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Bangkok, Thailand, ESCAP, 1984. 323 p. (ESCAP Programme on Health and Development Technical Paper No. 66/PHD 19; ST/ESCAP/286)This training manual describes the organization of the courses, the course syllabus, the 1983 course on planning, development and health, the follow-up evaluation of the training courses of 1976-82 and the specialized activities in planning for health and development at ESCAP. Planning for health is viewed as an integral part of overall development planning with the conscious incorporation of clear goals, to help ensure that development programs have a positive impact on the health of the region's poor. ESCAP's training program aims to amplify, in concrete terms, the close relationship between health and development and to build the capability to take an integrated and multisectoral approach to inproving health and accelerating development. The design and implementation of a training program oriented to strengthen capacities in planning, development and health is a function of these 3 terms. The basic frame has remained farily similar to the 1976 course. Training aims at behavior change--to strengthen capacity for action, rather than to accumulate knowledge and information for information's sake. Training objectives must be appraised in terms of relevance, adequacy, effectiveness, efficacy and impact before actual implementation beings. The course is conceived as a unified, multi-sectoral approach to assess the health situation and propose intervention measures aimed at the elimination of the social causes of ill-health and disease of a country. The focus is in the relationships between health and development through systems analysis and relevant planning tools. The aim of the courses is to produce a cadre of planners for health with an innovative and intersectoral outlook, consistent with the dynamic approaches in health, development and planning and with abilities to convince the higher planning structures, rally political support and enlist coummunity involvement with focus on Health for All by the Year 2000. Tables and charts facilitate understanding of concepts involved in this training.
Program report [of the Central America regional seminar-workshop entitled] New Focuses of Family Planning Program Administration: Analysis of Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys and Other Program Data, [held in] Antigua, Guatemala, May 25-30, 1980.
[Washington, D.C., CEFPA, 1980.] 30 p. (Contract AID/pha-c-1187)This report 1) presents a summary of the planning process of the seminar-workshop in family planning held in Antigua, Guatemala from May 25-30, 1980; 2) reviews program content and training methodology; and 3) provides feedback on the evaluation of the program and in-country follow-up responses to the workshop. Negotiations were made between the Centre for Population Activities (CEFPA) officials, USAID (U.S. Agency for International Development) population/health officials, and family planning officials from each participating country to elicit program suggestions and support. The ensuing communication process facilitated the development of the program in many ways, including: 1) program design, which incorporated in-country family planning program needs, suggested workshop topics, and country-specific requests for workshop objective; 2) participant selection; and 3) USAID mission commitment. The workshop aimed to provide an opportunity for leaders of family planning and related programs to make an intelligent and effective use of data available to them. The training methodology consisted of structured small-group exercises. Program content included: 1) contraceptive prevalence survey case exercise, which aims to identify problem areas and need in the delivery of family planning and maternal child health services as a tool in assessing progress towards family planning goals; 2) other data sources available to family planning program managers, including World Fertility Survey data and program service statistics; 3) program alternatives in the form of mini-workshops on such topics as logistics management, improving clinic efficiency, primary health and family planning, adolescent fertility, and voluntary sterilization; and 4) program planning, which enables participants to interpret data and apply them in the planning process. In evaluating the workshop, a majority of the participants reported that the workshop and their own personal objectives were either completely or almost completely achieved, and they also indicated that more workshops at the regional and national levels should be conducted.
Food emergency in wonderland: a case study prepared by the League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies for the training of relief workers.
In: Advances in international maternal and child health, vol. 4, 1984, edited by D.B. Jelliffe and E.F. Jelliffe. Oxford, England, Oxford University Press, 1984. 110-23.This monograph chapter is an exercise whose aim is to help relief workers to be better equipped to solve the practical problems of an emergency relief operation. Its events and contents are imaginary, but are drawn from direct experience. It has been used extensively in Red Cross training projects in several countries, and is designed, 1st, to be complemented with other types of educational media, and 2nd, to be adapted to the training requirements of diverse types of project, through "biasing" in favor of health, nutrition, sanitation, or logistics. A description is given of the management of the case study educational setting, based on real experience with the use of the material; the best results appeared achieveable through a class session on part 1, consisting of initial assessment of an hypothetical nutritional emergency, followed by work in small groups on part 2. Part 1 consists of presentation of situation characteristics, e.g. "overworked health assistant reports a big increase in chest infections, diarrhea, and typhus," and "there is a hand-dug well 1/2 mile from the shelter." Part 2 describes the situation 2 months later, after intervention has begun. Situation characteristics appear such as, "Records from clinic attendance indicates that the commonest disease symptoms are diarrhea, cough with or without temperature, general aches and pains, worms, and eye infections." The case study also includes additional information on food stocks, demographic data, and nutritional survey data (the latter not included in this article). Concluding the article are examples of topics for group discussions and presentations.
