Your search found 79 Results

  1. 1
    374608

    Women’s labour migration: an overview from Mexico, Moldova and the Philippines.

    United Nations. UN Women

    New York, New York, UN Women, [2017]. 7 p. (Policy Brief No. 1)

    UN Women’s project "Promoting and Protecting Women Migrant Workers’ Labour and Human Rights: Engaging with International, National Human Rights Mechanisms to Enhance Accountability" is a global project funded by the European Union (EU) and anchored nationally in three pilot countries: Mexico, Moldova, and the Philippines. The project promotes women migrant workers’ rights and their protection against exclusion and exploitation at all stages of migration. One of the key results of the project has been the production of high-quality knowledge products. These have provided the foundation of the project’s advocacy and capacity building objectives. This Brief draws from the project’s knowledge products and provides an overview of the key situational and policy concerns for women migrant workers in each of the three pilot countries.
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  2. 2
    322259

    Piloting L3M for child marriage: Experience in monitoring results in equity systems (MoRES) in Bangladesh.

    Paina L; Morgan L; Derriennic Y

    Bethesda, Maryland, Abt Associates Inc., Health Finance & Governance Project, 2014 Sep. 100 p.

    Monitoring Results for Equity Systems (MoRES) is UNICEF’s global monitoring framework that was recently introduced in Bangladesh and other countries. MoRES proposes a hierarchy of information to facilitate the monitoring and evaluation of UNICEF programs. Level 1 corresponds to a situational analysis, which intends to identify the major bottlenecks and barriers to the achievement of UNICEF goals. Level 2 creates a routine approach for monitoring implementation of UNICEF programs. Level 3-which is the subject of this report-monitors the extent to which UNICEF programs contribute to reductions in the barriers and bottlenecks identified in Level 1. Finally, Level 4 monitoring measures the impact of UNICEF programs on the broader goals. The level 3 monitoring approach (L3M) pilot for child marriage described in this report focuses on examining how two of UNICEF’s Child Protection activities -adolescent stipends and conditional cash transfers - contribute to reductions in three priority bottlenecks: social norms, financial access, and legislation/policy. The pilot contributes the methodology and content required for UNICEF to conduct regular, routine monitoring of its Child Protection Program, as part of an office-wide L3M exercise at UNICEF-Bangladesh. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    372984

    The spirit of boldness: lessons from the World Bank’s Adolescent Girls Initiative.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2015. 32 p.

    The adolescent girl’s initiative (AGI) was motivated by the idea that vocational training and youth employment programs tailored to the needs of girls and young women can improve the economic empowerment and agency. By putting that idea into practice in a number of ways, the AGI pilots are making it possible to learn about the demand for such programs and whether in their current form they are a feasible and (in some cases) cost-effective means of meeting their objectives. Adolescent females in lower-income countries face a difficult environment in their path toward economic empowerment, a critical dimension of adulthood. Females, especially from low-income countries, want to participate in programs to support their economic empowerment. Effective programs shared certain features that made it possible for them to reach adolescent girls and young women and successfully assess and impart the skills that they needed.
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  4. 4
    352170
    Peer Reviewed

    REACH: an effective catalyst for scaling up priority nutrition interventions at the country level.

    Pearson BL; Ljungqvist B

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2011 Jun; 32(2 Suppl):S115-27.

    BACKGROUND: Renewed Efforts Against Child Hunger (REACH) is the joint United Nations initiative to address Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 10, Target 3, i.e., to halve the proportion of underweight children under 5 years old by 2015. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the World Food Programme (WFP), and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) developed and tested a facilitation mechanism to act as a catalyst for scaling up multisectoral nutrition activities. OBJECTIVE: The UN-REACH partners developed pilot projects in Mauritania and Lao PDR from 2008 to 2010 and deployed facilitators to improve nutrition governance and coordination. Review missions were conducted in February 2011 to assess the REACH approach and what it achieved. METHODS: The UN review mission members reviewed documents, assessed policy and management indicators, conducted qualitative interviews, and discussed findings with key stakeholders, including the most senior UN nutrition directors from all agencies. RESULTS: Among other UN-REACH achievements, the Prime Minister of Mauritania agreed to preside over a new National Nutrition Development Council responsible for high-level decision-making and setting national policy objectives. REACH facilitated the completion of Lao's first national Nutrition Strategy and Plan of Action and formation of the multistakeholder Nutrition Task Force. During the REACH engagement, coordination, joint advocacy, situation analysis, policy development, and joint UN programming for nutrition were strengthened in Lao PDR and Mauritania. CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in the nutrition governance and management mechanisms in Mauritania and Lao PDR were observed during the period of REACH support through increased awareness of nutrition as a key development objective, establishment of governmental multisectoral coordinating mechanisms, improved government capacity, and new joint UN-government nutrition programming.
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  5. 5
    332957

