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In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 92-3.In the 2 decades of independence, the Government of Kenya has used incomes generated for improvements in medical care, education, nutrition, and water sanitation facilities. The sum effect has been a general improvement in living standards and a significant reduction in mortality, especially infant mortality. However, a high rate of population growth and its structural and spatial implications have magnified problems in areas such as human resource development and expanded opportunities for income-generation. The current population, estimated at 19.4 million, is doubling every 18 years and expected to reach 35 million by the end of the century. Young people increasingly dominate the population's structure. Modern contraception has been adopted by only a minority of women and is applied to birth spacing rather than to limiting family size. In rural areas, Kenyan women continue to have high fertility aspirations. Even with declines in fertility, the decades ahead will see severe stresses on Kenya's health care, education, and employment sectors. The number of children served by the primary school system (ages 6-14 year olds) is expected to increase from 4 million in 1980 to 8.9 million by 2000, while the labor force (15-49 year olds) should rise from 6.8 million to 15.7 million in this period. It is only through the participation of rural and urban Kenyans in district development planning that Kenya's high fertility levels can be reduced and economic development sustained.
In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 97.The Government of Lesotho seeks to confer material and other benefits to its society members, with an emphasis on self-determination in family management. It has become increasingly clear in the 17 years since Independence, however, that population growth thwarts these objectives. Basic economic resources such as land, employment opportunities, and social services have been unable to keep pace with the demands generated by a rapidly growing population. The basic human needs of food, shelter, and good health cannot be met without sensitizing the population to the need for a responsible population management approach. At the same time, the Government retains a commitment to a voluntary population policy acceptable to families. The national maternal-child health system is being utilized to educate the population about the benefits of small family size, and the Government is forging alliances with nongovernmental organizations to address population-related issues.
In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 98-9.Liberia is characterized by a high fertility rate; its current total fertility rate of 6.7 children/woman is one of the highest in Africa. Also quite high is the country's 18/1000 mortality rate. Until the 1980s, Liberia was able to maintain a favorable balance between an increasing population and the gross domestic product. In more recent years, however, the economic growth rate has fallen behind the population growth rate, with a subsequent sharp decline in the standard of living. Economic recovery is currently the cornerstone of Liberia's development policy, and the protection and enhancement of the population's welfare by proper planning is a key goal. Population policies that will accelerate the pace of achieving national economic objectives are under consideration. Of particular concern is the massive migration of rural residents to urban areas. In response to this trend, development projects in rural areas are being expanded.
In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 106-7.As a result of malaria eradication, general progress in medical science, and free government health services, Mauritius's population grew dramatically in the postwar decades. In addition to this alarming trend in population growth, Mauritius also faced a high population density ratio and a mono-culture economy based on sugar. Initial attempts to offer institutionalized family planning services met with opposition from some religious groups. By 1965, however, the climate was more favorable and the Government moved to provide subsidies to 2 private voluntary organizations that offered family planning services. In the 1965-72 period, the Government of Mauritius took a more aggressive role in population activities by significantly increasing the number of family planning service delivery points and expanding the infrastructure for population control. As a result of these measures, the total fertility rate dropped to 3.42 in 1972 compared with 5.86 in 1962. In the 1972-82 period, even further gains were made and the fertility rate fell to 2.39. Continuous declines have also been recorded in the infant mortality rate, which now (1983) stands at 26/1000 live births. Nonetheless, there is a need to continue to curb population growth to ensure the availability of natural resources. Through measures such as family planning, health, education, communication, and information programs, the Government population policy seeks to lower the gross reproduction rate from 1.18 in 1982 to 1.12 by 1987. Multisector, integrated development is being stressed given recognition that nondemographic factors such as education, better housing, welfare services, policies to modernize agriculture, and economic diversification are essential to improvements in the population's standard of living.
In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 113.A legacy of Mozambique's colonial history is extreme underdevelopment, with a strong polarization of the productive infrastructure and social benefits. As a result of the distorted colonial economy, the yearly rate of population growth is several times greater than the rate of economic growth and the standard of living of the majority of the population is inadequate. Improvements in the standard of living of all the people of Mozambique will require careful attention to population growth, fertility, infant mortality, population distribution, and other aspects of demographic behavior. It will be necessary to take action in the areas of health, education, housing, and the social productivity of labor. These goals will be made more difficult by the imported inflation, protectionist measures, deterioration of the terms of trade, and worsening of the rate of interest that the international crisis has imposed on developing countries. Successive natural disasters, food shortages, and technological and scientific dependence further hinder achievement of development. The International Conference on Population should make an important contribution to the search for practical solutions for the development of countries such as Mozambique.