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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Solidarity and AIDS: introduction.

    Krieger N


    This article asks the reader to carefully consider the personal implications of AIDS were either he or close friends and relatives afflicted with the syndrome. We are urged to acknowledge the limited capabilities of personal and social response to the epidemic, and recognize the associated degree of social inequity and knowledge deficiency which exists. Summaries of 3 articles are discussed as highly integrated in their common call for global solidarity in the fight against HIV infections and AIDS. Pros and cons of Cuba's evolving response to AIDS are considered, paying attention to the country's recent abandonment of health policy which isolated those infected with HIV, in favor of renewed social integration of these individuals. Brazil's inadequate, untimely, and erred response to AIDS is then strongly criticized in the 2nd article summary. Finally, the 3rd article by Dr. Jonathan Mann, former head of the World Health Organization's Global program on AIDS, on AIDS prevention in the 1990s is discussed. Covering behavioral change and the critical role of political factors in AIDS prevention, Mann asserts the need to apply current concepts and strategies, while developing new ones, and to reassess values and concepts guiding work in the field. AIDS and its associated crises threaten the survival of humanity. It is not just a disease to be solved by information, but is intimately linked to issues of sexuality, health, and human behavior which are in turn shaped by social, political, economic, and cultural factors. Strong, concerted political resolve is essential in developing, implementing, and sustaining an action agenda against AIDS set by people with AIDS and those at risk of infection. Vision, resources, and leadership are called for in this war closely linked to the struggle for worldwide social justice.
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  2. 2


    Lini WH

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 171-2.

    The major focus of the government of Vanuatu is the improvement of the quality of life for its people. The population of Vanuatu is both small and mixed; half of the population is under 16 with a low population density spread throughout its various islands. However, the population has begun to grow in both the rural and urban areas. The only source of data available to the government are numbers recorded during 2 censuses taken in 1967 and 1979; very few births are reported in rural and/or urban areas. Recent surveys have led the government to concentrate on increasing land use in order to feed a growing population. The government has also taken into account the low standard of education of the Ni-Vanuatu people. The government hopes to improve national education and to replace foreigners in its public and private sector with educated Ni-Vanuatu. The government is committed to improving the lives of its people, but with the least amount of change to traditional cultural values.
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  3. 3

    Population, resources, environment and development.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. ix, 534 p. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements ST/ESA/SER.A/90)

    Contained in this volume are the report (Part I) and the selected papers (Part II) of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development which review past trends and their likely future course in each of the 4 areas, taking into account not only evolving concepts but also the need to consider population, resources, environment and development as a unified structure. Trends noted in the population factor include world population growth and the differences between rates in the developed and developing countries; the decline in the proportion of the population who are very young and the concomitant increase in the average age of the population. Discussed within the resource factor are the labor force, the problem of increasing capital shortage, expenditures on armaments, trends in the supply and productivity of arable land, erosion and degradation of topsoil and energy sources. Many of the problems identified overlap with the environment factor, which centers on the problem of pollution. The group on the development factor was influenced by a pervasiv sense of "crisis" in current economic trends. Concern was also expressed regarding the qualitative aspects of current development trends, defined as the perverse effects of having adopted inappropriate styles of development. Part II begins with a general overview of recent levels and trends in the 4 areas along with the concepts of carrying capacity and optimum population. Other papers discuss the impact of trends in resources, environment and development on demographic prospects; long-term effects of global population growth on the international system; economic considerations in the choice of alternative paths to a stationary population and the need for integration of demographic factors in development planning. The various papers on the resources and environment factor focus on resources as a barrier to population growth; the effects of population growth on renewable resources; food production and population growth in Africa; the frailty of the balance between the 4 areas and the need for a holistic approach on a scale useful for regional planning. Also addressed are: social development; population and international economic relations; development, lifestyles, population and environment in Latin America; issues of population growth, inequality and poverty; health, population and development trends; education requirements and trends in female literacy; the challenge posed by the aging of populations; and population and development in the ECE region.
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  4. 4

    National growth, national strength, statement made at the Second African Population Conference, Arusha, United Republic of Tanzania, 8 January, 1984.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1984]. 8 p. (Speech Series No. 105)

    The upsurge of population growth in Africa comes at a time when world growth rates, and the rates for all other regions of the world, have begun to decline. But growth itself is only one aspect of concern with population. Another and most important issue is the severe imbalance between resources and population which now exists in many African countries as the result of low levels of development and lagging utilization of natural resources, particularly for food production. Population growth is accompanied by explosive urban growth in amny centers, while international migration is also increasing, partly voluntary, partly under political or economic pressure. A new emphasis on population questions in Africa invites consideration of new policy directions and reassessment of some old ones. It will be convenient to deal with these under the 4 subjects which will form the basis for the agenda at this year's International Conference on Population to be held in Mexico City in August, 1984. These are mortality and health; fertility and the family; population distribution and migration and population; and resources, environment and development. Each of these topics are considered with particular reference to the African experience.
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  5. 5

    Report to ECOSOC, statement made to the Economic and Social Council at its Second Regular Session of 1981, United Nations, Geneva, 2 July 1981.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1981]. 7 p.

