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New York, New York, UNICEF, 2017 Mar. 80 p.Climate change is one of many forces contributing to an unfolding water crisis. In the coming years, the demand for water will increase as food production grows, populations grow and move, industries develop and consumption increases. This can lead to water stress, as increasing demand and use of water strain available supplies. One of the most effective ways to protect children in the face of climate change is to safeguard their access to safe water and sanitation. This report shares a series of solutions, policy responses and case studies from UNICEF’s work around the world.
Caring for newborns and children in the community. Planning handbook for programme managers and planners.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, Department of Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health, 2015. 168 p.Prevention and treatment services need to be brought closer to children who are not adequately reached by the health system. To help meet this need, WHO and UNICEF have developed state-of-the-art packages to enable community health workers to care for pregnant women, newborns and children. Caring for Newborns and Children in the Community comprises three packages of materials for training and support of CHWs. Countries will assess their current community-based services and choose to what extent they are able to implement these packages for improving child and maternal health and survival: (1) Caring for the newborn at home, (2) caring for the child's healthy growth and development, (3) caring for the sick child in the community.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, EPI, 2016. 104 p.This document is intended for use by national immunization programme managers and immunization partners to inform the policy discussions and operational aspects for the introduction of HPV vaccine into national immunization programmes and to provide up-to-date references on the global policy, as well as the technical and strategic issues related to the introduction of HPV vaccine.
[Unpublished] 2016 Dec 15. 138 p.This is the first draft of the Global Accelerated Action for the Health of Adolescents (AA-HA!): Implementation guidance . This consultation aims to gather input from a wide range of stakeholders to inform the development of the guidance. Key messages include: 1. Adolescents (aged 10-19 years) make up one-sixth of the world’s population and are extremely diverse, but share key developmental experiences, such as rapid physical growth, hormonal changes, sexual development, new and complex emotions, and an increase in intellectual capacities. 2. Adolescent health is affected by positive physical, neurological, and psychosocial development, as well as a diverse array of possible burdens, including unintentional injury, interpersonal violence, sexual and reproductive health (SRH) concerns, communicable diseases, non-communicable diseases, and mental health issues. 3. In addition, numerous important risk factors for health problems start or are consolidated during adolescence and may continue over the life course, such as tobacco use, inadequate nutrition, physical inactivity, and alcohol and drug use. 4. There are strong demographic, public health, economic, and human rights reasons to invest in the health and the development of adolescents. For example, investing in adolescent health will benefit adolescents now, adolescents in their future lives, and also the next generation. 5. Three critical, overarching concepts in adolescent health programming are universal health coverage, quality of care, and positive development. 6. The Global Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health (2016-2030) takes a life-course approach that aims for the highest attainable standards of health and wellbeing -- physical, mental, and social -- at every age. It identifies 27 evidence-based adolescent health interventions. 7. The Global Accelerated Action for the Health of Adolescents (AA-HA!) implementation guidance document has been developed to support the Global Strategy and to provide countries with a basis for developing a coherent national plan for the health of adolescents. Specifically: Section 2 reviews adolescent positive development and major disease burdens; Section 3 describes the 27 Global Strategy adolescent health interventions in detail; Section 4 outlines how a country can prioritize health interventions for its particular adolescent population; Section 5 describes important aspects of successful national adolescent health programming; and Section 6 reviews adolescent health monitoring, evaluation, and research guidelines and priorities.
[Geneva, Switzerland], International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, 2016 Feb 29.  p.This document is an emergency plan of action created by International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies for the country of Honduras. The document includes a situational analysis of the Zika emergency in Honduras and an operational strategy and plan to combat the outbreak.
London, United Kingdom, Save the Children, 2016.  p.The Millennium Development Goals were a crucial starting point in galvanising international support for poverty reduction and illustrate the role international frameworks can play in driving national policy change. The Sustainable Development Goals -- if implemented enthusiastically and effectively -- will help us finish the job and ensure that no one is left behind. “From Agreement to Action” provides guidance and recommendations for governments, international actors and other stakeholders as they develop their implementation plans, and identifies five areas of action.
