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In: Women, international development, and politics: the bureaucratic mire. Updated and expanded edition, edited by Kathleen Staudt. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Temple University Press, 1997. 167-182.Using a feminist lens to inspect current PVO (private voluntary organization) family planning programs, we first define the feminist perspective as it applies to such programs and then compare that feminist vision with the reality found in the field. This paper examines the political dynamics of working for a feminist agenda within the community of population PVOs. The following case study illustrates these dynamics and leads to a discussion of both the obstacles to the realization of a feminist vision and the political strategies and attitudes that help implement this vision. Together, we draw on seventeen years of work with a variety of PVOs involved in family planning and reproductive health. (excerpt)
In: Family planning within primary health care, edited by F. Curtis Swezy and Cynthia P. Green. Washington, D.C., National Council for International Health, 1987. 112-4.The World Bank's appreciation of the unique role of NGOs in working beyond the effective reach of government systems in reaching underserved populations and communities has come with its increasing involvement in social sector development. NGO understanding of the needs of communities, underserved populations, and special subgroups constitutes a strong basis for designing and implementing actions to promote social and behavioral change. NGOs can complement the skills available within governments to put their people-oriented policies into meaningful effect. This NGO support may be sine qua non for the success of such policies, and of the programs and projects the Bank supports in the social sectors. The Bank is still developing ways to encourage NGO participation in such programs and projects. Staff in the Population, Health and Nutrition Department of the Bank are directing much more effort now to working with NGOs in family health and population work, particularly in subSaharan Africa where the greatest current challenge exists. At the international level, in order to promote policy dialogue with an operational perspective between the Bank and the NGO community, a Bank/NGO committee has been established. Composed of NGO representatives from both donor and recipient countries and Bank staff, it meets regularly and has proven helpful in identifying mutual interests and common objectives in a number of important areas, including food security. The committee does not replace collaborative mechanisms at the country level, but it has been successful in inspiring both the Bank and NGPs to pursue collaboration more assiduously at the country and sectoral levels.
Populi. 1977; 4(1):7-13.The suggestion at a U.N. Children's Emergency Fund staff meeting that 1/2 the organization's money should be spent on preventing the periodic crises, specifically, on family planning, and the other 1/2 on the miseries of living mothers and children was not accepted in 1958. Another chance for dealing with the problem came through the Population Council in New York. Assigned to East Asia, there was no budgetary support for population policies. Only in South Korea, at the suggestion of the Minister of Planning, was a policy for reducing the birthrate announced. It was the local branch of the International Planned Parenthood Federation that undertook most of the training of the over 2000 field workers hired to visit the rural families especially and to establish a supply line for pills, which were a gift from Sweden. The methods used in order of adoption were the IUD, the oral contraceptive, the vasectomy, condom, and later, subsidized female sterilization. This began in 1963, and it is the 1st example of a population program that has grown until it is now 1 of the soundest anywhere. In East Asia every official program was preceded by activity by some private agency. These usually began in a single clinic to meet the urgent need of mothers who had more children than they could afford and care for. Going out and seeing the people in the various countries of East Asia revealed that they too were aware that they had more children than they could afford. In that 3/4 of the people in East Asia live in villages, it is important that every married couple be visited at home by someone who can explain what family planning is all about and how it will benefit the family and the village. An experienced midwife on a small motorcycle can carry with her all the equipment she heeds and attend to 30 or 40 cases in 1 day. Experience in East Asia suggests that any nation that really wants to can reduce its annual population growth rate.
How many people? A Symposium. Foreign Policy Association, 1973. (Headline Series No. 218) p. 7-15. December 1973The progress of the family planning and population control movements are traced with particular regard to the significant role played by early volunteer organizations like the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) which was formed in 1952 by the National Family Planning Associations of India, the U.S., Britain, Hong Kong Germany, Holland, Sweden and Singapore. Global recognition of the population problem has been fostered in part by the universal trend toward urbanization, the sharp reduction in maternal and child deaths, the gradual improvement in the status of women, and other social changes which created a demand for better living conditions. The current trend toward assessing national development prospects in terms of social objectives represents a merger between demographic policy and family planning programs. This union between the public and private sector is largely due to the efforts of voluntary family planning groups who have sought to demonstrate that provision of birth control services and education would result in individual efforts to control fertility. Pioneers like the IPPF lobbied and forced action on the evidence that family size and population growth are related integrally to the social and economic progress which the UN and national governments were trying to create. In the mid-60s, the UN officially recognized the efforts of volunteer agencies and within 2 years, the World Health Organization, the International Labor Organization, UNESCO, UNICEF and the Food and Agriculture Organization acknowledged the contribution of family planning to their own efforts to improve living standards. By 1965, family planning had been introduced in 92 countries and governments committed to population control numbered 10. The IPPF has received increased funding from the U.S., Britain and Sweden to supplement their aid to emerging voluntary organizations which are still dependent on private funding. Governments rely on the private sector during their early experiments with national services as well as on the efforts of the voluntary movement to get services fully utilized. Public and private sector activities tent to become mutually supportive. No voluntary association has been able to develop a nationwide clinic service alone. Government involvement provides essential public health facilities. Family planning organizations, in continuing roles as catalyst and pressure group, can be vital to emerging national programs, and can assist governments with problems of training, administration, distribution and coordination which are essential to the efficient delivery of services.