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Country commodity manager. CCM: a computer program for the management and forecasting of reproductive health commodity needs. Instruction manual. Software version 2.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2004. 47 p. (E/800/2004)The purpose of the Country Commodity Manager (CCM) is to assist country offices in their efforts to assess their reproductive health commodity requirements, stock positions, and possible shortfalls. CCM is an easy-to-use program which can quickly generate models and reports which will: 1) forecast reproductive health commodity requirements based on logistics and inventory data, 2) validate this forecast utilizing demographic data, and 3) warn of future reproductive health commodity shortfalls. CCM also provides a mechanism to readily transmit each country’s data to UNFPA headquarters from their country offices for use in generating global level reports for the purposes of planning, advocacy and resource mobilization. In this latest release of the software, we have added other reproductive health commodities and kits to the list of contraceptives that was managed in the first version. Our goal is to collect global data on all of these commodities. This new release also includes the much requested ability for users to add the names of any other commodities they wish to the data tables to be managed and reported on by CCM. (excerpt)
A critical review of priority setting in the health sector: the methodology of the 1993 World Development Report.
HEALTH POLICY AND PLANNING. 1998; 13(1):13-31.The 1993 World Development Report (WDR) identifies the following problems in the health sector of developing countries: escalation of costs, misallocation of public funds, and the inefficient and inequitable use of available funds. Policies are suggested in the WDR to help developing country governments improve their populations' health. Technological limitations and resource scarcity mean that not all health needs can be met. Priorities must therefore be set for health services. The report therefore also introduces a new methodology to improve government spending based upon epidemiological and economic analysis, with analysis leading to the establishment of a league table of priority health interventions, cardinally ranked by health gain per dollar spent. Use of the table should improve the efficiency of public health expenditure. The Ministries of Health of many countries have shown interest in designing a national package of essential health services, using the methodology. An overview of the methodology is presented, as well as the main issues and problems in estimating the burden of disease, and the cost-effectiveness of interventions. Strengths and weaknesses in the databases, value judgements, and assumptions are identified.
Food emergency in wonderland: a case study prepared by the League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies for the training of relief workers.
In: Advances in international maternal and child health, vol. 4, 1984, edited by D.B. Jelliffe and E.F. Jelliffe. Oxford, England, Oxford University Press, 1984. 110-23.This monograph chapter is an exercise whose aim is to help relief workers to be better equipped to solve the practical problems of an emergency relief operation. Its events and contents are imaginary, but are drawn from direct experience. It has been used extensively in Red Cross training projects in several countries, and is designed, 1st, to be complemented with other types of educational media, and 2nd, to be adapted to the training requirements of diverse types of project, through "biasing" in favor of health, nutrition, sanitation, or logistics. A description is given of the management of the case study educational setting, based on real experience with the use of the material; the best results appeared achieveable through a class session on part 1, consisting of initial assessment of an hypothetical nutritional emergency, followed by work in small groups on part 2. Part 1 consists of presentation of situation characteristics, e.g. "overworked health assistant reports a big increase in chest infections, diarrhea, and typhus," and "there is a hand-dug well 1/2 mile from the shelter." Part 2 describes the situation 2 months later, after intervention has begun. Situation characteristics appear such as, "Records from clinic attendance indicates that the commonest disease symptoms are diarrhea, cough with or without temperature, general aches and pains, worms, and eye infections." The case study also includes additional information on food stocks, demographic data, and nutritional survey data (the latter not included in this article). Concluding the article are examples of topics for group discussions and presentations.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1985. 52 p. (ST/ESA/SER.E/39)This monograph presents an overview of the content and direction of courses designed to prepare planning coordinators of developing nations to approach population and development policy making in a richly informed interdisciplinary manner. The conceptual framework for such a curriculum is presented 1st in a theoretical section on the links between the key concepts of population and development. Next, recommendations on curriculum design emphasize 2 main lines of focus: 1) understanding the cultural context in which developmental planning takes place; 2) exploring the available means of action in terms of strategies corresponding to explicit transitional goals in relation to the identified context. The emphasis, rather than on specific technical expertise, should be on providing information on the range of tools available for use in the field at a later stage. The 3rd section involves course orientation; the aim is to turn out planning coordinators capable of formulating integrated population policies. The curriculum should be geared to occupational groups, including senior management, middle-level staff, educators and researchers, and executing agents. Section 4 covers course admission requirements, criteria for teachers and locations. Section 5 presents recommendations for subject matter, presenting a 2 year curriculum, each year divided into 4 modules: 1) knowledge of the context; 2) the population component; 3) the instruments of change, involving developmental economics and planning; and 4) techniques of analysis, systems analysis, econometrics, forecasting and more. An outline of the curriculum detailing topics, course length, and general and specific goals for each course follows. A bibliography covering general works, works on economics, sociology, anthropology and systems concludes the document.
Report on evaluation of the role of population factors in the planning process through the application of development models.
