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  1. 1

    Issue paper: Review of the human rights content of frameworks to assess the effectiveness of HIV / AIDS programming.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]. Global Reference Group on HIV / AIDS and Human Rights

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2004. Prepared for the 4th Meeting of the UNAIDS Global Reference Group on HIV / AIDS and Human Rights, August 23-25, 2004. 7 p.

    This paper examines approaches used by some of the primary intergovernmental and governmental agencies in assessing the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS programmes, as they have been reviewed by the UNAIDS Monitoring and Evaluation Reference Group (MERG). This is to attempt to begin to shed light on how the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS programs are currently assessed by UNAIDS, its partners, and other major organizations, and to understand the extent and ways in which human rights considerations form parts of these assessments. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Critical juncture: the future of peacekeeping.

    Renner M

    Washington, D.C., Worldwatch Institute, 1993 May. 74 p. (Worldwatch Paper 114)

    A new principle of conflict resolution is needed if the world truly wishes to prepare for peace. Maintaining stability, while stockpiling arms, is no longer an acceptable way to achieve peace; treaties guided by arms control must be replaced by disarmament approaches, which seek to reduce or eliminate weapons. International treaties have imposed constraints on the deployment of nuclear weapons, weapons of mass destruction, chemical and biological weapons, and ballistic missiles. The 1990 Conventional Forces in Europe Treaty signed by Nato countries established equal numbers of conventions weapons, but does not limit production for sale elsewhere or modernization. The Third World accounts for about 60% of world arm imports. As a peace initiative, it is important to curb availability. The post-Cold-War era has brought with it the disintegration of states and ethnic conflict. The number of major armed conflicts, as determined by the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), has declined, but stockpiled weapons could keep conflicts going for many years. The spread of conventional weapons is universal, and there are few constraints to the manufacture, trade, and use of these arms in conflicts. The challenge for the international community is to be ready when it is possible to resolve conflicts peacefully, and to develop effective tools of preventive diplomacy and peacemaking. The UN's ability to bring peace to Cambodia, Somalia, and the former Yugoslavia are a test which could bring greater authority or diminished respect. Letting acts of blatant violence occur, whether transborder attacks such as Iraq's or civil wars as in Yugoslavia, sets a dangerous precedent. There must be world recognition that collective security and human rights cannot be divided in order for effective machinery for peace to take place. Pools of experienced military observers, fact-finding personnel, and human rights monitors can be established now, while political forces are marshalled to revamp the UN to make it more effective. The challenge is whether the UN can be "transformed from a peacekeeper of last resort to a peacemaker of first, and routine, recourse."
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