    The USAID | DELIVER project improves patient access to essential medicines in Zambia. Success story.

    John Snow [JSI]. DELIVER

    Arlington, Virginia, JSI, DELIVER, 2011 Feb. [2] p.

    Success story on a logistics system pilot project in Zambia that set out to cost-effectively improve the availability of lifesaving drugs and other essential products at health facilities.
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  6. 6
    332015

    The Fistula Fortnight: Healing Wounds, Renewing Hope, 21 February - 6 March 2005, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi and Sokoto States, Nigeria.

    Iliyasu Z; Idoko L; Ramsey K

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], [2007]. 46 p.

    The Fistula Fortnight accomplished a number of goals: it mobilized resources for obstetric fistula and safe motherhood; increased public awareness that fistula is preventable; contributed to combating the marginalization of women who suffer from fistula; strengthened institutional capacity to manage fistula; and began to address the broader needs of women living with the disability. While the surgeries conducted represent only a small portion of the backlog, the Fistula Fortnight provided a strategic opportunity to raise awareness and motivate action among policymakers, national and local leaders, and the general public about the need to increase efforts to both prevent and treat fistula. (Excerpt)
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  7. 7
    341788
    Peer Reviewed

    Pilot testing of WHO child growth standards in Chandigarh: implications for India's child health programmes.

    Prinja S; Thakur JS; Bhatia SS

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2009 Feb; 87(2):116-22.

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of underweight as calculated from Indian Academy of Paediatrics (IAP) growth curves (based on the Harvard scale) and the new WHO Child Growth Standards. METHODS: We randomly selected 806 children under 6 years of age from 45 primary anganwadi (childcare) centres in Chandigarh, Punjab, India, that were chosen through multistage stratified random sampling. Children were weighed, and their weight for age was calculated using IAP curves and WHO growth references. Nutritional status according to the WHO Child Growth Standards was analysed using WHO Anthro statistical software (beta version, 17 February 2006). The chi2 test was used to determine statistical significance at the 0.05 significance level. FINDINGS: The prevalence of underweight (Z score less than -2) in the first 6 months of life was nearly 1.6 times higher when calculated in accordance with the new WHO standards rather than IAP growth curves. For all ages combined, the estimated prevalence of underweight was 1.4 times higher when IAP standards instead of the new WHO standards were used. Similarly, the prevalence of underweight in both sexes combined was 14.5% higher when IAP standards rather than the new WHO growth standards were applied (P < 0.001). By contrast, severe malnutrition estimated for both sexes were 3.8 times higher when the new WHO standards were used in place of IAP standards (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The new WHO growth standards will project a lower prevalence of overall underweight children and provide superior growth tracking than IAP standards, especially in the first 6 months of life and among severely malnourished children.
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  8. 8
    326029

    Implementation process review of the "Training of Teachers Manual on Preventive Education against HIV / AIDS in the School Setting".

