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Strengthening health systems to respond to women subjected to intimate partner violence or sexual violence: a manual for health managers.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2017. 172 p.This manual is intended for health managers at all levels of the health systems. The manual is based on the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline Responding to intimate partner violence and sexual violence against women: WHO clinical and policy guidelines, 2013. Those guidelines inform this manual and its companion clinical handbook for healthcare providers, Health care for women subjected to intimate partner violence or sexual violence, 2014. The manual draws on the WHO health systems building blocks as outlined in Everybody’s business: strengthening health systems to improve health outcomes: WHO’s framework for action..
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2017 Mar. 80 p.Climate change is one of many forces contributing to an unfolding water crisis. In the coming years, the demand for water will increase as food production grows, populations grow and move, industries develop and consumption increases. This can lead to water stress, as increasing demand and use of water strain available supplies. One of the most effective ways to protect children in the face of climate change is to safeguard their access to safe water and sanitation. This report shares a series of solutions, policy responses and case studies from UNICEF’s work around the world.
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2017 Sep. 92 p.This report presents data and outlines best practices and policies that can put governments on the path to providing every child with the best start in life. It outlines the neuroscience of early childhood development (ECD), including the importance of nutrition, protection and stimulation in the early years. And it makes the case for scaling up investment, evaluation and monitoring in ECD programmes. The report concludes with a six-point call to action for governments and their partners to help maximize the potential of the children who will build the future – by making the most of the unparalleled opportunities offered by the early moments in life.
Paris, France, UNESCO, 2015. 47 p.Comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) has attracted growing interest and attention over recent years. This is demonstrated and reinforced by increased political commitment globally and the development of expert guidance, standards, curricula and other tools to strengthen the implementation of CSE in practice. Across the world, there are a wide range of different approaches to delivering sexuality education; at this stage in the evolution of the field, it is timely to take stock of the evidence, practice and lessons learned to date. This report provides an overview of the status of CSE implementation and coverage on a global level, drawing on specific information about the status of CSE in 48 countries, generated through analysis of existing resources and studies. Best practice in terms of providing CSE continues to develop. The current report examines the evidence base for CSE and, through a series of case studies from every region, explores initiatives that are setting the standard and pioneering new practices in the delivery of CSE. It represents the first in a series of periodic reports that aims to monitor the global implementation of CSE. Comprehensive life skills-based sexuality education helps young people to gain the knowledge and skills to make conscious, healthy and respectful choices about relationships and sexuality.
2016 Nov; New York, New York, UN Women, 2016 Nov. 2 p.Violence against women and girls is one of the most universal and pervasive human rights violations in the world, of pandemic proportions, with country data showing that about one third of women in the world report experiencing physical or sexual violence at some point in their lifetime, mainly by their partners. UN Women provides knowledge-based policy and programming guidance to a diverse array of stakeholders at international, regional and country levels often partnering with other UN agencies and stakeholders. UN Women’s work is broadly focused on a comprehensive approach to ending violence against women and girls that addresses legislation and policies, prevention, services for survivors, research and data. The briefs included in this package aim to summarize in a concise and friendly way, for advocates, programmers and policy makers, the essential strategies for addressing violence against women in general, for preventing violence and providing services to survivors in particular.
Female genital mutilation/cutting and violence against women and girls strengthening the policy linkages between different forms of violence.
2017 Feb; New York, New York, UN Women, 2017 Feb. 20 p.Violence against women and girls (VAWG) manifests in different forms. These include intimate partner violence, non-partner sexual violence, sexual exploitation and trafficking, and harmful practices such as female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) and child, early and forced marriage, among others. Programmes to end harmful practices and programmes to end intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence are often planned and implemented separately, despite all being rooted in gender inequality and gender-based discrimination against women and girls. While this is intended so that programmes can be tailored accordingly, it can result in isolation of initiatives that would otherwise benefit from sharing of knowledge and good practices and from strategic, coordinated efforts. This policy note explores policy and programming interlinkages and considers entry points in the areas of (i) national legislation, (ii) prevention strategies, (iii) response for survivors, and (iv) data and evidence, for increased coordination and collaboration to advance the objectives of ending FGM/C and other forms of VAWG, in particular intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence. The note builds on the background paper “Finding convergence in policy frameworks: A background paper on the policy links between gender, violence against women and girls, and female genital mutilation/cutting” (available below). This policy note is intended for multiple audiences, including those directly involved in policy development, planning and implementing initiatives, those providing technical support, and advocates for ending all forms of VAWG, including FGM/C. This work is the result of a collaboration of UN Women with the UNFPA–UNICEF Joint Programme on FGM/C.