Bangkok, Thailand, ESCAP, 1984 Apr. 175 p. (ESCAP Programme on Health and Development Technical Paper No. 65/BCS 12; ST/ESCAP/291)The recognition of the necessity of involving the community in development efforts has been a turning point in the evolution of development thinking in recent years. Since 1978, the UNICEF Regional Office for East Asia and Pakistan and ESCAP have been conducting a series of training seminars where local development, basic services and primary health care are discussed as part of village reality. This volume reviews this experience, generalizing it to enhance adaptation. The seminars are a learning by doing and experience-sharing process. Group discussion and reflection on relevant issues are focused on. The seminars are oriented to community life as a whole, considering primary heatlh care as an entry point for coummunity development which involves generation of services within the community, supplemented by delivery of services from other institutional levels. This report describes the overall framework, including the organization of the 1983 seminar and the training approach, and the syllabus and evaluates the seminars. The goal of the seminar is the promotion of basic community health care in the countries of the region to improve the quality of life of the poor. Each participant discusses his/her work experience. Basic needs, basic services and primary health care are examined and a field-study phase at village-level is organized. Planning capabilities are developed by a phase of planning for basic and community services and primary health care. A module on national development, basic needs approach and production-oriented development is introduced. Finally, each participant prepares a draft project proposal for training for his/her own country situation. The evaluation of a program includes both its delivery system component and its eventual impact. The seminars used questionnaires, special group discussions and interviewing of the participants. The aim was to scrutinize the relevance and potential for modification of knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) rather that the actual impact actual impact achieved. Behavioral change should be evaluated on at least 2 levels: the individual and the collective. The structure, clustering and frequency of response to a given question in an evaluation questionnaire and the average level of awareness about a particular issue are 2 important measures to analyze. Seminar participants were mainly middle level personnel, but included some junior and senior officials from ministries of health, interior or home affairs and agriculture; training institutes; rural development institutes; planning commissions and universities.
Evaluation report to UNFPA on UNFPA-supported United Nations Demographic Training and Research Centre.
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, Oct. 1977. 159 p.UNFPA (United Nations Fund for Population Activities) gives support to 6 UN Domographic Training and Research Centres (IIPS, CELADE, CDC, RIPS, IFORD, AND CEDOR). An evaluation of these centers addressed these points: 1) description and analysis of the objectives for each center as well as of the strategy for the total program and of the interrelationship between these objectives and the overall strategy; 2) description and problem oriented analysis of the center's programs including legal arrangements, institutional framework, planned and actual activities, resources, and funding; 3) description and analysis of the achievements by each center of its objectives; 4) description and analysis of the present and future role of each center for the achievement of the overall strategy. The International Institute for Population Studies (IIPS) gives adequate training to its personnel, but it needs to require minimum standards of knowledge of mathematics and statistics; a standard English test should be applied before admission. There is also a lack of opportunity for field work. At Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia (CELADE), training should provide more opportunities in studying interrelationships between population and socioeconomic variables, and put less emphasis on technical subjects, such as mathematics and statistics. The Cairo Demographic Centre (CDC) should continue to recruit the majority of its students from the Arab countries. The Centre should be more demanding in this recruitment and admission policies and procedures should be standardized. CDC should develop a specific policy on grades and on the conditions under which a candidate may not receive a diploma or degeee. The Mission recommends that the Regional Institute for Population Studies (RIPS) strengthen its field work program, coordinate its curriculum to avoid overlap of coursework, and that the UN contribute funds for all activities forming part of the agreement. At both Institut de Formation et de Recherche Demographiques (IFORD) and Centre D'Etudes Demographiques ONU-Roumanie (CEDOR), the mission concludes that both centers are too small to be viable, and feels that under ideal conditions it would have been preferable to have both population development and technical demography taught in one and the same institution. Closer collaboration between the 2 centers is recommended. There is a dire need for training and research in French speaking developing countries.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1982. 68 p. (World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 551)This paper outlines the inclusion of communication support in various lending sectors of the World Bank, describes how communication support activities should be designed and carried out during the project cycle, and addresses some common problems and issues that should be kept in mind when developing and implementing these activities. Communication support refers to information, motivation, or education activities which are designed to help achieve the objectives of a parent project through creating a favorable social climate for change. Usually such activities are financed under the same loan as the parent project. By fiscal year 1979 the World Bank had lent some US$183 million for communication support, usually for education, agriculture and rural development, and population, health, and nutrition. Potential benefits of communication support include facilitating change among project populations, helping create an effective implementing agency, coping with negative behavior or attitudes, and helping prevent negative impact. The World Bank experiences with communication support in 7 sectors of Bank lending are briefly described, including education; population, health and nutrition; agriculture; urban projects; water and wastes; transportation; and telecommunications. Various steps in the design process are then detailed, including identification of institutional arrangements, definition of objectives, identification and segmentation of the people to be reached, identification of the timing and time frame, selection of channels, decisions on communication style, technique and content, design of pretesting, monitoring and evaluation arrangements, and costing. Among issues in the design of communication support programs that are discussed are inclusion of communication support versus managerial complexity; centralization versus decentralization; single agency versus multi-agency responsibility; in-house responsibility versus contracting out; mass media versus personal channels; and overdesign versus underdesign.