    Girault P

    [Paris, France], UNESCO, Internal Oversight Service, Evaluation Section, 2003 Aug. 50 p. (IOS/EVS/PI/33)

    At a recent review workshop in Uzbekistan and elsewhere concerns have been raised that the manual is too strictly focused on transferring biomedical knowledge and does not pay enough attention to reducing vulnerability to HIV/AIDS by promoting lifeskills. It is also believed that the HIV information in the manual needs to be updated, and that the inclusion of teaching of more participatory training techniques could be considered. In addition, in some countries, a strict focus on HIV/AIDS is not realistic - embedding HIV/AIDS in a wider school-health approach should be considered. Before expanding to other countries, UNESCO decided then to do a review of the progress implementation of the "Preventive Education against HIV/AIDS in the School Setting" project and a review of the manual. The particular interest of this review is to look at the way that the project was implemented and to review the manual based on the comments generated by the targeted countries. Its overall aim is to generate recommendations both on the content of the manual and the implementation process, before expanding to other countries covered by UNESCO Bangkok. (excerpt)
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  9. 9
    323434
    Peer Reviewed

    Reducing the impact of climate change.

    Brown H

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007 Nov; 85(11):824-825.

    The most recent report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) found that there is overwhelming evidence that humans are affecting climate and it highlighted the implications for human health. The World Health Organization (WHO) is helping countries respond to this challenge, primarily by encouraging them to build and reinforce public health systems as the first line of defence against climate-related health risks. (excerpt)
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  10. 10
    321375
    Peer Reviewed

    The introduction of confidential enquiries into maternal deaths and near-miss case reviews in the WHO European region.

    Bacci A; Lewis G; Baltag V; Bertran AP

    Reproductive Health Matters. 2007 Sep; 15(30):145-152.

    Most maternal deaths can be averted with known, effective interventions but countries require information about which women are dying and why, and what can been done to prevent such deaths in future. This paper describes the introduction of two approaches to reviewing maternal deaths and severe obstetric complications in 12 countries in transition in the WHO European Region - national-level confidential enquiries into maternal deaths and facility-based near-miss case reviews. Initially, two regional meetings involving stakeholders from 12 countries were held in 2004-2005, followed by national meetings in seven of the countries. The Republic of Moldova was the first to pilot the review process, preceded by a technical workshop to make detailed plans, provide training in how to facilitate and carry out a review, finalise clinical guidelines against which the findings of the confidential enquiry and near-miss case review could be judged, and a range of other preparatory work. To date, near-miss case reviews have been carried out in the three main referral hospitals in Moldova, and a national committee appointed by the Ministry of Health to conduct the confidential enquiry has met twice. Several other countries have begun a similar process, but progress may remain slow due to continuing fears of punitive actions against health professionals who have a mother or baby die in their care. (author's)
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  11. 11
    319047
    Peer Reviewed

    Evaluating the potential impact of the new Global Plan to Stop TB: Thailand, 2004 -- 2005.

    Varma JK; Wiriyakitjar D; Nateniyom S; Anuwatnonthakate A; Monkongdee P

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007 Aug; 85(8):586-592.

    WHO's new Global Plan to Stop TB 2006-2015 advises countries with a high burden of tuberculosis (TB) to expand case-finding in the private sector as well as services for patients with HIV and multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). The objective of this study was to evaluate these strategies in Thailand using data from the Thailand TB Active Surveillance Network, a demonstration project begun in 2004. In October 2004, we began contacting public and private health-care facilities monthly to record data about people diagnosed with TB, assist with patient care, provide HIV counselling and testing, and obtain sputum samples for culture and susceptibility testing. The catchment area included 3.6 million people in four provinces. We compared results from October 2004-September 2005 (referred to as 2005) to baseline data from October 2002-September 2003 (referred to as 2003). In 2005, we ascertained 5841 TB cases (164/100 000), including 2320 new smear-positive cases (65/100 000). Compared with routine passive surveillance in 2003, active surveillance increased reporting of all TB cases by 19% and of new smear-positive cases by 13%. Private facilities diagnosed 634 (11%) of all TB cases. In 2005, 1392 (24%) cases were known to be HIV positive. The proportion of cases with an unknown HIV status decreased from 66% (3226/4904) in 2003 to 23% (1329/5841) in 2005 (P< 0.01). Of 4656 pulmonary cases, mycobacterial culture was performed in 3024 (65%) and MDR-TB diagnosed in 60 (1%). In Thailand, piloting the new WHO strategy increased case-finding and collaboration with the private sector, and improved HIV services for TB patients and the diagnosis of MDR-TB. Further analysis of treatment outcomes and costs is needed to assess this programme's impact and cost effectiveness. (author's)
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  12. 12
    318335
    Peer Reviewed

    Midwifery education and maternal and neonatal health issues: Challenges in Pakistan.

