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  1. 1
    066142

    Report of an International Consultation on AIDS and Human Rights. Geneva, 26-28 July 1989. Organized by the Centre for Human Rights with the technical and financial support of the World Health Organization Global Programme on AIDS.

    United Nations. Centre for Human Rights

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1991. iii, 57 p.

    In July 1989, ethicists, lawyers, religious leaders, and health professionals participated in an international consultation on AIDS and human rights in Geneva, Switzerland. The report addressed the public health and human rights rationale for protecting the human rights and dignity of HIV infected people, including those with AIDS. Discrimination and stigmatization only serve to force HIV infected people away from health, educational, and social services and to hinder efforts to prevent and control the spread of HIV. In addition to nondiscrimination, another fundamental human right is the right to life and AIDS threatens life. Governments and the international community are therefore obligated to do all that is necessary to protect human lives. Yet some have enacted restrictions on privacy (compulsory screening and testing), freedom of movement (preventing HIV infected persons from migrating or traveling), and liberty (prison). The participants agreed that everyone has the right to access to up-to-date information and education concerning HIV and AIDS. They did not come to consensus, however, on the need for an international mechanism by which human right abuses towards those with HIV/AIDS can be prevented and redressed. International and health law, human rights, ethics, and policy all must go into any international efforts to preserve human rights of HIV infected persons and to prevent and control the spread of AIDS. The participants requested that this report be distributed to human rights treaty organizations so they can deliberate what action is needed to protect the human rights of those at risk or infected with HIV. They also recommended that governments guarantee that measures relating to HIV/AIDS and concerning HIV infected persons conform to international human rights standards.
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  2. 2
    272190

    AIDS and blood transfusions: ensuring safe blood supplies.

    Finger WR

    NETWORK. 1990 Apr; 11(2):5-7,20.

    Safe and adequate blood supplies are needed, especially in high Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevalence rate areas. Tests for HIV are available in most developing countries today. Much virus screening is taking place. The best way to control HIV's transmission is to establish a blood transfusion system (BTS). Proper storage, distribution, collection, and testing of blood must be done. Trained technicians and appropriate criteria for using transfusions should be included in any BTS. Establishing a central BTS requires much money and the national government must be committed to it. In 1988, WHO started the Global Blood Safety Initiative (GBSI) in conjunction with others. It's objective is to support integrated BTSs in all countries. 8 countries have been chosen for priorities, to develop BTSs. GBSI is also working in other countries to train technicians, get blood donors, and prevent HIV infections. A major problem in most developing countries is adequate blood supplies. In rural areas, many transfusions come from family members. Blood can be screened, and results given in 10-15 minutes. Large city hospitals can use ELISH HIV testing. It requires a 1-day wait for results but costs < the faster tests. Paid donors do not like blood screening, because it may lead to loss of income. Large countries need to use testing facilities in different regions. But smaller ones can use a centralized system, if they have good transportation. In November, 1989 a workshop was held in Yaounde, the capital of Cameroon, to set up appropriate blood transfusion guidelines. 45 physicians and blood bank managers took part. 9 of the 10 provinces were represented. The conference concluded that the number of transfusions should be reduced, and volunteer donors should be sought. In February, 1990 more than 700 Romanian children had been infected with HIV. This may have been caused by injecting adult blood into young babies who appear anemic. This is known as microtransfusion and health officials have banned it.
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