London, England, IPPF, July 1982. 4 p. (IPPF Fact Sheet)Discusses the movement to establish groups of Parliamentarians on Population and Development throughout the world. The movement grew out of the need to create understanding among legislators and policymakers of the interrelationship between development, population, and family planning. Parliamentarian groups can help to ensure that population and family planning are included in development plans and that resources are committed to population and family planning programs. The main initiative for the establishment of Parliamentarian groups and for their regional and international cooperation came from the United Nations Fund for Population activities (UNFPA). The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) has been involved from the beginning and works closely with UNFPA. The meeting of Parliamentarians on Population and Development during 1981 resulted in important regional developments, with IMF affiliates playing a major role. The Washington Conference on Population and Development included Parliamentarians from the Caribbean and Latin America. Priorities for formulating population and development policies were identified. The African Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development marked the first time that a major conference on so sensitive an issue was held in Africa. The Beijung conference was attended by 19 Asian countries and resulted in a declaration calling on Parliaments, governments, UN agencies, and nongovernmental organizations to increase their commitment to all aspects of population and family planning. National developments in India and the Philippines are also discussed. Many of the countries with Parliamentary groups on Population and Development have governments that are involved in providing international population assistance. Greater commitment to population as a crucial factor in development through the establishment of links with governments and parliamentarians is an action area within the IPPF 1982-84 plan.
Washington, D.C., Agency for International Development, 1982 May. 8 p. (A.I.D. Policy Paper)The Task Force of the US Agency for International Development (US AID) sets forth the overall objectives, policy decisions, and programming implications for food and agricultural assistance funded from Development Assistance, Economic Support Fund, and PL 480 budgets. The objective of US food and agricultural assistance is to enable developing countries to become self-reliant in food through increased agricultural production and greater economic efficiency in marketing and distribution of food products. Improved food consumption is gained through expanded employment to increase purchasing power, increased awareness of sound nutritional principles, and direct distribution of food from domestic or external sources to those facing severe malnutrition and food shortages. Policy elements to accomplish these objectives include 1) improving country policies to remove constraints on food production; 2) developing human resources and institutional capabilities, including research on food and agriculture problems; 3) expanding the role of private sectors in developing countries and private sector in agricultural development; and 4) employing available assistance instruments and technologies in an integrated and efficient manner. A sound country policy framework is fundamental for agricultural growth and should 1) rely on free markets, product incentives, and equitable access to resources; 2) give priority to complementary public sector investments that complement and encourage rather than compete with private sector growth. Private and voluntary organizations (PVOs) can also offer low-cost approaches to agricultural development that take local attitudes and conditions into account. Under appropriate conditions, US AID will finance a share of recurrent costs of food and agricultural research, education, extension or related institutions, provided that policy and institution frameworks assure effective utilization and the country is making maximum and/or increasing domestic resource mobilization efforts.
[Operational sequence for the implementation of a subregional food and nutrition strategy] Secuencia operativa para la implementacion de una estrategia subregional de alimentacion y nutricion.