    Rukanuddin RJ; Ali TS; McManis B

    Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2007 Jul-Aug; 52(4):398-405.

    Although numerous health care interventions have been implemented in Pakistan, the high maternal and neonatal mortality rates still remain a challenge. Developed countries have reduced maternal and neonatal mortality rates by improving the skill and knowledge levels of nurse-midwives. This paper reviews maternal and neonatal health issues, challenges in current midwifery education, and the role of government and international agencies in Pakistan. The exact maternal and neonatal mortality rates in Pakistan are unknown; a census has not occurred since 1998, and data provided in more recent studies were presented in summary format. A number of factors that contribute to the high mortality rate could easily be controlled by using competent nurse-midwives throughout all levels of the Pakistani health care system. A reduction in the maternal mortality rate is likely to occur if the Pakistan government and international agencies work together to implement specific recommendations in maternal and neonatal health. These recommendations include: 1) holding an invitational conference; 2) strengthening the existing midwifery and Lady Health Visitor curricula; 3) pilot testing an expanded midwifery program; and 4) advocating for and obtaining political commitments and resources for midwifery education. (author's)
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  13. 13
    311376

    Birth spacing -- report from a WHO technical consultation.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Department of Reproductive Health and Research; World Health Organization [WHO]. Department of Making Pregnancy Safer

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2006. [4] p. (Policy Brief)

    The World Health Organization (WHO) and other international organizations recommend that individuals and couples should wait for at least 2-3 years between births in order to reduce the risk of adverse maternal and child health outcomes. Recent studies supported by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) suggest that an interval of 3-5 years might help to reduce these risks even further. Programme managers responsible for maternal and child health at the country and regional levels have requested WHO to clarify the significance of the new USAID-supported findings for health-care practice. To review the available evidence, WHO, with support from USAID, organized a technical consultation on birth spacing on 13-15 June 2005 in Geneva, Switzerland. The participants included 35 independent experts as well as staff of the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), WHO and USAID. The specific objectives of the meeting were to review evidence on the relationship between different birth-spacing intervals and maternal, infant and child health outcomes, and to provide advice on recommended birth-spacing intervals. (excerpt)
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  14. 14
    309721

    Moving up the food chain: lessons from gender mainstreaming at the World Food Programme. A study by the Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children.

    Donegan L

    New York, New York, Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children, 2006 Aug. 55 p.

    The Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children has been partnering with UNHCR on the global rollout of UNHCR's Age, Gender and Diversity Mainstreaming initiative. As part of this partnership, the Women's Commission has undertaken a research project on the World Food Programme's (WFP) gender mainstreaming efforts to assess what UNHCR can learn from another UN organization and what WFP could learn from UNHCR's own mainstreaming efforts. The research is a "desk study" based on a review of available resource materials, those publicly available on the WFP Web site, those non-public documents secured directly through WFP and through direct contact with the gender unit at WFP headquarters in Rome. This paper, based on the research and findings, considers how WFP mainstreams gender and offers recommendations on enhancing mainstreaming efforts by WFP and UNHCR in the context of food security and displacement. It provides an overview of WFP's age and gender mainstreaming policies and highlights organizational efforts to implement those policies. The study notes areas of progress and limitations of WFP's mainstreaming efforts in relation to food assistance and food security for displaced populations. It also seeks to ascertain how those efforts complement and reinforce UNHCR's age and gender mainstreaming efforts. (excerpt)
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  15. 15
    306528
    Peer Reviewed

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis management in resource-limited settings.

    Nathanson E; Lambregts-van Weezenbeek C; Rich ML; Gupta R; Bayona J

    Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006 Sep; 12(9):1389-1397.

