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A bilingual regional workshop: Methodologies for Designing and Implementing Multimedia Communication Strategies and National Communication Policies, Niamey, Niger, 1-5 April, 2002. Final report. [Un atelier régional bilingue : Méthodologies pour la conception et l'implémentation de stratégies de communication multimédia et de politiques de communication nationales à Niamey, au Niger. Du 1er au 5 avril 2002. Rapport final]
Rome, Italy, FAO, 2002. vii, 59 p.The principal objective of the meeting was to provide a forum for the exchange of views on and discussions of specific needs and expectations of different national communities. Three documents, as well as this final report, were published as a result of the workshop: A methodological guide to creating a multimedia communication strategy; A guide to creating and implementing national policies on information and communication for sustainable development in Africa; A report on the definition and implementation of national communication for development policies, with case studies from Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger and Guinea-Bissau. We hope that workshop participants were inspired and enabled to develop and implement sectoral strategies for multimedia communication and national communication for development policies in their countries. The FAO Extension, Education and Communication Service (SDRE) is ready and willing to provide technical support to their activities. (excerpt)
Community involvement in health development: challenging health services. Report of a WHO Study Group.
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION TECHNICAL REPORT SERIES. 1991; (809):i-iv, 1-56.In order to make community involvement in health development (CIH) a reality, countries need to go beyond endorsement of the idea and take concrete steps, reports a WHO study group examining the issue. While the idea of community involvement has gained widespread acceptance, most health services have been slow in making the necessary institutional and organizational changes, and in providing the necessary money and staff time. Furthermore, most CIH efforts have concentrated on the community side of involvement, neglecting the health development aspects and the context in which the involvement takes place. The Study Group, which met in Geneva on December 1989, was concerned with identifying specific obstacles to CIH implementation and providing recommendations. The report discusses such issues as the political, social, and economic contexts of CIH; the methodology of CIH; the training of health personnel; the strengthening of communities for CIH; and the monitoring and evaluation of such programs. Among the report's major findings: most countries have yet to truly commit to CIH; CIH programs lack the necessary support and resources; effective coordination at all levels is imperative; health personnel must be adequately educated on the principles and practices of CIH; and some health ministries promote too narrow an understanding of health. The report contains recommendations for both countries and for WHO. The recommendations for countries include several measures directed at the ministries of health, including a provision that the ministries develop guidelines for the implementation of CIH at the district level.
HEALTH POLICY AND PLANNING. 1992 Dec; 7(4):364-74.The Director of WHO's Regional Office for Africa presents a health development framework based on the primary health care (PHC) concept. the government should review national health policies, national health strategies, and national heath services to resolve basic issues. Then it should define the framework for health development by breaking down the goal into operational target-oriented subgoals for individuals, families, and communities, by creating health districts as operational units, and by organizing support for community health. Once this framework has been decided, the government should use it to restructure the national health systems. At the district level, health and development committees, helped by community health workers, and district health teams would be responsible for community health education and activities. The provincial health offices would oversee district activities, select and adapt technologies, and provide technical support to communities. A board would manage the provincial hospitals (public, private, and voluntary). These hospitals would work together to organize secondary medical care programs. A public health office wold link them with the provincial health centers. Other sectors would also be involved, e.g., departments of education and water. The national health ministry would set national policies, plans, and strategies. A suprasectoral health council would coordinate cooperation between universities and other sectors and external agencies. National capacity building would involve establishing management cycles of health development, using national specialists as health advisors, and placing health as a priority in development. To implement this framework, however, the government needs to surmount considerable structural economic, and social obstacles by at least decentralizing and integrating health and related programs at the local level, fostering a national dialogue, and promoting social mobilization.
[Unpublished] 1989. 30 p. (WHO/GPA/NPS/89.1)Of the 83 countries whose National Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Program (NAP) which have already implemented a medium-term plan, 7 have carried out a systematic review of program progress and efficiency; 4 more such reviews are planned fo r 1989 and over 60 for 1990. To assess early experiences with NAP reviews, an informal consultation was organized in Geneva in October 1989 by the World Health Organization's Global Program on AIDS. Although the review is a management tool and distinct from evaluations of program effectiveness and management, both processes are required for program assessment and reprogramming. The main areas that should be covered by NAP reviews include management, strategies, financing and policies, and monitoring. The review of the management system should focus on internal administrative capacities, personnel management, program coordination effectiveness, and logistics. The review of strategies should focus on whether management structures for the implementation of various goals are in place. The pertinent areas for the financing review are the use of adequate resources, accountability, potential for program sustainability, and efficient use of resources. Finally, monitoring is achieved through the establishment of a management information system. In addition, there are 3 review grades. Grade 1 is an annual internal review conducted by the program manager and key NAP staff, Grade 2 is a more limited review with participants from outside the NAP with expertise in a specific program area, and a Grade 3 review is a comprehensive exercise aimed at bringing about major changes in the NAP. For this review process to be meaningful, there should be an active exchange of information between NAPs, the World Health Organization, and the international community.