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    267551

    Basic community services through primary health care: a training approach, 2nd ed., rev.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]; UNICEF. East Asia and Pakistan Regional Office

    Bangkok, Thailand, ESCAP, 1984 Apr. 175 p. (ESCAP Programme on Health and Development Technical Paper No. 65/BCS 12; ST/ESCAP/291)

    The recognition of the necessity of involving the community in development efforts has been a turning point in the evolution of development thinking in recent years. Since 1978, the UNICEF Regional Office for East Asia and Pakistan and ESCAP have been conducting a series of training seminars where local development, basic services and primary health care are discussed as part of village reality. This volume reviews this experience, generalizing it to enhance adaptation. The seminars are a learning by doing and experience-sharing process. Group discussion and reflection on relevant issues are focused on. The seminars are oriented to community life as a whole, considering primary heatlh care as an entry point for coummunity development which involves generation of services within the community, supplemented by delivery of services from other institutional levels. This report describes the overall framework, including the organization of the 1983 seminar and the training approach, and the syllabus and evaluates the seminars. The goal of the seminar is the promotion of basic community health care in the countries of the region to improve the quality of life of the poor. Each participant discusses his/her work experience. Basic needs, basic services and primary health care are examined and a field-study phase at village-level is organized. Planning capabilities are developed by a phase of planning for basic and community services and primary health care. A module on national development, basic needs approach and production-oriented development is introduced. Finally, each participant prepares a draft project proposal for training for his/her own country situation. The evaluation of a program includes both its delivery system component and its eventual impact. The seminars used questionnaires, special group discussions and interviewing of the participants. The aim was to scrutinize the relevance and potential for modification of knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) rather that the actual impact actual impact achieved. Behavioral change should be evaluated on at least 2 levels: the individual and the collective. The structure, clustering and frequency of response to a given question in an evaluation questionnaire and the average level of awareness about a particular issue are 2 important measures to analyze. Seminar participants were mainly middle level personnel, but included some junior and senior officials from ministries of health, interior or home affairs and agriculture; training institutes; rural development institutes; planning commissions and universities.
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