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Report on evaluation of the role of population factors in the planning process through the application of development models.
Bangkok, Thailand, UN, 1978. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 37; ST/ESCAP/64) 50 pThe basic objectives of the study are: 1) to encourage and motivate country planners to improve their development plans by integrating population factors into development planning and policies; 2) to provide planners with appropriate procedures to consider the short-term and long-term implications of population growth for fixing priorities and setting targets in various development sectors; 3) to provide guidelines for considering the implications of various socioeconomic programs and policies for fertility, mortality, and migration; and 4) to serve as a guideline for training and educational purposes. The major models which have been developed by research teams to portray the interaction between demographic, economic, and social variables are analyzed and evaluated with regard to their potential usefulness in development planning. The study deals with the following prototypes and their country-specific applications: 1) TEMPO 1 and TEMPO 2; 2) the Long Range Planning Model series of models; 3) the FAC/UNFPA MODEL; 4) the model developed by the Population Dynamics Group of the University of Illinois; and 5) the BACHUE model. Concerning choice of model structure and application to planning, 3 methodological questions are considered: the choice of a central core for the model; the trade-off between simplicity and complexity; and the choice of a supply or demand orientation. It is concluded that the construction of a model is as important as its application to the policy making and planning processes of countries. In general this would be facilitated if the model were designed and developed in the country in which it was to be used. Such models would be more closely attuned to country-specific problems and the creation of the model would create a cadre of people within the country capable of operating and adapting the model.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1982. 68 p. (World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 551)This paper outlines the inclusion of communication support in various lending sectors of the World Bank, describes how communication support activities should be designed and carried out during the project cycle, and addresses some common problems and issues that should be kept in mind when developing and implementing these activities. Communication support refers to information, motivation, or education activities which are designed to help achieve the objectives of a parent project through creating a favorable social climate for change. Usually such activities are financed under the same loan as the parent project. By fiscal year 1979 the World Bank had lent some US$183 million for communication support, usually for education, agriculture and rural development, and population, health, and nutrition. Potential benefits of communication support include facilitating change among project populations, helping create an effective implementing agency, coping with negative behavior or attitudes, and helping prevent negative impact. The World Bank experiences with communication support in 7 sectors of Bank lending are briefly described, including education; population, health and nutrition; agriculture; urban projects; water and wastes; transportation; and telecommunications. Various steps in the design process are then detailed, including identification of institutional arrangements, definition of objectives, identification and segmentation of the people to be reached, identification of the timing and time frame, selection of channels, decisions on communication style, technique and content, design of pretesting, monitoring and evaluation arrangements, and costing. Among issues in the design of communication support programs that are discussed are inclusion of communication support versus managerial complexity; centralization versus decentralization; single agency versus multi-agency responsibility; in-house responsibility versus contracting out; mass media versus personal channels; and overdesign versus underdesign.
Washington, D.C., Agency for International Development, 1982 May. 8 p. (A.I.D. Policy Paper)The Task Force of the US Agency for International Development (US AID) sets forth the overall objectives, policy decisions, and programming implications for food and agricultural assistance funded from Development Assistance, Economic Support Fund, and PL 480 budgets. The objective of US food and agricultural assistance is to enable developing countries to become self-reliant in food through increased agricultural production and greater economic efficiency in marketing and distribution of food products. Improved food consumption is gained through expanded employment to increase purchasing power, increased awareness of sound nutritional principles, and direct distribution of food from domestic or external sources to those facing severe malnutrition and food shortages. Policy elements to accomplish these objectives include 1) improving country policies to remove constraints on food production; 2) developing human resources and institutional capabilities, including research on food and agriculture problems; 3) expanding the role of private sectors in developing countries and private sector in agricultural development; and 4) employing available assistance instruments and technologies in an integrated and efficient manner. A sound country policy framework is fundamental for agricultural growth and should 1) rely on free markets, product incentives, and equitable access to resources; 2) give priority to complementary public sector investments that complement and encourage rather than compete with private sector growth. Private and voluntary organizations (PVOs) can also offer low-cost approaches to agricultural development that take local attitudes and conditions into account. Under appropriate conditions, US AID will finance a share of recurrent costs of food and agricultural research, education, extension or related institutions, provided that policy and institution frameworks assure effective utilization and the country is making maximum and/or increasing domestic resource mobilization efforts.
[Operational sequence for the implementation of a subregional food and nutrition strategy] Secuencia operativa para la implementacion de una estrategia subregional de alimentacion y nutricion.
In: Lineamientos de una estrategia Andina de alimentacion y nutricion [by] Junta del Acuerdo de Cartegena. Grupo de Politica Technologica. Proyectos Andinos de Desarollo Technologico en el Area de los Alimentos. Lima, Peru, Junta del Acuerdo de Cartagena, Grupo de Politica Technologica, Proyectos Andinos de Desarollo Technologico en el Area de los Alimentos, 1983. 143-74.This article outlines and diagrams a recommended operational sequence for implementation of food and nutrition strategy for the Andean region. The multisectorial strategy envisioned by the planners would involve the supply and demand for foods; basic health, environmental sanitation and educational services; and food information and technology. The integrated, multisectorial nature of the strategy requires policies, plans, and programming designed to facilitate harmonious development of all the necessary elements within the 5 Andean countries. The proposed methodology for operationalizing the strategy is based on a systems focus which covers all aspects of production, processing, distribution, final consumption, and technoeconomic policies for food and nutrition. Because the food and nutrition strategy is more than a production program, its design should identify interrelations between the availability and prices of foods, external commerce, industrial trends, food commerce and distribution, and food consumption in adquate quantities by the entire population. A basic service component for health should also be included for the Andean population because of its relationship to nutritional aspects. The suggested instrument for operationalizing the systems focus is the "Methodology for Evaluation andprogramming of Technological and Economic Development of Production and Consumption Systems" developed by the Andean Projects for Technological Development Food Group for the Group for Technological Policy of the Cartagena Accord. The methodology consists of a manual and a "Model of Numerical Experimentation", which permits identification of system components, calculation and evaluation of relevant aspects of each production factor, and design and selection of development alternatives. The Model of Numerical Experimentation" allows simulation of goals for satisfaction of needs, exports of final products, import substitution, different production technologies, commercial margins, subidies, customs duties, taxes and exchange rates and related variables. Various food production systems have already been studied using the methodology in each of the 5 Andean countries. It is recommended that implementation of aspects of the food and nutrition strategy involving food production and consumption proceed in 8 operational sequences: 1) characterization of the current industrial, agroindustrial, and fishing economy 2) identification and selection of basic foods and/or strategies 3) representation and quantification of each of the selected systems 4) evaluation of each system and intersystem relationship 5) identification and selection of systems of production of alternative foodstuffs 6) proposal for a national and regional food system 7) concerted development programming for the regional food system and 8) design of mechanisms of evaluation and follow-up.