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  1. 1

    Neuroendocrinology and reproduction in the human.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Scientific Group

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1965. 19 p. (WHO Technical Report Series No. 304)

    This WHO technical report focuses on the 1) psychosomatic factors in human reproduction; 2) hypothalamo-hypophyseal system; 3) mechanism of sexual rhythm; 4) nervous influences on the hypothalamus; 5) hormonal influences on the hypothalamus; 6) neuroendocrine aspects of sexual behavior; and 7) effects of drugs on reproduction. After summarizing current research status on the above-mentioned topics, the following research needs are suggested: 1) assays of individual human endogenous gonadotropins, suitable for clinical application; 2) autoradiography, fluorescent-antibody, spectrophometric interference and histochemical and biochemical techniques for studying cells that supply axons to the primary capillary plexus of the hypophyseal portal system and for studying effects of different hormonal status on hypothalmic structure and function; 3) computer techniques for evaluating electrophysiological data; 4) improved lesioning techniques; 5) comparative studies of reproductive activity patterns, exteroceptive factors, neuroendocrine factors in sexual and related social behavior, and long-term or delayed effects of drugs administered during gestation on subsequent sexual development; 6) studies of synaptic connections of hypothalamic neurones; 7) studies of endogenous gonadal and gonadotropin production in prepuberal animals; 8) functional significance of regional distribution of hypophyseal portal system; 9) mechanisms involved in selective uptake of labeled hormones; 10) hypothalamic lesions in species with spontaneous ovulation and active luteal function; 11) direct effect of gonadal hormones on single hypothalamic neurones studied with combination of microinjection and unit recording devices; 12) studies of the possibility of a direct feedback of gonadotropic hormones on the hypothalamus; 13) studies of the receptor mechanisms involved in neuroendocrine reflexes; 14) wider exploration of brain structures, with regard to feedback action of gonadal hormones; 15) studies of pineal function; 16) further investigation of a possible role of the peripheral autonomic pathways in reproductive processes; and 17) research on the application of tissue culture techniques for studying problems of the origin and metabolic effects of neurohormonal mediators and the biochemcial and morphological changes induced by sex hormones.
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  2. 2

    Physiology of lactation.


    World Health Organization, (Technical Report Series.). 1965; 22.

    A report of the Scientific Group on the Physiology of Lactation which met in Geneva, December 2-7, 1963, is presented. Major aspects covered include: 1) growth of the mammary gland; 2) milk secretion; 3) biochemical activities of the mammary gland; 4) the physiology of suckling; and 5) factors of human lactation and breast feeding. It is recommended that WHO should: 1) provide grants and research fellowships to enable research workers in the field of lactation to extend their experience by working for a time in other appropriate research centers; 2) support the establishment of laboratories in certain countries for the titration of hormones in cases of normal and abnormal lactation; 3) make contact with organizations engaged in the collection of primate pituitary tissues to obtain their advice and help in organizing the extension of the collection to other parts of the world and in arranging for the preparation of extracts, especially of human prolactin and somatotrophin for international use; 4) make contact with individuals and organizations engaged in the collection of hypothalamic tissue with the object of improving facilities for collection; and 5) encourage studies on human lactation in relation to malnutrition and undernutrition in developing countries.
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  3. 3

    Summary of findings and recommendations (on reproductive physiology and the regulation of fertility.)

    Greep RO; Koblinsky MA; Jaffe FS

    In: Greep, R.O., Koblinsky, M.A., and Jaffe, F.S. Reproduction and human welfare: a challenge to research. Cambridge, Massachusetts, MIT Press, 1976. p. 1-36

    The findings and recommendations summarized are those of more than 160 experts from 26 nations who collaborated in an intensive review of the reproductive sciences and contraceptive development sponsored by the Ford Foundation and the International Development Research Center of Canada. The experts aimed at evaluating progress and identifying gaps in knowledge, at identifying sources and tracking levels of support for the field, and at outlining the scope of a program of research and development adequate to worldwide needs. The social context of the field and its substantive development, especially since 1960 are addressed. The professional and institutional resources at work and trends in financial support by country, sector, and purpose are described. 20 recommendations of the group are outlined. 3 are described as overriding: a wider variety of safe, effective contraceptive methods must be developed, more attention must be given the question of long-term safety of current and yet to be developed methods, and by 1980 a lot more money must be allocated to research and development than now is. The remaining recommendations fall under the general categories of emphasis within the field, geographical distribution of responsibility, the strengthening of institutional and professional capacity, and monitoring progress in the field.
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