Bangkok, Thailand, UN, 1978. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 37; ST/ESCAP/64) 50 pThe basic objectives of the study are: 1) to encourage and motivate country planners to improve their development plans by integrating population factors into development planning and policies; 2) to provide planners with appropriate procedures to consider the short-term and long-term implications of population growth for fixing priorities and setting targets in various development sectors; 3) to provide guidelines for considering the implications of various socioeconomic programs and policies for fertility, mortality, and migration; and 4) to serve as a guideline for training and educational purposes. The major models which have been developed by research teams to portray the interaction between demographic, economic, and social variables are analyzed and evaluated with regard to their potential usefulness in development planning. The study deals with the following prototypes and their country-specific applications: 1) TEMPO 1 and TEMPO 2; 2) the Long Range Planning Model series of models; 3) the FAC/UNFPA MODEL; 4) the model developed by the Population Dynamics Group of the University of Illinois; and 5) the BACHUE model. Concerning choice of model structure and application to planning, 3 methodological questions are considered: the choice of a central core for the model; the trade-off between simplicity and complexity; and the choice of a supply or demand orientation. It is concluded that the construction of a model is as important as its application to the policy making and planning processes of countries. In general this would be facilitated if the model were designed and developed in the country in which it was to be used. Such models would be more closely attuned to country-specific problems and the creation of the model would create a cadre of people within the country capable of operating and adapting the model.
In: International Committee on the Management of Population Programmes (ICOMP). 1975 Annual Conference Report: expanding role of the population manager, Mexico City, July 14-17, 1975. (Mahati, Philippines, 1976). p. 33-43The World Population Plan of Action listed 3 general principles: national self-determination of population objectives: the need to relate population policy to development; and the individual right to determine family size in an informed manner along with the right of each child to adequate food, care, and education. Population planning in countries that want to reduce birthrates is concerned with alternative means of reducing fertility consistent with basic human rights and national goals. This requires adequate attention to the planning process, collection of adequate statistics, persuasion, and recognition of the fact that some socioeconomic changes may actually increase the number of children. Increased income for the husband may, and increased employment for children definitely will, increase the economic and personal value of children. However, increased employment for women seems to reduce birthrates. Improved nutrition may eliminate the sterility effects of poor health and increase live births. To reduce fertility, development must distribute income evenly in the population. Female literacy must be encouraged. Infant and child mortality must be cut. The biggest need in developing countries is for an integrated approach with clear-cut targets. To achieve this objective some organization must take responsibility. There appear to be 3 major organizational alternatives: assigning the function to a ministry, adding it to a national planning agency, or establishing a separate planning board or agency. Whichever system is chose, the work to be done consists of improving demographic statistics, conducting applied research, making projections, and setting policy alternatives. A good deal of training and some technical assistance may be required. The leadership of a program is vital to its success.
London, England, IPPF, July 1982. 4 p. (IPPF Fact Sheet)Discusses the movement to establish groups of Parliamentarians on Population and Development throughout the world. The movement grew out of the need to create understanding among legislators and policymakers of the interrelationship between development, population, and family planning. Parliamentarian groups can help to ensure that population and family planning are included in development plans and that resources are committed to population and family planning programs. The main initiative for the establishment of Parliamentarian groups and for their regional and international cooperation came from the United Nations Fund for Population activities (UNFPA). The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) has been involved from the beginning and works closely with UNFPA. The meeting of Parliamentarians on Population and Development during 1981 resulted in important regional developments, with IMF affiliates playing a major role. The Washington Conference on Population and Development included Parliamentarians from the Caribbean and Latin America. Priorities for formulating population and development policies were identified. The African Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development marked the first time that a major conference on so sensitive an issue was held in Africa. The Beijung conference was attended by 19 Asian countries and resulted in a declaration calling on Parliaments, governments, UN agencies, and nongovernmental organizations to increase their commitment to all aspects of population and family planning. National developments in India and the Philippines are also discussed. Many of the countries with Parliamentary groups on Population and Development have governments that are involved in providing international population assistance. Greater commitment to population as a crucial factor in development through the establishment of links with governments and parliamentarians is an action area within the IPPF 1982-84 plan.
Washington, D.C., Agency for International Development, 1982 May. 8 p. (A.I.D. Policy Paper)The Task Force of the US Agency for International Development (US AID) sets forth the overall objectives, policy decisions, and programming implications for food and agricultural assistance funded from Development Assistance, Economic Support Fund, and PL 480 budgets. The objective of US food and agricultural assistance is to enable developing countries to become self-reliant in food through increased agricultural production and greater economic efficiency in marketing and distribution of food products. Improved food consumption is gained through expanded employment to increase purchasing power, increased awareness of sound nutritional principles, and direct distribution of food from domestic or external sources to those facing severe malnutrition and food shortages. Policy elements to accomplish these objectives include 1) improving country policies to remove constraints on food production; 2) developing human resources and institutional capabilities, including research on food and agriculture problems; 3) expanding the role of private sectors in developing countries and private sector in agricultural development; and 4) employing available assistance instruments and technologies in an integrated and efficient manner. A sound country policy framework is fundamental for agricultural growth and should 1) rely on free markets, product incentives, and equitable access to resources; 2) give priority to complementary public sector investments that complement and encourage rather than compete with private sector growth. Private and voluntary organizations (PVOs) can also offer low-cost approaches to agricultural development that take local attitudes and conditions into account. Under appropriate conditions, US AID will finance a share of recurrent costs of food and agricultural research, education, extension or related institutions, provided that policy and institution frameworks assure effective utilization and the country is making maximum and/or increasing domestic resource mobilization efforts.