Applying lessons learned from the USAID family planning graduation experience to the GAVI graduation process.
Health Policy and Planning. 2015 Jul; 30(6):687-95.As low income countries experience economic transition, characterized by rapid economic growth and increased government spending potential in health, they have increased fiscal space to support and sustain more of their own health programmes, decreasing need for donor development assistance. Phase out of external funds should be systematic and efforts towards this end should concentrate on government commitments towards country ownership and self-sustainability. The 2006 US Agency for International Development (USAID) family planning (FP) graduation strategy is one such example of a systematic phase-out approach. Triggers for graduation were based on pre-determined criteria and programme indicators. In 2011 the GAVI Alliance (formerly the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations) which primarily supports financing of new vaccines, established a graduation policy process. Countries whose gross national income per capita exceeds $1570 incrementally increase their co-financing of new vaccines over a 5-year period until they are no longer eligible to apply for new GAVI funding, although previously awarded support will continue. This article compares and contrasts the USAID and GAVI processes to apply lessons learned from the USAID FP graduation experience to the GAVI process. The findings of the review are 3-fold: (1) FP graduation plans served an important purpose by focusing on strategic needs across six graduation plan foci, facilitating graduation with pre-determined financial and technical benchmarks, (2) USAID sought to assure contraceptive security prior to graduation, phasing out of contraceptive donations first before phasing out from technical assistance in other programme areas and (3) USAID sought to sustain political support to assure financing of products and programmes continue after graduation. Improving sustainability more broadly beyond vaccine financing provides a more comprehensive approach to graduation. The USAID FP experience provides a window into understanding one approach to graduation from donor assistance. The process itself-involving transparent country-level partners well in advance of graduation-appears a valuable lesson towards success. Published by Oxford University Press 2014. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.
Community health care: Bringing health care at your door. Report of side event at 67th World Health Assembly.
[Geneva, Switzerland], World Health Organization [WHO], Global Health Workforce Alliance, 2014.  p.The side event held at the 67th World Health Assembly provided an opportunity to deliberate on integrated community health care (CHC) in attaining the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and Universal Health Coverage (UHC). The session also explored effective policies and strategies that could be used to remove the obstacles to deliver quality health care and positioning community health workers (CHWs) as an integral part of local health teams.
Principles and considerations for adding a vaccine to a national immunization programme: From decision to implementation and monitoring.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, EPI, 2014.  p.This essential resource document reviews the principles and issues to be considered when making decisions about, planning, and implementing the introduction of a vaccine into a national immunization programme. Importantly, the document highlights ways to use the opportunity provided by the vaccine introduction to strengthen immunization and health systems. The comprehensive guidance also describes the latest references and tools related to vaccine decision-making, economic analyses, cold chain, integrated disease control and health promotion, vaccine safety, communications, monitoring, and more, and provides key URL links to many of these resources.
The art of knowledge exchange: A results-focused planning guide for development practitioners. 2nd ed.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2013.  p.Knowledge exchange, or peer-to-peer learning, is a powerful way to share, replicate, and scale-up what works in development. Development practitioners increasingly seek to learn from the experiences of others who have gone through, or are going through, similar challenges. They want to have ready access to practical knowledge and solutions and enhance their confidence, conviction, and skills to customize the solutions to their own context. The second edition of the Art of Knowledge Exchange: A Results-Focused Planning Guide for Development Practitioners follows a strategic approach to learning and breaks down the knowledge exchange process into five simple steps. It also provides tools you need to design your knowledge exchange and practical guidance on how to use them to get the results you want from your knowledge exchange. This second edition contains a full revision of the original Art of Knowledge Exchange as well as new chapters on implementation and results of knowledge exchanges. The Guide also distills lessons from over 100 exchanges financed by South-South Facility, analytical work conducted by the World Bank Institute, and the Task Team for South-South Cooperation, and reflects the rich experiences of World Bank staff, learning professionals, government officials, and other practitioners engaged in South-South knowledge exchange activities.