    Evidence of successful management of multidrugresistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) is mainly generated from referral hospitals in high-income countries. We evaluate the management of MDRTB in 5 resource-limited countries: Estonia, Latvia, Peru, the Philippines, and the Russian Federation. All projects were approved by the Green Light Committee for access to quality-assured second-line drugs provided at reduced price for MDRTB management. Of 1,047 MDRTB patients evaluated, 119 (11%) were new, and 928 (89%) had received treatment previously. More than 50% of previously treated patients had received both first- and second-line drugs, and 65% of all patients had infections that were resistant to both first- and second-line drugs. Treatment was successful in 70% of all patients, but success rate was higher among new (77%) than among previously treated patients (69%). In resource-limited settings, treatment of MDRTB provided through, or in collaboration with, national TB programs can yield results similar to those from wealthier settings. (author's)
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  16. 16
    303523

    UNESCO's cross-cutting approach to poverty for adolescent girls.

    Adolescence Education Newsletter. 2005 Jun; 8(1):4-5.

    IT WAS AMBITIOUS, but not impossible. UNESCO picked four countries among the world's poorest -- Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan, where about 30 per cent of families live in extreme poverty -- and rolled them into one pilot project with a cross-cutting approach to poverty reduction. This meant specialists from diverse backgrounds -- education, science and communication -- had to work hand in hand to reach marginalized girls. The resulting project, Breaking the Poverty Cycle of Women: Empowering Adolescent Girls to become the Agents of Social Transformation in South Asia was approved for implementation in 2003-2004. UNESCO's intervention was characterized by holistic education. For adolescent girls deprived of basic education, this included reading, writing and math, but also gave importance to health, sexuality, life skills and other topics. Livelihood skills and income generation were part of the training for older girls. (excerpt)
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  17. 17
    303298

    Fighting AIDS: HIV / STI prevention and care activities in a military and peacekeeping setting in Ukraine. Country report.

    Khodakevich L

    Geneva, Switzerland, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], Office on AIDS, Security and Humanitarian Response, 2004 Feb. 43 p. (UNAIDS Series: Engaging Uniformed Services in the Fight against AIDS. Case Study 2.)

    Ukraine has one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in Eastern Europe. It was first in the region to face an aggressive epidemic among injecting drug users in 1995, and the epidemic now appears to have entered a more generalized phase. The Government of Ukraine responded to HIV at an early stage. Several Presidential Decrees urged the Government to initiate and enhance activities against the epidemics, and mobilize various ministries including the Ministry of Defence. In June 1999 the heads of the Educational Branch in the Preventive Medicine Department of the Ministry of Defence (MoD) met with UNAIDS officials and discussed HIV/AIDS issues in the Ukrainian army. The meeting resulted in an agreement to launch a project on prevention of HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Ukraine's armed forces. Funds and technical support were provided by UNAIDS, and the Main Educational Department started implementation of the project with the assistance of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). The project focused on the development of training and educational materials, integration of education about HIV/STI prevention in the curricula of the Humanitarian Institute of the National Academy of Defence and the Kharkiv Tank Forces Institute, and on cascade training (cascading information down to all levels of rank and file) of the officers and soldiers in five field garrisons. Around 20,000 servicemen were trained in the first phase. The second phase of the project will run to early 2004 and the army headquarters are applying for resources from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and AIDS in order to strengthen these activities. During the second phase of the project 350,000 servicemen are to be targeted with comprehensive information and education relating to HIV/AIDS and STIs. (excerpt)
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  18. 18
    303285

    Evaluation of the 100% Condom Programme in Thailand. UNAIDS case study.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]; Thailand. Ministry of Public Health. AIDS Division

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2000 Jul. 47 p. (UNAIDS Case Study; UNAIDS/00.18E)

