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HEALTH POLICY AND PLANNING. 1992 Dec; 7(4):364-74.The Director of WHO's Regional Office for Africa presents a health development framework based on the primary health care (PHC) concept. the government should review national health policies, national health strategies, and national heath services to resolve basic issues. Then it should define the framework for health development by breaking down the goal into operational target-oriented subgoals for individuals, families, and communities, by creating health districts as operational units, and by organizing support for community health. Once this framework has been decided, the government should use it to restructure the national health systems. At the district level, health and development committees, helped by community health workers, and district health teams would be responsible for community health education and activities. The provincial health offices would oversee district activities, select and adapt technologies, and provide technical support to communities. A board would manage the provincial hospitals (public, private, and voluntary). These hospitals would work together to organize secondary medical care programs. A public health office wold link them with the provincial health centers. Other sectors would also be involved, e.g., departments of education and water. The national health ministry would set national policies, plans, and strategies. A suprasectoral health council would coordinate cooperation between universities and other sectors and external agencies. National capacity building would involve establishing management cycles of health development, using national specialists as health advisors, and placing health as a priority in development. To implement this framework, however, the government needs to surmount considerable structural economic, and social obstacles by at least decentralizing and integrating health and related programs at the local level, fostering a national dialogue, and promoting social mobilization.
Food emergency in wonderland: a case study prepared by the League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies for the training of relief workers.
In: Advances in international maternal and child health, vol. 4, 1984, edited by D.B. Jelliffe and E.F. Jelliffe. Oxford, England, Oxford University Press, 1984. 110-23.This monograph chapter is an exercise whose aim is to help relief workers to be better equipped to solve the practical problems of an emergency relief operation. Its events and contents are imaginary, but are drawn from direct experience. It has been used extensively in Red Cross training projects in several countries, and is designed, 1st, to be complemented with other types of educational media, and 2nd, to be adapted to the training requirements of diverse types of project, through "biasing" in favor of health, nutrition, sanitation, or logistics. A description is given of the management of the case study educational setting, based on real experience with the use of the material; the best results appeared achieveable through a class session on part 1, consisting of initial assessment of an hypothetical nutritional emergency, followed by work in small groups on part 2. Part 1 consists of presentation of situation characteristics, e.g. "overworked health assistant reports a big increase in chest infections, diarrhea, and typhus," and "there is a hand-dug well 1/2 mile from the shelter." Part 2 describes the situation 2 months later, after intervention has begun. Situation characteristics appear such as, "Records from clinic attendance indicates that the commonest disease symptoms are diarrhea, cough with or without temperature, general aches and pains, worms, and eye infections." The case study also includes additional information on food stocks, demographic data, and nutritional survey data (the latter not included in this article). Concluding the article are examples of topics for group discussions and presentations.
London, England, IPPF, July 1982. 4 p. (IPPF Fact Sheet)Discusses the movement to establish groups of Parliamentarians on Population and Development throughout the world. The movement grew out of the need to create understanding among legislators and policymakers of the interrelationship between development, population, and family planning. Parliamentarian groups can help to ensure that population and family planning are included in development plans and that resources are committed to population and family planning programs. The main initiative for the establishment of Parliamentarian groups and for their regional and international cooperation came from the United Nations Fund for Population activities (UNFPA). The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) has been involved from the beginning and works closely with UNFPA. The meeting of Parliamentarians on Population and Development during 1981 resulted in important regional developments, with IMF affiliates playing a major role. The Washington Conference on Population and Development included Parliamentarians from the Caribbean and Latin America. Priorities for formulating population and development policies were identified. The African Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development marked the first time that a major conference on so sensitive an issue was held in Africa. The Beijung conference was attended by 19 Asian countries and resulted in a declaration calling on Parliaments, governments, UN agencies, and nongovernmental organizations to increase their commitment to all aspects of population and family planning. National developments in India and the Philippines are also discussed. Many of the countries with Parliamentary groups on Population and Development have governments that are involved in providing international population assistance. Greater commitment to population as a crucial factor in development through the establishment of links with governments and parliamentarians is an action area within the IPPF 1982-84 plan.