    This statement discusses the vital role population problems and issues play in global development. The developing countries will be faced with population growth rates in the 1980s of around 2%/year. According to United Nations projections, the share of the total world population living in the developing countries would rise from 74% at present to 80% by the year 2000. A striking feature of the prospective future population growth is that the largest increases in population will occur in the poorest countries and regions of the world which also experienced the largest increases in recent decades. The various forces generated by population growth, the imbalance of resources and the lack of gainful employment opportunities will undoubtedly affect economic and social stability. In many developing countries, population pressures have been particularly acute in the cities, where increasing migration from the rural areas has caused social problems to be more severe. Recent projections prepared by the UN indicate that it will be possible to stabilize the world population between the latter part of the 21st and the 1st half of the 22nd century but only if the current level of population activities in various parts of the world can be maintained. However, there exists today considerable disparity between resources and demand for population assistance. This tight resource situation has necessitated that the Fund devote its major attention to building self-reliance in developing countries. The Fund's goals and policies are briefly outlined.
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  6. 6

    Report to the council: present and future programme, statement made at the Twenty-eighth Session of the UNDP Governing Council, United Nations, New York, 12 June 1981.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1981]. 19 p.

    This report reviews: 1) United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) performance in 1980, including financial expenditures; 2) projects and programs submitted to the Governing Council for approval; 3) a work plan and request for approval authority; 4) the UNDP operational reserve; 5) the future role of UNFPA; 6) the proposed World Population Conference in 1984; and 7) the State of the World Population Report--which appears as the 1st chapter of the printed version of the UNFPA's annual report. The final figure for pledges and contributions for 1980 was US$125.5 million, an increase of 12% over 1979. Expenditures totaled US$147.5 million. Family planning programs continued to absorb the largest % of UNFPA allocations--41.7%. In the face of growing demand from the developing countries for assistance and limited resources available UNFPA will continue to concentrate on countries with the most urgent population problems and needs. It is necessary that the priority country system be revised or updated every 5 years in order to ensure that UNFPA will continue to respond to changing circumstnaces and needs in the developing world. In the future, the Fund intends to promote a more broad-based, multi-sectoral approach to population issues. In addition, the Fund will emphasize developing self-reliance by putting a time limit on various projects receiving UNFPA support.
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  7. 7

    International co-operation for global development, commencement address made to the University of Maryland, University College, College Park, Maryland, 20 December 1980.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1980]. 8 p. (Speech Series No. 60)

    Though most of the industrial world is moving towards zero population growth, the global population will still grow from the present 4.4 billion to 6.2 billion by the year 2000 due to the high rate of population growth in the developing countries. By the end of this century, nearly 4/5 of the world's population will be living in the developing countries. Though the rate of population growth is declining in these countries as a result of adopting population planning strategies, they face serious setbacks to their development plans which are mostly based on resource-intensive models of development. UNFPA was created to achieve global awareness of the dimensions of the population problem, and to promote international partnership for the balanced development of population resources and the environment. In its 11 years of existence the Fund has transferred some US$700 million in resources, thanks to the unwavering support of the developed countries, of which the United States is a leading donor. The developing countries have themselves spent more than US$2 billion on population programs. Only co-ordinated long-term planning can ensure a smooth transition from the 20th to the 21st century. In this partnership for global development, the United States should not, and cannot, abdicate its responsibilities.
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  8. 8

    Population and global future, statement made at the First Global Conference on the Future: through the '80s, Toronto, Canada, 21 July 1980.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1980]. 6 p. (Speech Series No. 57)

    The United Nations has always considered population variables to be an integral part of the total development process. UNFPA has developed, in response to national needs, a core program of population assistance which has found universal support and acceptance among the 130 recipient countries and territories. Historically, these are: family planning, population policy formulation and population dynamics. The following emerging trends are foreseeable from country requests and information available to the Fund: 1) migration from rural to urban areas and increased growth in urbanization; 2) an increased proportion of aged which has already created a number of new demands for resources in both developing and developed countries; 3) a move toward enabling women to participate in economic and educational activities; and 4) a need for urgent concern over ecological issues which affect the delicate balance of resources and population.
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  9. 9

    Development is people, statement made at the World Development Information Day, United Nations, New York, 23 October 1975.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1975]. 6 p.