In: Lineamientos de una estrategia Andina de alimentacion y nutricion [by] Junta del Acuerdo de Cartegena. Grupo de Politica Technologica. Proyectos Andinos de Desarollo Technologico en el Area de los Alimentos. Lima, Peru, Junta del Acuerdo de Cartagena, Grupo de Politica Technologica, Proyectos Andinos de Desarollo Technologico en el Area de los Alimentos, 1983. 143-74.This article outlines and diagrams a recommended operational sequence for implementation of food and nutrition strategy for the Andean region. The multisectorial strategy envisioned by the planners would involve the supply and demand for foods; basic health, environmental sanitation and educational services; and food information and technology. The integrated, multisectorial nature of the strategy requires policies, plans, and programming designed to facilitate harmonious development of all the necessary elements within the 5 Andean countries. The proposed methodology for operationalizing the strategy is based on a systems focus which covers all aspects of production, processing, distribution, final consumption, and technoeconomic policies for food and nutrition. Because the food and nutrition strategy is more than a production program, its design should identify interrelations between the availability and prices of foods, external commerce, industrial trends, food commerce and distribution, and food consumption in adquate quantities by the entire population. A basic service component for health should also be included for the Andean population because of its relationship to nutritional aspects. The suggested instrument for operationalizing the systems focus is the "Methodology for Evaluation andprogramming of Technological and Economic Development of Production and Consumption Systems" developed by the Andean Projects for Technological Development Food Group for the Group for Technological Policy of the Cartagena Accord. The methodology consists of a manual and a "Model of Numerical Experimentation", which permits identification of system components, calculation and evaluation of relevant aspects of each production factor, and design and selection of development alternatives. The Model of Numerical Experimentation" allows simulation of goals for satisfaction of needs, exports of final products, import substitution, different production technologies, commercial margins, subidies, customs duties, taxes and exchange rates and related variables. Various food production systems have already been studied using the methodology in each of the 5 Andean countries. It is recommended that implementation of aspects of the food and nutrition strategy involving food production and consumption proceed in 8 operational sequences: 1) characterization of the current industrial, agroindustrial, and fishing economy 2) identification and selection of basic foods and/or strategies 3) representation and quantification of each of the selected systems 4) evaluation of each system and intersystem relationship 5) identification and selection of systems of production of alternative foodstuffs 6) proposal for a national and regional food system 7) concerted development programming for the regional food system and 8) design of mechanisms of evaluation and follow-up.
[Towards a subregional food and nutrition strategy. How to begin?] Hacia una estrategia subregional en alimentacion y nutricion por donde empezar?
In: Lineamientos de una estrategia Andina de alimentacion y nutricion [by] Junta del Acuerdo de Cartegena. Grupo de Politica Technologica. Proyectos Andinos de Desarollo Technologico en el Area de los Alimentos. Lima, Peru, Junta del Acuerdo de Cartagena, Grupo de Politica Technologica, Proyectos Andinos de Desarollo Technologico en el Area de los Alimentos, 1983. 111-42.This work suggests objectives, rationale, methods, and organizational structure for an Andean regional food and nutrition strategy. Although a food and nutrition policy is a desired goal in the region, the complexities of the problem and the fact that definitive solutions require a broad development strategy hamper development of a food and nutrition strategy. The food strategy initially should address aspects of food supply, food demand and utilization through provision of basic services, and food information and technology. The food supply strategy should involve 4 types of foods and 3 types of nutrients causing specific deficiencies. The food types should include 1) foods competitively produced in the region but not widely utilized by the Andean population, such as rice from Colombia or fish and seafoods from Peru and Ecuador 2) required foods not yet produced competitively in the region but capable of production within 5 years, such as meat from Bolivia or oils from Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, and Colombia 3) foods competitively produced whose availability should be assured more widely in seasonal and geographic terms, such as sugar cane, bananas, potatoes, and yucca. 4) foods not currently produced competitively in the region and not likely to be produced within 5 years but which are important to the local diet and are in chronically short supply, such as maize, wheat, flours, oils, and fats. The deficiency-causing nutrients would be iodine, vitamin A, and ferrous sulphate or other iron derivatives. Basic services to be added or improved should include primary health care programs and environmental sanitation programs. Information and technology components of the food and nutrition strategy would initially involve the investigation and transferrance of technology for each step affecting food supply and demand for goods and services included in the overall strategy, as well as attempts to develop a basic data base concerning the interventions adopted. The organizational structure for the food and nutrition strategy should be flexible, with a lower level including a technical work group and an upper level composed of representatives of various sectors and organizations which would coordinate policy design and implementation.