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In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 24-46.The solemn commitment that was made in Cairo in 1994 to make reproductive health care universally available was a culmination of efforts made by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and all those concerned about a people-centred and human rights approach to population issues. The commitment posed important challenges to national governments and the international community, to policy makers, programme planners and service providers, and to the civil society at large. The role of UNFPA in building up the consensus for the reproductive health approach before Cairo had to continue after Cairo if the goals of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) were to be achieved. UNFPA continues to be needed to strengthen the commitment, maintain the momentum, mobilize the required resources, and help national governments and the international community move from word to action, and from rhetoric to reality. Reproductive health, including family planning and sexual health, is now one of three major programme areas for UNFPA. During 1997, reproductive health accounted for over 60 per cent of total programme allocations by the Fund. (excerpt)
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY. 1991 Sep; 20(3):589-94.Epidemiology is considered under 4 aspects: its contribution to world health; its future role in solving health problems; application of advances in epidemiology; and its social and ethical implications. Epidemiology now encompasses all ill health as affected by development, not just infectious diseases. The WHO uses epidemiologic tools to understand the incidence, prevalence, natural history, causes, effects, and control of disease, as exemplified by the eradication of smallpox and the AIDS prevention program. Now WHO is applying epidemiologic methods of monitoring and evaluation to set goals for health for all by 2000. The major contributions that epidemiologists can make are to warn decision makers about the many world problems before it is too late. This should be done with human rights and social justice in mind, rather than by commercial marketing of health products. Future health care systems must continue to increase efficiency and efficacy of interventions, compatible with political and social reality, and respectful of human rights, freedom, and integrity. WHO is preparing a plan of action to strengthen epidemiologic capabilities of the countries with the greatest need in the next 5 years, to be extended to other needy countries in the future.
In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 160.The increase in the world's population and the demand for social facilities such as health, education, and employment opportunities places an ever greater importance on the implementation of population policy programmes. The government of Uganda, faced with having to deal with population control while combatting national and international factors, has responded by implementing daring economic measures. The national policy is now concerned with a recovery initiative aimed at improving the rural and urban sectors.
In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 149-50.The population of the Sudan, according to a 1983 census was 22 million. The Sudan, the largest country in Africa, has experienced high population growth. The population in 1955 was 10.3 million, and it has doubled in the space of 27 years. The population growth rate was figured at 2.8%/year, indicating that the population will double again in the next 25 years. The government of the Sudan has to deal with strains on services consumer goods caused by 50% of the population being under the age of 15. Internal and external immigration produce strains on the Sudanese workforce, cities and government resources. The primary concern of the Sudanese government in its National Population Policy programmes, is to balance the population and other facts of the Sudanese community, namely manpower size. The government is an attempt to understanding changing population variables, plans the following: to conduct a census on the population every 10 years; give consideration in its programs to the protection of the family; and to give special attention to women, in both an economic and political capacity.
In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 18-9.The population of Benin is 3.8 million inhabitants spread over an area of 112,600 kilometers. The population is growing at an annual average of 2.7%, in 26 years it will be double what it is today. The government of Benin realizing the effect of demographic factors on the economic and social development have included population policies in their national programmes. Results of statistical surveys conducted by the government are as follows: despite the importance accorded health care in the national budget, there has been a rise in infant mortality rates; and massive migration from rural to urban areas in addition, to the migration of young Beninese men to other countries. Lack of reliable statistical resources has forced the government to include in its national program the creation of 2 institutions under the auspices of the Ministry of Planning, Statistics and Economic Analysis (MPSAE) and the National Institute of Statistics and Economic Analysis (INSAE). The government also looks to create a family welfare project to improve maternal and child health and implement a research project which will consider the problems which exist in implementing sex education in all schools.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1984. 36 p. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements)In his address to national leaders in Nairobi, Kenya, Clausen expresses his views on population growth and development. Rapid population growth slows development in the developing countries. There is a strong link between population growth rates and the rate of economic and social development. The World Bank is determined to support the struggle against poverty in developing countries. Population growth will mean lower living standards for hundreds of millions of people. Proposals for reducing population growth raise difficult questions about the proper domain of public policy. Clausen presents a historical overview of population growth in the past 2 decades, and discusses the problem of imbalance between natural resources and people, and the effect on the labor force. Rapid population growth creates urban economic and social problems that may be unmanageable. National policy is a means to combat overwhelmingly high fertility, since governments have a duty to society as a whole, both today's generation and future ones. Peoples may be having more children than they actually want because of lack of information or access to fertility control methods. Family planning is a health measure that can significantly reduce infant mortality. A combination of social development and family planning is needed to teduce fertility. Clausen briefly reviews the effect of economic and technological changes on population growth, focusing on how the Bank can support an effective combination of economic and social development with extending and improving family planning and health services. The World Bank offers its support to combat rapid population growth by helping improve understanding through its economic and sector work and through policy dialogue with member countries; by supporting developing strategies that naturally buiild demand for smaller families, especially by improving opportunities in education and income generation; and by helping supply safe, effective and affordable family planning and other basic health services focused on the poor in both urban and rural areas. In the next few years, the Bank intends at least to double its population and related health lending as part of a major effort involving donors and developing countries with a primay focus on Africa and Asia. An effective policy requires the participation of many ministeries and clear direction and support from the highest government levels.
International Journal of Health Services. 1983; 13(4):649-60.In this review of Cheryl Payer's recent book, The World Bank: A Critical Analysis, the World Bank's role in the third world and the reasons why poverty, hunger, malnutrition, and unemployment are on the rise are discussed. The World Bank annually gives billions of dollars to third world governments, supposedly to develop their economies through a variety of loan projects. In reality, the loans subsidized the transnational corporations from the industrial countries and expand their industrial, commercial and financial activities in the third world. Capitalism has brought technological innovations, lowered infant mortality rates, and lengthened life expectancy in the third world. But it has also resulted in rapid population growth and an increase in other problems. Food, water, medical services, sanitary facilities and housing are becoming scarce to the poor. The World Bank has used its large resources, distributed annually on an increasing scale to its member countries, to expand capitalism in the third world and to fortify the business activities of the transnational corporations, including the large transnational banks. Many of the underdeveloped economies are having a difficult time due to an immense debt burden from all the lending activities of the World Bank. It is believed that the World Bank and capitalism will not be able to resolve the economic and social problems of the third world, and that socialism holds more hope for the masses worldwide. Under socialism, the World Bank would cease to exist. The World Bank and other UN agencies speak much, but really care nothing about problems facing the third world. It is believed that the growth of these problems are the prelude to the coming revolution that so frightens the World Bank and its supporters.