Development, updates, and future directions of the World Health Organization Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use.
International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2016 Dec 13; 7 p.Correct and consistent use of contraception decreases the risk of unintended pregnancy; yet, outdated policies or practices can delay initiation or hinder continuation of contraceptive methods. To promote the quality of, and access to, family planning services, WHO created a series of evidence-based guidance documents for family planning, known as WHO's Four Cornerstones of Family Planning Guidance. The Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use (MEC), first published in 1996, provides guidance on the safety of various contraceptive methods in users with specific health conditions or characteristics (i.e. who can use a contraceptive method safely). The Selected practice recommendations for contraceptive use (SPR) is the second cornerstone, outlining how to safely and effectively use contraceptive methods. These two documents can serve as a reference for policymakers and program managers as they develop their own national family planning policies in the context of local needs, values, and resources. The two other cornerstone documents -- the Decision making tool for family planning clients and providers and Family planning: a global handbook for providers -- provide guidance to healthcare providers for applying these recommendations in practice. Between 2013 and 2014, WHO convened a Guideline Development Group (GDG) to review and update the MEC and SPR in line with current evidence. As a result of these meetings, the fifth edition of the MEC was published in 2015, and the third edition of the SPR will be released on December 14, 2016. The purpose of the present report is to describe the methods used to develop the SPR recommendations, research gaps identified during the guideline development process, and future directions for the dissemination and implementation of the SPR among policymakers and family planning program managers worldwide. (excerpt)
Breastfeeding Medicine. 2015 Oct; 10(8):385-8.Add to my documents.
Global strategy on human resources for health: Workforce 2030. Draft 1.0. Submitted to the Executive Board (138th Session).
[Unpublished] .  p.In May 2014, the Sixty-seventh World Health Assembly adopted resolution WHA67.24 on Follow-up of the Recife Political Declaration on Human Resources for Health: renewed commitments towards universal health coverage. In paragraph 4(2) of that resolution, Member States requested the Director-General of the World Health Organization (WHO) to develop and submit a new global strategy for human resources for health (HRH) for consideration by the Sixty-ninth World Health Assembly. 2. Development of the draft Global Strategy was informed by a process launched in late 2013 by Member States and constituencies represented on the Board of the Global Health Workforce Alliance, a hosted partnership within WHO. Over 200 experts from all WHO regions contributed to consolidating the evidence around a comprehensive health labour market framework for universal health coverage (UHC). A synthesis paper was published in February 2015(1) and informed the initial version of the draft Global Strategy. 3. An extensive consultation process on the draft version was launched in March 2015. This resulted in inputs from Member States and relevant constituencies such as civil society and health care professional associations. The process also benefited from discussions in the WHO regional committees, technical consultations, online forums and a briefing session to Member States’ permanent missions to the United Nations (UN) in Geneva. Feedback and guidance from the consultation process are reflected in the draft Global Strategy, which was also aligned with, and informed by the draft framework on integrated people-centred health services. 4. The Global Strategy on Human Resources for Health: Workforce 2030 is primarily aimed at planners and policy-makers of WHO Member States, but its contents are of value to all relevant stakeholders in the health workforce area, including public and private sector employers, professional associations, education and training institutions, labour unions, bilateral and multilateral development partners, international organizations, and civil society. 5. Throughout this document, it is recognized that the concept of universal health coverage may have different connotations in countries and regions of the world. In particular, in the WHO Regional Office for the Americas, universal health coverage is part of the broader concept of universal access to health care.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2015.  p.The World Health Organization (WHO) calls on enhanced global efforts to improve health in some of the world’s poorest and most vulnerable communities by tackling the root causes of disease and health inequalities. In order to address this and to spur up action, raise awareness and facilitate implementation of a Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach WHO launched this week a Health in All Policies training manual. This manual is a training resource to increase understanding of the importance of Health in All Policies among health and other professionals. The material will form the basis of 2- and 3-day workshops, which will: build capacity to promote, implement and evaluate HiAP; encourage engagement and collaboration across sectors; facilitate the exchange of experiences and lessons learned; promote regional and global collaboration on HiAP; and promote dissemination of skills to develop training courses for trainers.