Larval source management: a supplementary measure for malaria vector control. An operational manual.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2013.  p.Larval source management (LSM) refers to the targeted management of mosquito breeding sites, with the objective to reduce the number of mosquito larvae and pupae. When appropriately used, LSM can contribute to reducing the numbers of both indoor and out-door biting mosquitoes, and -- in malaria elimination phase -- it can be a useful addition to programme tools to reduce the mosquito population in remaining malaria ‘hotspots’. This operational manual has been designed primarily for National Malaria Control Programmes as well as field personnel. It will also be of practical use to specialists working on public health vector control, and malaria programme specialists working with bilateral donors, funders and implementation partners. It has been written by senior public health experts of the malaria vector control community under the guidance of the WHO Global Malaria Programme. The manual’s three main chapters provide guidance on: the selection of larval control interventions, the planning and management of larval control programmes, and detailed guidance on conducting these programmes. The manual also contains a list of WHOPES-recommended formulations, standard operating procedures for larviciding, as well as a number of country case studies.
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2013 Mar 28.  p. (A66/18)The Executive Board at its 132nd session noted a previous version of this report. The Board provided additional guidance on addressing the short- and long-term risks to attaining the milestones of the new polio eradication and endgame strategic plan 2013-2018, particularly in the areas of: vaccination of travellers; fast-tracking access to affordable inactivated poliovirus vaccination options for all countries; strengthening routine immunization; and legacy planning, including that for the human resource infrastructure currently funded by the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. This guidance has been incorporated into the final plan, which is due to be shared with Member States in April 2013, in advance of the planned roll-out of the new plan at a Global Vaccine Summit scheduled to be held in Abu Dhabi (24 and 25 April 2013). In addition, data have been updated in this version of the report. In May 2014, the Secretariat will report to the Sixty-seventh World Health Assembly on progress in implementing and financing the strategic plan; outcomes of the consultative process on the legacy planning; and action required by the Health Assembly in advance of initiating the phased removal of the type 2 component of the oral poliovirus vaccine from all routine use globally. (Excerpt)
Maternal & Newborn Health Road Maps: a review of progress in 33 sub-Saharan African countries, 2008-2009.
Reproductive Health Matters. 2012 Jun; 20(39):164-8.The 2006 Maputo Plan of Action aimed to help African nations to achieve the Millennium Development Goals related to reducing maternal mortality, combatting HIV and AIDS, and reducing infant and child mortality within integrated sexual and reproductive health care plans. In 2008 and 2009, UNFPA worked with senior Ministry of Health officials and national UNFPA, UNICEF and WHO teams in 33 African countries to review their development of national Maternal and Newborn Health strategies and plans through a self-assessment survey. The survey showed that many key components were missing, in particular there was poor integration of family planning; lack of budgetary, infrastructure and human resources plans; and weak monitoring and evaluation provisions. The maternal and newborn health Road Map initiative has been the single most important factor for the initiation and development of the national maternal and newborn health plans for many African countries. However the deficiencies within these national plans need to be addressed before a significant reduction in maternal and newborn mortality can realistically be achieved. Copyright (c) 2012 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Technical support facilities: Helping to build an efficient and sustainable AIDS response. UNAIDS TSF 5 years report, 2011.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2011 Oct.  p. (UNAIDS / JC2167E)This report highlights the role that the Technical Support Facilities (TSF) have played in Africa and Asia to strengthen countries capacities to fund, plan, manage and coordinate effective, larger scale HIV programs. Established by UNAIDS in 2005, the TSFs have provided support to over 70 countries through 50,000 days of technical assistance and capacity development.
Combination HIV prevention: Tailoring and coordinating biomedical, behavioural and structural strategies to reduce new HIV infections. A UNAIDS discussion paper.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2010 Sep.  p. (UNAIDS Discussion Paper No. 10; UNAIDS - JC2007)This discussion paper summarizes the approach to HIV prevention programming known as “combination prevention” that UNAIDS recommends to achieve the greatest and most lasting impact on reducing HIV incidence and on improving the well-being of affected communities around the world.
