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In: The population debate: dimensions and perspectives. Papers of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974. Volume I. New York, New York, United Nations, 1975. 124-54. (Population Studies, No. 57; ST/ESA/SER.A/57)The UN Secretary-General's state of the population and family message is an expansive discussion of many issues. There are some historical perspectives and definitions of family type, socioeconomic change, and demographic changes affecting the family. Population trends are given for family size, more and less developed regions, the family life cycle, and family structures. Policies in industrialized countries are examined with a focus on the nuclear family, new marriage patterns and the sociological implications, and political responses to population growth. Family policy is also viewed from within transitional societies: demographic characteristics; specific populations such as those in Latin America, India and Indonesia; economic and social change; nuclear and extended families; international migration and urban-rural differences; marriage age changes; educational impacts from population growth; health programs; and family planning. Some basic principles for population policies are outlined. Parents must have the right to determine freely and responsibly the number and spacing of their children. Children have a right to education, and parents to literacy. Women have an equal right to employment. Women have a right to choose their own marriage partners. Social policy in order to ensure the welfare of the family relies on social and economic services, including care for the aged. Market expansion and economic policy also impacts on the family through increasing participation of marginal workers especially women and should be sensitive to the well-being of the family. Population pressure will affect housing shortages and inefficiencies in social welfare, for example. Traditional societies are defined as those not affected yet by modernization. Regional illustrations are given for tropical Africa, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. The threshold hypothesis is advanced that even in traditional societies substantial mortality decline has occurred; the stages of demographic transition for specific countries has been shortened and inadequacy of data prevents a detailed estimation. Raising national and income/capita is seen as a goal of notional government. National governments have a responsibility to develop family and population policies. Human rights must be protected. The implications of growth patterns, the objectives of national policies, priorities, and universal criteria for a family policy are all discussed.
PEOPLE. 1991; 18(2):24-5.The effect of the Gulf War on family planning services in the Arab Region is discussed. The war may also underscore the problems of inequities in the distribution of wealth, misuse of natural resources, displacement of people (refugees and human rights), and precariousness of economies based on disorganized imported/exported labor. It is hoped that this will lead to a coordinated population policy on migration and population movements in the Arab Region. The Arab world has also exposed it's high fertility rates, mortality rates, poverty, and conditions of women. The IPPF family planning associates have functioned in 14 Arab countries with hesitant support. The scarce family planning resources may be diverted to investments in national security and emergency care and curative services. Health, education, nutrition, and joblessness are critical for Iraqis, Jordanians, and those fleeing or being expelled from Iraq, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia. Their status may be no better than the refugees stranded in Jordan. Attitudes from the war may lead to pressure on mothers to replace the dead, or retreat into thinking about safety in numbers. Public opinion against the West's imperialist plots about family planning, as evidenced in Israel's pronatalist policies, may equate family planning with being anti-Islamic and antinationalist. These fears are further exacerbated by the fundamentalist concerns about anti-Islamic family planning. Religious fanaticism also threatens the newly acquired rights of women to choose the desired number of children, to education, and to hold public office. A further complication is the political nature of international assistance which may punish poorer Arab nations for their rebellion, or be distributed based on political aims. No Arab nation is neutral and IPPF will suffer resulting in fewer exchanges and regional-based activities.
In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 191-2.The government of Tonga wishes to extend its appreciation to the organizers of the Mexico Conference. The population of Tonga is 103,000 people spread over a distance of 747 square miles. The King of Tonga, realizing the seriousness of population dilemmas, implemented programmes as early as the 1960's. The result can be seen in decreases in the population, the annual growth rate and fertility rate. The government of Tonga is constrained by its Constitution, which allows a land allotment to males who have reached the age of majority. However, the population of Tonga is growing and the Government is fast running out of land. The country is also suffering from internal and external migration, producing a "brain drain" in Tonga's most needed areas. However, the government has been able to deal with its population problems, in part due to its own NGOs and international organizations such as the UN.
