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  1. 1

    Innovations from the Integrated Family Planning and Parasite Control Project: PDA experience.

    Phawaphutanond P

    INTEGRATION. 1990 Apr; (23):4-11.

    Since 1976, the Integrated Family Planning and Parasite Control (IP) has been conducted by the Population and Community Development Association (PDA) through the financial support of the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning (JOICFP). Family planning was integrated with other activities starting with parasite control and then environmental sanitation. In 1976, PDAs activities were focused on a community-based delivery (CBD) system for contraception in rural Thailand. In the IPs first years, the PDA conducted mass treatment campaigns using both the local plant "maklua" and modern medicines. Various motivational activities were included, such as letting children see the parasites under a microscope. Many villagers showed up for treatment. Later, however, they were reinfected and failed to get further treatment. Since 1981, the major emphasis of the IP rural program has been to push building of latrines and improved water resources. PDA has started a major project for safe storage of rainwater. Some 11,300 liter bamboo-reinforced concrete rainwater storage tanks are being built in northeast Thailand. Giant water jars for rainwater catchment with a 2000-liter capacity are produced. The financing of PDAs environmental sanitation construction activities is unique. Villagers pay back the cost of the raw materials of the tank, latrine, or jar they received. Repayments go into a revolving fund which can be lent to other families. Peer pressure has made repayment levels approach or exceed 100% in target districts. Villagers are trained to produce the casings, bricks, and other things needed for building. Individuals from building crews are selected and given special training in construction techniques and are taught the potential health benefits of each activity. These people become village sanitation engineers. Villagers can engage in income-generating activities and receive technical assistance from the PDA. The IP has taken on a community participation approach. The PDAs Family Planning (FP) Health Checkup Program is the urban version of the IP. In 1989, the PDA sold 11,109 cycles of pills and 2100 packages of 3-piece condoms through FP volunteers based in 459 enterprises. These FP volunteers also tell their co-workers about parasite control and other issues that they learned from the annual refresher courses. The PDA also does school health checkup services. The PDA generated funds to keep the programs ongoing. The Thai government actively supports the work of the nongovernmental organizations.
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  2. 2


    Jugnauth A

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 106-7.

    As a result of malaria eradication, general progress in medical science, and free government health services, Mauritius's population grew dramatically in the postwar decades. In addition to this alarming trend in population growth, Mauritius also faced a high population density ratio and a mono-culture economy based on sugar. Initial attempts to offer institutionalized family planning services met with opposition from some religious groups. By 1965, however, the climate was more favorable and the Government moved to provide subsidies to 2 private voluntary organizations that offered family planning services. In the 1965-72 period, the Government of Mauritius took a more aggressive role in population activities by significantly increasing the number of family planning service delivery points and expanding the infrastructure for population control. As a result of these measures, the total fertility rate dropped to 3.42 in 1972 compared with 5.86 in 1962. In the 1972-82 period, even further gains were made and the fertility rate fell to 2.39. Continuous declines have also been recorded in the infant mortality rate, which now (1983) stands at 26/1000 live births. Nonetheless, there is a need to continue to curb population growth to ensure the availability of natural resources. Through measures such as family planning, health, education, communication, and information programs, the Government population policy seeks to lower the gross reproduction rate from 1.18 in 1982 to 1.12 by 1987. Multisector, integrated development is being stressed given recognition that nondemographic factors such as education, better housing, welfare services, policies to modernize agriculture, and economic diversification are essential to improvements in the population's standard of living.
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  3. 3


    De la Madrid Hurtado M

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 108.

    Mexico's population policy is based on the concept of the inter-relationship between population and development, with the aim being to improve the overall welfare of the people. Population control must be approached qualitatively rather than quantitatively, however. The most important unit for analysis and consideration of population control efforts is not the individual, but rather the family and the community. The Government of Mexico has sought to integrate population into all aspects of development policy and social change. In accord with this strategy, population programs comprise activities in all spheres of social and economic life and receive priority in areas such as population education, family planning, integrated development of the family, population growth and distribution, integration of women into development, development of indigenous groups, and research on population trends and development. To be effective, this approach requires the active participation and collaboration of all sectors of society, including government, workers, the community, academicians, and service organizations. To implement this strategy, a National Population Council was established in 1974 to assume responsibility for national demographic planning.
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  4. 4

    Multilateral support for family planning.

    North J

    In: Family planning within primary health care, edited by F. Curtis Swezy and Cynthia P. Green. Washington, D.C., National Council for International Health, 1987. 112-4.