Developing and implementing global gender policy to reduce HIV and AIDS in low- and middle-income countries: policy makers' perspectives.
African Journal of AIDS Research. 2014 Sep; 13(3):197-204.Gender inequalities have been recognised as central to the HIV epidemic for many years. In response, a range of gender policies have been developed in attempts to mitigate the impact and transform gender relations. However, the effects of these policies have been less than successful. In March 2010 the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) launched the Agenda for accelerated country level action on women, girls, gender equality and HIV (the Agenda), an operational plan on how to integrate women, girls and gender equality into the HIV response. This paper explores the perspectives of those involved in developing and implementing the Agenda to understand its strengths and limitations. In-depth one-on-one interviews were conducted with 16 individuals involved in the development and implementation of the Agenda. The data were analysed using thematic network analysis. Facilitators of the Agenda centred on the Agenda's ability to create political space for women and girls within the global HIV/AIDS response and the collaborative process of developing the Agenda. Barriers to the implementation and development of the Agenda include the limited financial and non-financial resources, the top-down nature of the Agenda's development and implementation and a lack of political will from within UNAIDS to implement it. We suggest that the Agenda achieved many goals, but its effect was constrained by a wide range of factors.
Rome, Italy, FAO, 2013.  p.Malnutrition in all its forms imposes unacceptably high costs on society in human and economic terms. Addressing malnutrition requires a multisectoral approach that includes complementary interventions in food systems, public health and education. Within a multisectoral approach, food systems offer many opportunities for interventions leading to improved diets and better nutrition. Agricultural production and productivity growth remain essential for better nutrition, but more can be done. Both traditional and modern supply chains offer risks and opportunities for achieving better nutrition and more sustainable food systems. Consumers ultimately determine what they eat and therefore what the food system produces. Better governance of food systems at all levels, facilitated by high-level political support, is needed to build a common vision, to support evidence-based policies, and to promote effective coordination and collaboration through integrated, multisectoral action. (Excerpts)
A transformative stand-alone goal on achieving gender equality, women's rights and women's empowerment: Imperatives and key components. In the context of the post-2015 development framework and sustainable development goals.
New York, New York, UN Women, 2013 Jun.  p.UN Women has launched a new paper to contribute to the ongoing debate on the post-2015 development agenda. In the paper, UN Women lays out its vision for a transformative framework that addresses the structural impediments to gender equality and the achievement of women’s rights.
Monitoring of population programmes, focusing on adolescents and youth. Report of the Secretary-General.
[New York, New York], United Nations, Economic and Social Council, 2012 Feb 8.  p. (E/CN.9/2012/5)In accordance with decision 2010/101, by which the Commission on Population and Development adopted “Adolescents and youth” as the theme for its forty-fifth session, the present report provides an overview of development issues related to young people’s sexual and reproductive health, with particular emphasis on the needs of girls and young women. The report reviews actions by Governments, non-governmental organizations and the United Nations Population Fund and its partners that create a supportive environment for young people as they make the transition to adulthood; invest in young people; promote their rights and gender equality; provide access to sexual and reproductive health information and services; encourage their education and social integration; ensure protective measures and safe spaces for the most vulnerable among them, including those in humanitarian situations; and support an enabling policy and legal framework for their participation in policymaking. The report concludes by drawing attention to further actions required to promote and secure young people’s sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights as a development priority to meet internationally agreed development goals and contribute to countries’ broad development aims.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2012 Sep 1; 90(9):712.The World Health Organization’s (WHO) update of its 2003 publication Safe abortion: technical and policy guidance for health systems has responded to a major neglected public health need of women. The substantial revisions in the 2012 update reflect developments in safe abortion methods and clinical care, providing guidance about the range of safe options available to women seeking elective abortion. Women’s participation in the choice of abortion method, pain control and post-abortion contraception is a crucial element, seeing as unsafe induced abortion is not only public health problem but also a human rights issue. The report discusses developments in the application of human rights principles in policy-making and in legislation related to induced abortion. National courts and regional and international human rights bodies, such as the United Nations treaty monitoring bodies, have increasingly applied these principles to facilitate women’s transparent access to safe abortion services.