In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 159.In the last past 30 years, the world has experienced an increase in its population, making the implementation of population programmes paramount concern worldwide. Population increase has had an alarming effect on the socioeconomic development of Turkey. The constitution of the Turkish government supports the principle of the rights of individuals to choose freely, the number and spacing of their children, as outlined in the World Plan of Action, 1974. Within the context of the constitution, the Turkish government looks to implement programmes designed to protest both mother and child and designed also, to reach the remotest parts of the country. The government hopes to maintain a population growth equal to its economic and social growth. However, the Turkish government feels that the implementation of population programmes should be on both an international and national scale. The government hopes that the Mexico Conference will be a success.
In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 149-50.The population of the Sudan, according to a 1983 census was 22 million. The Sudan, the largest country in Africa, has experienced high population growth. The population in 1955 was 10.3 million, and it has doubled in the space of 27 years. The population growth rate was figured at 2.8%/year, indicating that the population will double again in the next 25 years. The government of the Sudan has to deal with strains on services consumer goods caused by 50% of the population being under the age of 15. Internal and external immigration produce strains on the Sudanese workforce, cities and government resources. The primary concern of the Sudanese government in its National Population Policy programmes, is to balance the population and other facts of the Sudanese community, namely manpower size. The government is an attempt to understanding changing population variables, plans the following: to conduct a census on the population every 10 years; give consideration in its programs to the protection of the family; and to give special attention to women, in both an economic and political capacity.
[Unpublished] 1989 Mar. Paper presented at the Seminar on Population Policy in Subsaharan Africa: Drawing on International Experience, sponsored by the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP), Committee on Population and Policy, with the collaboration of Departement de Demographie de l'Universite de Kinshasa, Commission Nationale de la Population du Zaire (CONAPO), Secretariat au Plan du Zaire, held at the Hotel Okapi, Kinshasa, Zaire, 27 February to 2 March 1989. 36 p.The impact of policies pursued by international agencies in Sub-Saharan Africa have been to generally increase African city growth and the urban population's concentration in the largest cities. The World Bank is the dominant agency in Africa in determining the policy decisions of the international community. Since the African urban sector provides 40-50% of Africa's gross domestic product, all domestic and international efforts to increase economic growth are focused on urban activities, promoting urbanization. Factors such as education policy, government's consumption of modern sector goods, salaries of urban bureaucrats all encourage urbanization and depend on adequate infrastructures. Africa's rapid urbanization in the past 15 years is surprising in the absence of most of these factors. Investments in urban housing, transport and infrastructure assistance from international donors has contributed to Africa's rapid urbanization because funding has gone to the urban areas. Shifting from funding primary education in the rural areas to higher education loans has also had a strong urbanizing effect on countries since education imparts western values of desiring urban living. Donor funding and policy-making has also included influence on African governments to reduce their birth rates in order to reduce the share of the public sector budget that is committed to public services. The decline in crude death rates for the region as a whole went from 22 to 17/1000 between 1965 and 1983, while the decline in birth rates only went from 48 to 47 in 18 of the 45 countries. This has resulted in rising population growth rates in most African countries during the past 3 decades, promoting African urbanization. The Bank's microeconomic policies designed to improve market efficiency are: 1) greater emphasis on cost recovery; 2) financial profitability of the parastatal sectors; 3) development of small-scale enterprises; 4) deemphasis on urban, large-scale industries; 5) development of secondary cities. The introduction of structural adjustment programs in return for renegotiated loans is the most profound intervention by the international community in Africa during the past 15 years because it will involve shrinkage of urban growth by reducing tax burdens on rural areas and less demand for urban services.
National growth, national strength, statement made at the Second African Population Conference, Arusha, United Republic of Tanzania, 8 January, 1984.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 8 p. (Speech Series No. 105)The upsurge of population growth in Africa comes at a time when world growth rates, and the rates for all other regions of the world, have begun to decline. But growth itself is only one aspect of concern with population. Another and most important issue is the severe imbalance between resources and population which now exists in many African countries as the result of low levels of development and lagging utilization of natural resources, particularly for food production. Population growth is accompanied by explosive urban growth in amny centers, while international migration is also increasing, partly voluntary, partly under political or economic pressure. A new emphasis on population questions in Africa invites consideration of new policy directions and reassessment of some old ones. It will be convenient to deal with these under the 4 subjects which will form the basis for the agenda at this year's International Conference on Population to be held in Mexico City in August, 1984. These are mortality and health; fertility and the family; population distribution and migration and population; and resources, environment and development. Each of these topics are considered with particular reference to the African experience.