    The World Bank's appreciation of the unique role of NGOs in working beyond the effective reach of government systems in reaching underserved populations and communities has come with its increasing involvement in social sector development. NGO understanding of the needs of communities, underserved populations, and special subgroups constitutes a strong basis for designing and implementing actions to promote social and behavioral change. NGOs can complement the skills available within governments to put their people-oriented policies into meaningful effect. This NGO support may be sine qua non for the success of such policies, and of the programs and projects the Bank supports in the social sectors. The Bank is still developing ways to encourage NGO participation in such programs and projects. Staff in the Population, Health and Nutrition Department of the Bank are directing much more effort now to working with NGOs in family health and population work, particularly in subSaharan Africa where the greatest current challenge exists. At the international level, in order to promote policy dialogue with an operational perspective between the Bank and the NGO community, a Bank/NGO committee has been established. Composed of NGO representatives from both donor and recipient countries and Bank staff, it meets regularly and has proven helpful in identifying mutual interests and common objectives in a number of important areas, including food security. The committee does not replace collaborative mechanisms at the country level, but it has been successful in inspiring both the Bank and NGPs to pursue collaboration more assiduously at the country and sectoral levels.
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  5. 5

    The Indonesia experience, statement made at the Special Convocation, University of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia, 14 February, 1981.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1981]. 4 p. (Speech Series No. 62)

    This statement reviews some of Indonesia's achievements in the field of population and development. The family planning program has made considerable progress, which is reflected in the decline of the birth rate from 45/1000 in the latter 1/2 of the 1960s to 35/1000 in the 1980s. In 1976 less than 20% of married women in the reproductive ages were using contraception to limit their family size. This has now risen to over 30%. The establishment of BKKBN--the National Family Planning Co-ordinating Board has played a major role in enlisting community participation in both urban and rural areas, in establishing projects for community-based distribution of contraceptives, and in integrating local leadership support of the program. The UNFPA contributed US$15 million of assistance in 1972. In 1980, US$30 million was approved for 5 years to support the current program. This contribution is but a small portion of the self-reliant effort the Government is committing to national family planning.
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  6. 6

    Statement to the Population Commission, statement made at the Twenty-first Session of the United Nations Population Commission, United Nations, New York, 29 January 1981.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1981]. 5 p. (Speech Series No. 61)

    This statement reviews some of the developments in the field of population programs and international assistance. UNFPA requires that population policies be considered as an integral part of the overall development policies. Much of the credit for the positive acceptance around the world of population as a vital and essential component in development planning and as an important area of international assistance belongs to the Population Commission and to the foundations it has laid for a United Nations program in this area during its 34 years of work.
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  7. 7

    Planned parenthood: its role in national development.


    Africa Link. 1979 Jul; 19-20.

    Dr. Fadlu-Deen told the participants of the Regional Exchange Programme of the International Union of Child Welfare held in Sierra Leone in 1978 that family planning services can not be offered in isolation; they must be integrated into development plans at the national level and into programs designed to provide general medical services and assistance relevant to the needs of the particular country or community. One can not naively go into villages where 50% of the children die before age 5 and expect the residents to accept contraceptives. Depending on the community's needs, one must develop a more comprehensive program designed to improve general family life. In Sierra Leone family planning is oriented toward improving the quality of family life and focuses on 1) helping couples space their children and determine their own family size; 2) providing maternal and child health and nutritional services; and 3) developing community self-help projects. Countries differ in their needs for family planning. Many countries, especially in Asia, are so crowded that it is imperative that their governments take strong actions to control family size. In many African countries, on the other hand, there are adequate supplies of land and resources, but the general conditions of life are poor. Family planning programs must, therefore, stress those aspects relevant to each country. In all countries, the development of a national program and policy is a vital impetus to the development of grass-roots efforts.
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  8. 8

    Rationale for integrating family planning into rural and community development programmes.


    In: International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). East and Southeast Asia and Oceania Region (ESEAOR). Community education for family planning services. Proceedings of a Seminar-Workshop held in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, March 24-29, 1975. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, IPPF/ESEAOR, 1976. p. 13-16

    The policy of the IPPF has recently undergone some changes as has world opinion and the stance of governments. Policy is easier to change than the practices of Family Planning Associations and the pattern of work done for the family planning movement. The intention of the organizers of this workshop is to build on experience and to take advantage of the new opportunities rather than to reject that which is good in the more conventional information and education programs. Family planning is now regarded as fundamental to the quality of life, and several recent events support that the time is right to move out into the community. Last August, 135 governments approved the World Population Plan of Action, and there was firm endorsement of family planning as a basic human right and agreement on many population action points for governments. The IPPF has recognized the need to include family planning in all other broad developmental programs, and other international agencies are beginning to recognize the need to include family planning in their developmental programs. 3 weeks ago at a meeting of the Population Commission at U.N. Headquarters, Julia Henderson, Secretary-General of the IPPF urged that the target year of 1985 be reinstated at least for the provision of information and education. Although services would probably take longer to establish member Family Planning Associations would experiment with new, community-based delivery systems for contraceptive supplies.
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