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2013 Mar 11.  p. (A66/15)Following the close attention given by WHO’s governing bodies to the important role played by social determinants of health in global health, especially in relation to the WHO reform process and the Organization’s future activities, further review and consultation have taken place. Tackling social determinants of health is recognized as being both a fundamental approach to the work of the Organization and a priority area of work in itself in the draft twelfth WHO general programme of work 2014–2019, which has been discussed by the regional committees before its further consideration by Executive Board and the Health Assembly.
Paris, France, UNESCO, 2012.  p. (Good Policy and Practice in HIV and Health Education. Booklet 7)This booklet presents evidence and experience on gender, HIV, and education from a variety of perspectives in order to highlight the need to capture, synthesize and strengthen these required linkages. The booklet offers new thinking and emerging research alongside a series of case studies and examples of new and time-tested programs. The booklet includes discussion papers by leading practitioners and authors from a range of organizations and continents that explore issues and emerging evidence in greater depth.
The structural determinants of child well-being: an expert consultation hosted by the UNICEF Office of Research, 22-23 June 2012.
Florence, Italy, UNICEF, Office of Research, 2012.  p.This paper describes the outcomes of an expert consultation on “The Structural Determinants of Child Well-being” hosted by the UNICEF Office of Research. The two-day meeting brought together twelve participants to discuss the underlying causes of child well-being and develop an initial framework to consider the impact of structural factors on children’s lives and the inequalities that too often shape (and limit) their futures. Seven major conclusions emerged from the debate. There is a large and still to be exploited potential for structural interventions to improve the lives of children in low and middle-income countries. Some sectors, notably health, have moved ahead in defining a structural determinants approach to programming and have a growing evidence base to draw upon. Other sectors have begun to follow but still have to make their case with the policy community. Until now, there has been very little work that brings together insights from analysing structural determinants of child wellbeing across all its dimensions in a consistent and rigorous way. Definitions of terms relating to structural and social determinants, and what we understand by social norms vary, and are sometimes at odds with each other or confusing. An agreement on key principles and concepts is an important basis for defining structural interventions that can make a difference at national and local levels. An integrated view of child well-being requires inter-sectoral and comprehensive approaches which both recognize the interplay of structural factors that influences children’s lives and seek to build synergies across programme areas. A pathway analysis can be helpful, together with the recognition of the vital importance of the early years, and other key periods of emotional and cognitive development such as adolescence. Such a ‘life-course’ approach offers the possibility to better understand the interaction of determinants at different stages of a child’s life and intergenerational drivers of inequity, gender inequality and disadvantage. A life-course approach has a strong evidence base primarily in OECD countries, and is still to be extended to low- and middle-income countries. Structural determinants are by their nature complex. That complexity does not imply that appropriate interventions cannot be launched, rather that new ways of planning and organizing inter-sectoral approaches are required especially in settings where administrative capacities are are still weak. A number of such innovations are beginning to show promise and need both support and expansion. New thinking related to ‘Governance’ as a domain of analysis and policy action for children provides directions of fresh research. Applied to systemic issues such as de-centralisation or social exclusion, such approaches point back to the insights developed from human rights thinking, including the obligations of the state to put in place and monitor the effectiveness of institutions and structures that address underlying causes of inequity and ensure that excluded groups, including all children, girls and boys, have a voice and are heard both in policy making and in resource allocation. A number of tools to strengthen analysis and action under a structural determinants approach are available but need to be expanded and tested in different settings. Finally, measurement challenges also need to be overcome to build a strong data base for action.
Promoting access to medical technologies and innovation. Intersections between public health, intellectual property and trade.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2012.  p.Medical technologies -- medicines, vaccines and medical devices -- are essential for public health. Access to essential medicines and the lack of research to address neglected diseases have been a major concern for many years. More recently, the focus of health policy debate has broadened to consider how to promote innovation and how to ensure equitable access to all vital medical technologies. Today’s health policy-makers need a clear understanding both of the innovation processes that lead to new technologies and of the ways in which these technologies are disseminated in health systems. This study captures a broad range of experience and data in dealing with the interplay between intellectual property, trade rules and the dynamics of access to, and innovation in, medical technologies. The study is intended to inform ongoing technical cooperation activities undertaken by the three organizations (World Trade Organization, World Intellectual Property Organization and World Health Organization) and to support policy discussions. Based on many years of field experience in technical cooperation, the study has been prepared to serve the needs of policymakers who seek a comprehensive presentation of the full range of issues, as well as lawmakers, government officials, delegates to international organizations, non-governmental organizations and researchers.