    Thailand was the first Asian nation to recognize that it had a major HIV/AIDS problem, a problem so serious as to deserve priority on the national agenda. While sporadic testing among female sex workers, injecting drug users (IDUs), and men having sex with men detected little HIV through the end of 1987, the rapid growth of HIV infections among IDUs in early 1988 spurred efforts to monitor the epidemic systematically. By mid-1989, a national sentinel serosurveillance system had been established. In the first round of testing in 14 provinces conducted in June 1989, high infection levels were detected among sex workers in the country's northern provinces, especially among sex workers in brothels. By June 1990, with the system expanded to include all 73 provinces, HIV prevalence among brothel-based sex workers had risen from 3.1 per cent in June 1989 to 9.3 per cent nationally (provincial median) and was climbing fast. By June 1991, it had grown to 15.2 per cent. Prevalence was also growing rapidly among young Thai men - who were tested when conscripted into the military at age 21 - from 0.5 per cent in November 1989 to 3.0 per cent in November 1991. Studies of behaviour and HIV infection among these conscripts and other populations soon demonstrated that most new HIV infections in Thailand were occurring through commercial sex. (excerpt)
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  19. 19
    303117

    Mass treatment of syphilis in an Indian province.

    Cutler JC; Kvittingen J; Rose E; McCullough JC

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 1952; 5:377-439.

    This report deals with some of the experiences of the World Health Organization Venereal Disease Demonstration Team assigned to the Government of India to establish a suitable system of control in both an urban and rural area and to give instruction in those methods of diagnosis and treatment which could best be adapted to local resources. The WHO Expert Committee on Venereal Diseases believed that the method of control developed in the United States of America could be applied usefully in many areas of the world, if suitably adapted to local conditions and requirements. The committee suggested that the team's activities should embrace both rural and urban populations. The importance of working in rural areas is particularly evident in India where, in 1941, 87% of the population was rural and a serious shortage of medical care prevailed. The expert committee believed that proved techniques could be adapted to provide venereal-disease care for this rural group within the budgetary and personnel limitations of the medical services of the country. (excerpt)
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  20. 20
    299291

    Microcredit: moving women forward - Microcredit Summit Campaign - Brief article.

    Hughes D

    UN Chronicle. 2000 Summer; 37(2):[3] p..

    Elvia is 25. She is a single mother in Guatemala, a country where the non-governmental organization CARE reports that approximately 20 per cent of women under 18 become unwed mothers. Elvia comes from a large, poor family (11 brothers and sisters). She became pregnant at 19 and was abandoned by the baby's father. She later took loans from CARE and has created a sewing and chicken-raising business. With her mother, she sells 600 chickens every seven weeks. She vows to make sure her six-year-old daughter does not make the same mistakes she has made. It was with women like Elvia in mind that more than 2,900 people from 137 countries gathered from 2 to 4 February 1997 at the Microcredit Summit in Washington, D.C. The delegates launched a nine-year campaign to reach 100 million of the world's poorest families, especially the women of those families, with credit for selfemployment and other financial and business services by the year 2005. (excerpt)
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  21. 21
    277228

    The female condom: opportunities and challenges in South Asia.

    Usmani F

    Kathmandu, Nepal, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], Country Technical Services Team for South and West Asia, 2002 Sep. 32 p. (Technical Paper No. 3_CST-KTM/ HIV/AIDS/02)

    Evidence from throughout the world underscores women's disproportionate and growing vulnerability to HIV infection. The table below on estimated number of young people -male and female-living with HIV/AIDS in South Asia shows that in India, where HIV prevalence is highest in the region, nearly double the number of young women are estimated be living with HIV/AIDS as compared to young men. Trends indicate that the rate of new infections of HIV is highest among women/young girls in the region. In Nepal, for example, the ratio of women infected by HIV has increased and these latest July 2002 estimates give nearly equal numbers of young men and women infected today. (excerpt)
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  22. 22
    282155

    Evaluation of United Nations-supported pilot projects for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Overview of findings.

    Rutenberg N; Baek C; Kalibala S; Rosen J

    New York, New York, UNICEF, 2003. 47 p. (HIV / AIDS Working Paper)

