Bank", Paris, April 13, 1999.
[Unpublished] 1999. 7 p.The World Bank’s AIDS Vaccine Task Force sponsored a meeting at the World Bank European office in Paris on Tuesday, April 13, 1999, to consult with key shareholders, bilateral and multilateral donors, and representatives from developing countries on ways that the World Bank could accelerate the development of an AIDS vaccine that would be effective and affordable in developing countries. The 32 participants included representatives from the North and South, from AIDS control programs, foreign affairs ministries, and ministries of finance, both technical experts and policy makers. An issues paper, “Accelerating an AIDS vaccine for developing countries: Issues and options for the World Bank”, served as background for the meeting. (excerpt)
Consultative meeting on: "Accelerating an AIDS vaccine for developing countries: issues and options for the World Bank", Regent Hotel, Bangkok, Thailand, Monday, May 24, 1999. Report.
[Unpublished] 1999 Jun 29. 10 p.The World Bank’s AIDS Vaccine Task Force sponsored a meeting in Bangkok at the Regent Hotel on Monday, May 24, to consult with key Thai policymakers on ways that the World Bank could accelerate the development of an AIDS vaccine that is effective and affordable in developing countries. The 26 participants included representatives from the Ministry of Public Health, the National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB), the Government Pharmaceutical Organization (GPO), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and private vaccine industry. On Tuesday, May 25, briefings were held for UN agencies and for non-governmental organizations. An issues paper, “Accelerating an AIDS vaccine for developing countries: Issues and options for the World Bank”, served as background for the meeting. (excerpt)
Accelerating an AIDS vaccine for developing countries: issues and options for the World Bank. Revised draft.
[Unpublished] 1999 Jul 8. 18 p.This paper reviews what the AIDS Vaccine Task Force has learned to date about the nature of the problem of under-investment in an HIV/AIDS vaccine for developing countries, and summarizes some of the approaches under consideration. Its objective is to launch a discussion within the World Bank, and – critically – with its bilateral, multilateral, and developing country partners, on the best course of action for the institution, given its mandate, its comparative advantages in relation to the other agencies involved in the international effort, and the likely effectiveness of alternative measures for accelerating the development of an HIV/AIDS vaccine for developing countries. (excerpt)
New Delhi, India, WHO, Regional Office for South-East Asia, 2001.  p.The Asia Pacific region is vast and diverse. In addition to countries with varied epidemiological patterns of human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) – high versus low HIV prevalence countries and different predominant HIV risk behaviour(s) – countries in the region also have extremely diverse capabilities to develop and support public health prevention and control programmes. In reviewing the current epidemiology of HIV/AIDS in Asia, this diversity needs to be fully appreciated. Understanding of the many diverse HIV epidemics and their determinants in the Asia-Pacific Region has improved substantially over the past 3-5 years, as a number of countries have implemented comprehensive surveillance systems for HIV prevalence, as well as sexual and injecting risk behaviours. As of 2001, HIV prevalence in most Asia Pacific countries remains low, but there are major public health concerns regarding the future growth potential of HIV/AIDS in the region. This vast region, with a population of nearly 3.5 billion in the most sexually active age group (15-49 years) – representing nearly 60% of the world’s population – has the potential, because of its sheer size, to significantly influence the course and overall impact of the HIV/ AIDS pandemic. This report presents an overview of the HIV/AIDS pandemic and a more detailed description of the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS in the Asia Pacific region. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Initiative for Vaccine Research, 2003 Apr. 74 p. (WHO/IVR)The most effective way to reduce disease and death from infectious diseases is to vaccinate susceptible populations. Although highly effective vaccines are available against a number of pathogens, for other infectious diseases vaccines are either not completely protective or no vaccine is available. For these diseases, it is of crucial importance that vaccine R&D is considered as a priority. The present document represents an extensive analysis of the state of the art of vaccine R&D against infectious diseases of public health importance for which vaccines are either non-existent, or need substantive improvement. The first section is a critical review of the situation for each specific infectious disease in terms of epidemiological data, control strategies and vaccine R&D. The second section provides a table listing the main vaccine candidates for each disease, their state of development and the industrial or academic entities involved. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], 2004 Mar. 20 p. (UNAIDS/04.17E)Newly-available information from the second generation surveillance system provided an opportunity for Indonesia to make more reliable estimates of the number of people infected with HIV. In 2002, the Ministry of Health began a process that led to vastly more informative estimates of the number of people at risk of contracting HIV in Indonesia, and the number currently infected with the virus. The technical details of the estimates have been published in Indonesian and English. This document focuses on the process that the country undertook in developing its estimates, discussing some of the challenges faced, the decisions made and the lessons learned. UNAIDS thanks Indonesia for sharing its experiences, and hopes that other countries with HIV epidemics concentrated in populations with high-risk behaviour will benefit by adopting a similar estimation process. (excerpt)
[Risk of HIV infection. Sexually transmitted diseases] Riesgo de infección por VIH. Enfermedades de transmisión sexual.
VIDAS. 1997 Dec; 1(5):8-9.According to the World Health Organization, some 685,000 men and women contract sexually-transmitted infections every day, and, worldwide, approximately 250 million new sexually-transmitted infections occur every year. (excerpt)
Bangkok, Thailand, United Nations Development Programme [UNDP], 2004.  p. (Thematic MDG Report)Thailand has shown that a well-funded, politically-supported and shrewdly-implemented response can change the course of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. After peaking at 143,000 in 1991, the annual number of new HIV infections has fallen to about 19,000 in 2003 – making Thailand one of a handful of countries to have reversed a serious HIV/AIDS epidemic. The national adult HIV prevalence continues to edge lower, with the latest estimates pegging it at a little over 1.5 percent at the end of 2003. This astounding achievement translates into millions of lives saved. This report is a powerful account of how Thailand has managed to achieve Millennium Development Goal 6 – to halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS by 2015 – well in advance of schedule, and what now needs to be done to sustain this extraordinary achievement. Thailand’s feat raises tantalizing questions. How did it make such inroads against the HIV/AIDS epidemic? What lessons does it hold for other countries in the region and beyond? Is Thailand’s current response keeping pace with the changing epidemic? What are the strategic priorities for the future to avoid a resurgence? This publication explores these questions by looking back – and ahead – at Thailand’s confrontation with one of the deadliest diseases the world has known. (excerpt)