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  1. 1

    The World Health Organization in encounter with African traditional medicine: theoretical conceptions and practical strategies.

    Bibeau G

    In: Ademuwagun ZA, Ayoade JA, Harrison IE, Warren DM, ed. African therapeutic systems. Waltham, Massachusetts, Crossroads Press, 1979. 182-6.

    In contrast with other African intergovernmental agencies that equate traditional medicine with medicinal plants, the WHO Regional Bureau in Brazzaville considers it to be a whole medical system with original concepts and practices and a public health resource for the future. The author discusses proposals regarding promotion of African traditional medicine within health policy, offered by WHO at the Regional Committee Session in Kampala in September 1976. The documents presented are critized as being too metaphysical and not practical enough in terms of recommendations for integration of traditional medicine with official health services. However, WHO is seen as far ahead of the Regional Bureau in terms of promoting traditional medicine. (author's modified)
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  2. 2

    Bitter pills: population policies and their implementation in eight developing countries.

    Warwick DP

    New York, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1982. 229 p.

    Describes research on how governments adopt population policies, how such policies are carried out, and the differences between programs that are implemented and those that are not; underlying ethical and moral issues are also considered. Based on a cross national study by the Hastings Center, with financial support by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), major projects were carried out in Egypt, Kenya, Mexico and the Philippines, with smaller ones in the Dominican Republic, Haiti, India, and Lebanon, beginning in 1973 and continuing until 1981. An overview section describes the project and examines the question of theory for implementation and the influence of international donor agencies in the population field. Subsequent chapters consider the power of process in policy formation, the importance of the political, cultural and bureaucratic (inter and intraagency) contexts, review the impact of implementer commitment at all levels (with emphasis on field level), and explore the influence of outside opinion leaders and the power of clients in affecting program outcomes. Concluding essays 1) propose that implementation be viewed as a transaction rather than as a mechanical execution, a game, or programmatic evolutions; and 2) plead for an ethics of respect in population policy and propose specific guidelines for implementation. The focus on implementation is helpful in directing attention to organization behavior over proclamations.
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