Population and global future, statement made at the First Global Conference on the Future: through the '80s, Toronto, Canada, 21 July 1980.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 6 p. (Speech Series No. 57)The United Nations has always considered population variables to be an integral part of the total development process. UNFPA has developed, in response to national needs, a core program of population assistance which has found universal support and acceptance among the 130 recipient countries and territories. Historically, these are: family planning, population policy formulation and population dynamics. The following emerging trends are foreseeable from country requests and information available to the Fund: 1) migration from rural to urban areas and increased growth in urbanization; 2) an increased proportion of aged which has already created a number of new demands for resources in both developing and developed countries; 3) a move toward enabling women to participate in economic and educational activities; and 4) a need for urgent concern over ecological issues which affect the delicate balance of resources and population.
Population and development: the challenges for the future, statement made at the International Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development, Colombo, Sri Lanka, 28 August, 1979.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 14 p.In the challenges faced by national policy makers and technical experts there is a vital linkage between population programs, policies and plans on health, housing, education, employment, the environment, and the uses of resources. The ultimate end of population programs should be assisting in the creation of societies which will enable individuals to develop their full potential. Reasons for the overall decline in fertility are not fully understood. It is not known which programs need to be sustained or modified to help the momentum continue. Can the reduction in infant mortality rate to less than 120/1000 live births by 1985 be attained? Regarding migration, the problem of how countries can institute action towards a more balanced redistribution of population within their natural boundaries exists. An increase in the population of the aged will require shifts in resources to welfare systems tailored to the needs of this population group. Consideration for human rights stresses the need for population programs implemented without coercion. There is also a need for better contraceptives. Population studies indicate that increasing participation of women in economic activities has decisive effects on decreasing reproductive rates. It is not only necessary to take into account the resources required to feed, clothe and shelter a growing population, but also the type of technology which will make this possible without worsening the environment. Regarding data collection and institutional development, there is a continuous need to strengthen the data base as well as the various types of governmental and community machinery for planning, promoting and coordinating population activities with development policies in developing countries. Large increases in demand for assistance from all parts of the developing world, particularly Asia and Africa, are foreseen. Present flow must increase to US$1 billion annually to meet this demand. Parliamentarians must demonstrate a strong commitment to action. There may be a need to transform the solid institutions of our society for more peace and security. One of the principal threats to peace is social unrest caused by the accumulation of human fear and hopelessness.
In: Population and development. New York, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region, 1981. 23-32.Speaks of the need to integrate population policy and development programs as advocated by the IPPF as early as in 1930, which most countries now adopt though more in a theoretical than operational way. Some areas in which population and development problems are associated are in the educational process which in Latin American Countries is part of the development plans; reduction of the growth rate to balance with employment opportunities; geographic distribution of the population to reduce the pace of urbanization and promoting regional and rural development; international migration; female literacy; a community based program which concerns itself with economic development as well as primary health and family planning services of the community. National and international contributions and commitment to family planning have to be increased. The comment that follows estimates a total population of 600 million in Latin America by the year 2000 without an explicit population policy and a total population of 510 million through following a policy similar to Mexico's. Efforts must be directed towards achieving population goals in this century to prevent a collapse in the next.
Population--common problems, common interests, statement made at Regional Meeting on Population of the Economic Commission for Europe, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6 October, 1983.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 8 p. (Speech Series No. 100)This statement outlines in brief present trends in world population growth. Although population growth is declining, it will nevertheless take more than a century for population to stabilize and this poses major problems which will all be discussed at the International Conference on Population in 1984. Discussions at the Conference will center on 4 topics: 1) fertility and the family--this includes among other issues, the issue of the elderly, and family size; 2) distribution and migration; 3) resources and the environment; and, 4) health and mortality.