Report on country experience: A multi-sectoral response to combat polio outbreak in Namibia. Draft background paper.
[Unpublished] 2011. Draft background paper commissioned by the World Health Organization for the World Conference on Social Determinants of Health, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 19-21 October 2011.  p. (WCSDH/BCKGRT/19/2011; Draft Background Paper 19)Namibia witnessed an outbreak of Wild Polio Type 1 virus in 2006. A total of 323 suspected cases of Acute Flaccid Paralysis were reported, of which 19 were confirmed as Wild Polio Virus Type 1. The outbreak affected mostly the older population and thirty-two of the suspected cases died. The country mounted an immediate response that enabled the whole population to be vaccinated against polio virus. The outbreak of the epidemic witnessed an unprecedented response with the country coming together in the spirit of one Nation facing a common enemy. The reported deaths in some communities engendered fear among the populace and motivated the people to seek early treatment and prevention from further spread of the outbreak. The key to the successful response to the outbreak included: Political commitment; Resource mobilization and availability; Support of international community; Good community mobilization and cooperation from the communities; Commitment and dedication from the Health Care Providers and the volunteers; Team work and delegation; Good communication and support from the media. (Excerpt)
Gender mainstreaming in emerging disease surveillance and response, Western Pacific Region. Draft background paper.
[Unpublished] 2011. Draft background paper commissioned by the World Health Organization for the World Conference on Social Determinants of Health, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 19-21 October 2011.  p. (WCSDH/BCKGRT/16/2011; Draft Background Paper 16)The primary lessons learned from this case study are that gender awareness training of staff and staff collective planning are useful avenues by which to begin the process of gender mainstreaming. Additionally, full support from all levels of leadership has been crucial to the success of gender mainstreaming within the Division. In particular, support for gender mainstreaming and pressure to implement gender mainstreaming by Division and Regional Office leadership have been crucial to the early success of these efforts. (Excerpt)
Global Plan towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections among Children by 2015 and Keeping their Mothers Alive. 2011-2015.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2011.  p. (UNAIDS/ JC2137E)This Global Plan provides the foundation for country-led movement towards the elimination of new HIV infections among children and keeping their mothers alive. The Global Plan was developed through a consultative process by a high level Global Task Team convened by UNAIDS. It brought together 25 countries and 30 civil society, private sector, networks of people living with HIV and international organizations to chart a roadmap to achieving this goal by 2015.
Planning and implementing an essential package of sexual and reproductive health services: Guidance for integrating family planning and STI / RTI with other reproductive health and primary health services.
[New York, New York], Population Council, 2010 Oct.  p.The goal of this guidance document is to provide a framework for developing an essential sexual and reproductive health (SRH) package. It focuses on two priority areas: 1) integrating family planning into maternal and newborn care services, and 2) integrating services for preventing and managing sexually transmitted infections / reproductive tract infections into primary healthcare services. This guidance document comprises three sections. The Introduction explains and justifies why the development and implementation of an essential SRH package should be planned and framed within the World Health Organization's six Building Blocks of Health Systems. The second section presents the "How To" steps and checklist tools for planning, implementing and scaling up, including specific examples for the two priority areas indicated above. The third section provides the evidence-base supporting the recommendations and action-points proposed in each tool. This evidence-base includes key findings and summary recommendations from a literature review (in matrix format) and a bibliography of the references included in the literature review.
Washington, D.C., Futures Group, Health Policy Initiative, 2010 Sep.  p. (USAID Contract No. GPO-I-01-05-00040-00)The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria is a major funder of HIV programs worldwide, including programs that support orphans and vulnerable children (OVC). Following on a desk review of OVC-related content in Global Fund HIV / AIDS grants, this study in Kenya sought to explore the country-level processes and issues that affect inclusion of OVC goals and strategies in Global Fund country proposals and grants. The study involved interviews with 23 OVC stakeholders, including representatives of government ministries, international agencies, the country coordinating mechanism, principal and sub-recipients, NGOs, faith-based organizations, and OVC network members.