    This overview report presents key findings from an evaluation of UN- supported pilot PMTCT projects in eleven countries, including: Botswana, Burundi, Cote d'Ivoire, Honduras, India, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Key findings discuss: feasibility and coverage; factors contributing to programme coverage; programme challenges; scaling-up; the special case of low prevalence countries; and recommendations. Recommendations include: To increase coverage and improve infant feeding counseling: supplement clinic staff with lay counselors; introduce rapid HIV tests so women can receive same day counseling, HIV testing, and test results; improve the quality of HIV and infant feeding counseling by providing job aids and active supervision; offer support to PMTCT providers including material support and peer psychosocial support; partner with community groups to offer community education and outreach; and expand the vision of PMTCT to encompass an active role for fathers and male partners. To strengthen postnatal support and follow up of HIV- infected women and their infant to assist them with infant feeding, getting care for themselves and their families, and to evaluate the program: establish national infant feeding guidelines; establish postnatal follow-up protocols; forge partnerships between the PMTCT program and NGO care and support groups; Enhance referral links between PMTCT programs and HIV care; New measurement tools and systems should be developed. To scale up PMTCT programs the findings suggest: expand to new sites but enlarge the scope of activities within existing sites to reach more women; and provide a comprehensive package of HIV prevention and care. The pilot experience has shown that introducing PMTCT programs into antenatal care in a wide variety of settings is feasible and acceptable to a significant proportion of antenatal care clients who have a demand for HIV information, counseling, and testing. As they go to scale, PMTCT programs have much to learn from the pilot phase, during which they successfully reached hundreds of thousands of clients. (author's)
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  23. 23
    280223

    Lessons learnt from the UNAIDS pilot programme on access to treatment.

    Southern Africa HIV / AIDS Action. 2003 Jun; (56):10.

    Because Antiretroviral drugs are very expensive and unaffordable most people think that it is not feasible to use antiretrovirals in resource poor settings. However, use of antiretrovirals is feasible in developing countries. This is an important lesson that has been learnt from the pilot phase of the UNAIDS HIV Drug Access Initiative. The Drug Access Initiative (DAI) was launched in November 1997, designed to develop innovative, effective models to improve access to needed drugs to treat HIV and its opportunistic infections. The initial phase of the Initiative has been designed to set up the necessary infrastructure and systems to increase access to HIV related drugs on a small but sustainable scale. (excerpt)
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  24. 24
    278314

    The Planned Parenthood Association of Thailand: prevention of domestic violence against women and children in Thailand through the promotion of reproductive health.

    Pekanan N; Wongsurawat K

    Innovations: Innovative Approaches to Population Programme Management. 2001; 9:73-100.

    Thailand is the third largest country among the Southeast Asian nations with an area of approximately 513,000 square kilometres. It has a total population of about 62 million with 95 percent of the population embracing Buddhism. Known for having a soft-spoken society rich in culture and high in spirituality, the general assumption is that domestic violence is rare. Yet such a state of security does not exist regardless of the culture that one belongs to. On many occasions domestic violence not only involves women, but children usually suffer the consequences as well. It is not unusual that such acts of violence are considered a family affair and thus many cases go unreported or unpublicised, perhaps out of the victims’ fear or simply from ignorance of their rights. The Thai government has come a long way in countering the prevalence of domestic violence through on-going efforts to amend its legal system and constitution. Demonstrating commitment to protect women and children from discrimination and violence, it has acknowledged various international treaties and even incorporated the rights and welfare of women and children in its National Plan framework. (excerpt)
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  25. 25
    277477
    Peer Reviewed

    How was the UNAIDS drug access initiative implemented in Chile? [¿En qué consistió la iniciativa de acceso a las drogas ONUSIDA implementada en Chile?]

    Brousselle A; Champagne F

    Evaluation and Program Planning. 2004 Aug; 27(3):295-308.

    In 1997, UNAIDS decided to implement Drug Access Initiatives (DAI) in four different pilot-countries. We studied the implementation of the DAI in Chile as part of the evaluation program conducted by the ‘Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le SIDA’ (ANRS/France). The objective was to understand how the politico-organizational dynamic influenced the implementation process of the DAI. Approximately 50 semi-directed interviews and observation activities were conducted with the actors who participated in the implementation of the DAI or who played a role in the HIV/AIDS context. The program theory models were established and their evolution analyzed. This article offers an original analysis of an international HIV/AIDS drug access program that was put in place at a time when such programs were seen as a priority by international and governmental institutions. It also offers some insights for the creation of international projects that will be locally implemented. (author's)
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