    During the next 30 years, population will grow on an even larger scale. At the World Population Conference in Bucharest, it was decided that population programs should be considered part of the development process. This was a positive acknowledgement by the world that population is an important problem to be acted on in accordance with each country's policy. Discussions and meetings are continually taking place world wide, showing that national views are not irreconcilable. There are wide variations between cultures and ideologies, as can be expected, but there are also enough elements in common to make agreement on priorities likely. Over 100 countries have accepted assistance from the UNFPA and 78 countries support its work with voluntary contributions, which indicates some consensus. Involvement in population activities shows that development is people. Development programs touch the lives of individuals and change them for better or for worse. Each development decision made must have the consent of the people or it is likely to fail. For most people, development means some type of basic security in their lives--be it food, a job, a place to live, or a secure future for their children. By regarding the individual as a resource rather than a libability, development programs have been able to build houses, open schools, provide basic medical care and jobs. A great deal of good can come from international assistance, but in the end it is the countries themselves who must decide their own priorities and supply their own needs. It is for the benefit of all people that discussions such as this, on population, are held. People are both the resources for and the reason for development.
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  10. 10

    Progress and performance: the need for sustained effort, statement made at the Twentieth Session of the UNDP Governing Council, United Nations, Geneva, 19 June 1975.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1975]. 20 p.

    This address undertakes a detailed review of the progress and problems of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), including highlights of recent UNFPA activities, proposals to the Governing Council, and challenges facing the UNFPA. Recent highlights include: the 1st Conference of Population Activities in the Arab States, convened by the League of Arab States; the educational effort centering on 1974 as World Population Year; the marked increase in the rate of project implementation; and the fact that UNFPA receives many more requests than it has the financial resources to deal with. UNFPA is achieving significant progress in all areas. The proposals made to the 20th Session of the UNDP Governing Council cover the suggested new 4-year "Work Plan 1976-79," recommendations for 4 new large scale or innovative projects, and the suggested budget for UNFPA administrative and support services for 1976. The UNFPA has been exploring all possible areas of financing and has tried to widen understanding and support. The Fund has had many encouraging responses and contributions. It is likely that population problems will continue for a very long time. Population issues are linked to all other problems--particularly those of economic and social development. Population matters are also very complex. The challenges confronting population programs and UNFPA are to continue and intensify efforts to develop population awareness, to assist in identifying population problems, and to help to solve those problems as generously and effectively as possible.
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  11. 11
    Peer Reviewed

    Plundering the poor: the role of the World Bank in the third world.

    Feder E

    International Journal of Health Services. 1983; 13(4):649-60.

    In this review of Cheryl Payer's recent book, The World Bank: A Critical Analysis, the World Bank's role in the third world and the reasons why poverty, hunger, malnutrition, and unemployment are on the rise are discussed. The World Bank annually gives billions of dollars to third world governments, supposedly to develop their economies through a variety of loan projects. In reality, the loans subsidized the transnational corporations from the industrial countries and expand their industrial, commercial and financial activities in the third world. Capitalism has brought technological innovations, lowered infant mortality rates, and lengthened life expectancy in the third world. But it has also resulted in rapid population growth and an increase in other problems. Food, water, medical services, sanitary facilities and housing are becoming scarce to the poor. The World Bank has used its large resources, distributed annually on an increasing scale to its member countries, to expand capitalism in the third world and to fortify the business activities of the transnational corporations, including the large transnational banks. Many of the underdeveloped economies are having a difficult time due to an immense debt burden from all the lending activities of the World Bank. It is believed that the World Bank and capitalism will not be able to resolve the economic and social problems of the third world, and that socialism holds more hope for the masses worldwide. Under socialism, the World Bank would cease to exist. The World Bank and other UN agencies speak much, but really care nothing about problems facing the third world. It is believed that the growth of these problems are the prelude to the coming revolution that so frightens the World Bank and its supporters.
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  12. 12

    Issues on inter-relationships, statement made at the Expert Group Meeting on Population, Resources, Environment and Development. Geneva, Switzerland, 25 April 1983.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1983]. 6 p. (Speech Series No. 89)

    This statement attempts to clarify the inter-relationships between population and resources, environment and development. To study these inter-relationships, it is important to take into account the trends in growth population presently existing, the development which developing countries have chosen, and a rational utilization of natural resources that all countries should adapt for themselves. Certain questions that are taken into consideration are related to the carrying capacity of the world, and inputs and technologies made available to countries for sufficient food requirements. Specific conclusions are needed to help governments define their policy. Another important issue for the future will concern the development of human resources for the transfer of technology from the developed to the developing countries.
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  13. 13

    Population--common problems, common interests, statement made at Regional Meeting on Population of the Economic Commission for Europe, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6 October, 1983.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1983]. 8 p. (Speech Series No. 100)

    This statement outlines in brief present trends in world population growth. Although population growth is declining, it will nevertheless take more than a century for population to stabilize and this poses major problems which will all be discussed at the International Conference on Population in 1984. Discussions at the Conference will center on 4 topics: 1) fertility and the family--this includes among other issues, the issue of the elderly, and family size; 2) distribution and migration; 3) resources and the environment; and, 4) health and mortality.
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