[Washington, D.C.], World Bank, 2010 Apr.  p.The World Bank’s five-year plan highlights ways in which to help poor countries reduce their high fertility rates and prevent the widespread deaths of their mothers and children. In endorsing its Reproductive Health Action Plan 2010-2015, the Bank warned that family planning and other reproductive health programs that are vital to poor women had fallen off the development radars of many low-income countries, donor governments, and aid agencies.
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2009. 8 p.This report shows how countries with low prevalence of male circumcision but high prevalence of HIV have made progress to scale up male circumcision services.
Scaling up HIV / AIDS prevention, treatment and care: a report on WHO support to countries in implementing the “3 by 5” Initiative, 2004-2005.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2006. 143 p.In September 2003, LEE Jong-wook, Director-General of WHO, and Peter Piot, Executive Director of UNAIDS, declared the lack of access to antiretroviral therapy for HIV/AIDS in low- and middle-income countries to be a global health emergency. Shortly after this declaration, WHO and its partners launched a global initiative to scale up antiretroviral therapy with the objective of having 3 million people receiving antiretroviral therapy - representing half the total number of those globally in need - by the end of 2005 ("3 by 5"). Although the actual target of putting 3 million people on antiretroviral therapy was not reached by the end of 2005, countries have made significant progress in the past two years in expanding treatment coverage, strengthening prevention and building the capacity of health systems to deliver long-term, chronic care. Overall, in the two-year period, antiretroviral therapy coverage in low- and middle-income countries increased from 7% of those in need at the end of 2003 (400 000 people) to 20% of those in need at the end of 2005 (1.3 million people). Eighteen countries managed to increase antiretroviral therapy coverage to half or more of the people who needed it, consistent with the "3 by 5" target. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2007.  p. (UNAIDS/07.07E; JC1274E)These Practical Guidelines for Intensifying HIV Prevention: Towards Universal Access are designed to provide policy makers and planners with practical guidance to tailor their national HIV prevention response so that they respond to the epidemic dynamics and social context of the country and populations who remain most vulnerable to and at risk of HIV infection. They have been developed in consultation with the UNAIDS cosponsors, international collaborating partners, government, civil society leaders and other experts. They build on Intensifying HIV Prevention: UNAIDS Policy Position Paper and the UNAIDS Action Plan on Intensifying HIV Prevention. In 2006, governments committed themselves to scaling up HIV prevention and treatment responses to ensure universal access by 2010. While in the past five years treatment access has expanded rapidly, the number of new HIV infections has not decreased - estimated at 4.3 (3.6-6.6) million in 2006 - with many people unable to access prevention services to prevent HIV infection. These Guidelines recognize that to sustain the advances in antiretroviral treatment and to ensure true universal access requires that prevention services be scaled up simultaneously with treatment. (excerpt)
In: The HIV challenge to education: a collection of essays, edited by Carol Coombe. Paris, France, UNESCO, International Institute for Educational Planning, 2004. 253-263. (Education in the Context of HIV / AIDS)Twenty years after the identification of AIDS, some 60 million people have been infected by HIV, a number corresponding to the entire population of France, the United Kingdom or Thailand. Those who have died equal the population of Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark combined. Those currently infected - more than 40 million - number more than the entire population of Canada. The number of children thought to be orphaned by HIV/AIDS - some 14 million - is already more than the total population of Ecuador. Over the coming decade their numbers may rise to a staggering 50 million worldwide. In other words, the extent of this pandemic is unprecedented in human history. And the worst is yet to come, for many millions more will be infected, many millions more will die, many millions more will be orphaned. On September 11 2001, more than 3,000 people died in the New York bombings. Every day, around the world, HIV infects at least five times that number. But it is not only individuals who are at risk. The social fabric of whole communities, societies and cultures is threatened. The disease is certain to be a scourge throughout our lifetime. (excerpt)