A situation analysis of the education sector response to HIV, drugs and sexual health in Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Timor-Leste. Synthesis report.
Jakarta, Indonesia, UNESCO, 2012 Aug.  p.This is a synthesis of situation-response analyses (SRA) on the education sector's response to HIV, drugs, and sexual health undertaken in five countries. The five SRAs were developed in close consultation with the Ministry of Education of each country and in most cases have received official statements of endorsement from each respective ministry. The objectives of this synthesis report are to: Provide an overview of the current state of HIV and AIDS, drugs, and sexual health activities in the education sector in the five countries; Identify the policies, programs, and resources for HIV and AIDS, drugs, and sexual health education that are missing or weak in the education sector; Provide evidence-based information for future education sector HIV and AIDS, drugs, and sexual health education planning and prioritization; Make recommendations on where to properly allocate resources to support the missing or weak responses.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO]. 2011.  p.This recently published book highlights actions to improve health equity based on findings from the nine global Knowledge Networks that were established during the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health. Their task was to synthesize existing evidence and identify effective and appropriate actions to improve health equity in nine thematic areas: globalization; gender; social exclusion; early child development; urban settings; employment conditions; health systems; public health programs; and measurement and evidence. The evidence reinforces the fundamental impact of social determinants on health outcomes and in creating health inequities.
GLAAS 2012 report. UN-Water Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking-Water. The challenge of extending and sustaining services.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2012.  p.The objective of the UN-Water Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking-Water (GLAAS) is to monitor the inputs required to extend and sustain water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) systems and services. This includes the components of the “enabling environment”: documenting government policy and institutional frameworks; the volume, sources and targeting of investment; the sufficiency of human resources; priorities and gaps with respect to external assistance; and the influence of these factors on performance. A more challenging secondary goal is to analyse the factors associated with progress, or lack thereof, in order to identify drivers and bottlenecks, to identify knowledge gaps, to assess strengths and weaknesses, to identify challenges, priorities and successes, and to facilitate benchmarking across countries. This second UN-Water GLAAS report presents data received from 74 developing countries, covering all the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) regions, and from 24 external support agencies (ESAs), representing approximately 90% of official development assistance (ODA) for sanitation and drinking-water. There have been remarkable gains in WASH. The 2012 progress report of the World Health Organization (WHO) / United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP) announced that the MDG target for drinking-water was met in 2010: the proportion of people without access to improved drinking water sources had been more than halved (from 24% to 11%) since 1990. However, the progress report also noted that the benefits are very unevenly distributed.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2011 May 1; 89(5):390-2.This article focuses on antimicrobial resistance, which challenges the control of infectious diseases, jeopardizes progress on health outcomes by increasing morbidity and mortality, and imposes huge costs on societies. It discusses several aspects related to antimicrobial resistance including: the lack of commitment and data, un-assured drug quality, poor prevention and control of infections, and weaker research efforts. It concludes by outlining the World Health Organization's policy package to combat antimicrobial resistance, which reframes the critical actions to be taken by governments to stimulate change by all stakeholders.
PLoS Medicine. 2011 Nov; 8(11):e1001115. .Based on extensive review of global evidence, the recommendations of the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health highlight the need for strengthening research on health equity with a focus on social determinants of health. To do so requires a paradigm shift that explicitly addresses social, political, and economic processes that influence population health; this shift is under way and complements existing research in medicine, the life sciences, and public health. Reflecting further synthesis and stakeholder consultations, an agenda for future research on health equity is outlined in four distinct yet interrelated areas: (1) global factors and processes that affect health equity; (2) structures and processes that differentially affect people’s chances to be healthy within a given society; (3) health system factors that affect health equity; and (4) policies and interventions to reduce health inequity. Influencing regional and national research priorities on equity and health and their implementation requires joint efforts towards creating a critical mass of researchers, expanding collaborations and networks, and refining norms and standards, with WHO having an important role given recent mandates.
Nature. 2011 Apr 28; 472(7344):390.Add to my documents.