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In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 189-210.This chapter addresses the full range of policies and programmes that bear directly on population patterns and trends and that guide and strengthen interventions in the broad field of population. While we will consider the impact of deliberate efforts to promote countries' adoption of national population policies, the adoption of formal population policies is but one facet of the much broader process of developing and implementing policies and programmes that guide and support population activities. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations Children's Fund [UNICEF], 1990. 24 p.In some parts of Africa, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has infected between 1/5 and 1/4 of otherwise healthy adults of reproductive age. This is a calamity. Those who are fighting AIDS in Africa believe that changes in behavior are the only way to stop the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). WHO estimates that already 6.5 million people are infected; at least 2 million are women. By the year 2000, there will be 6 million AIDS cases. The UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) has been fighting to protect children and women from AIDS since 1987. Looked at here is the predicament of children and women in 3rd world countries. Also, the damage that AIDS is doing to families and communities and the need to contain it are discussed. Most AIDS cases in children are perinatal in origin. Barrier contraception is important in preventing the spread of AIDS. Deliberate family planning (FP) with modern contraceptive methods is unusual in most low-income African communities. Women frequently have less access to medical services than do men. The number of AIDS orphans is already beginning to affect family life. UNICEF estimates that worldwide 30 million children spend most of their time on the streets. They are then ripe for getting AIDS. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are being formed in response to AIDS. The primary health care structure is important for counselling and health education. During 1990 UNICEF plans to spend over US $6 million on special AIDS projects in Africa and almost US $2 million on global projects and projects elsewhere. In many countries UNICEF has helped develop information and education materials. UNICEF wants to reach young people. In Tanzania, workshops have been held to improve the accuracy of data given about AIDS.
WORLD HEALTH FORUM. 1990; 11(1):14-31.Health is often seen in strip cartoons (SCs). However, its images convey their own properties. SCs are distributed globally. They are produced in Algiers, Dakar, and Bangui. The SC generally goes from humor to adventure stories. Health enters SCs in 3 ways: 1) the portrayal of life styles; 2) health as a suspenseful element; and 3) medical adventures emphasizing a doctor. Adventure stories with doctors for heroes are common. WHO is the basis for many SCs. Humor and adventure are the 2 basic themes in SCs; they are not mutually exclusive. 1 way that SCs portray health is the "stretched-out time of soap opera." These are stories of poor, talented doctors and devoted nurses. The SC is a graphic expression of world concerns. Healthy or unhealthy life styles may be seen in SCs. Food, tobacco, and alcohol are just parts of a story. Positive heroes are never alcoholics, because alcoholism is a potential vice. Habitual drinkers are usually secondary characters. Early in the 20th century, tobacco played a big role in developing SCs in Mexico. Breaking society's rules for a healthy life style leads to all kinds of consequences in SCs. There was no educational intent to having Popeye eat spinach. Spinach contains iron and is associated with strength. Scurvy is an enemy of many sailors, and this shows up in SCs on disease. It alternates with cholera as an element of adventure in sea stories. An imaginative story devoted to health education shows a medical and social confrontation with naval captains who are not too bright. SCs are neither good nor bad in themselves.
POPULATION BULLETIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 1986; (19-20):159-67.After a brief summary of the development of the terms of reference of the Population Commission, future activities are projected. In the near term the commission may be preparing for another world population conference in 1994, and increasing its oversight of population programs not only within but also outside the UN system. It may augment its role in reviewing all of the UN population activities, requesting that an overview be prepared, not merely as a series of reports on individual activities but as an analysis of the entire work of the system, organized by demographic subject area. In addition to reviewing reports on multilateral population assistance and the population activities of the UN family, the Commission may review a report on international bodies outside the UN. Although the Commission has become the best-informed world body concerning the world demographic situation, more of that information must be made available to governments, e.g. by developing and maintaining a permanent demographic encyclopedia utilizing worldwide experts, working under Commission direction. The encyclopedia should be available in the world's major languages and computer-accessible. Also, the Commission could direct the preparation of a biennial document providing an authoritative description of the world population's state, addressing major concerns and presenting findings in a way accessible to all. These tasks could be the major elements of the work of the Commission during the 1st quarter of the next century. Projections beyond that must be tentative, but it would seem reasonable to expect that someday the Commission may have to wrestle with the problem of shrinking national populations, composed of individuals with active lifespans longer than those prevalent today. Ultimately, the Commission may be concerned with the demography of human populations living outside the bounds of the planet earth. In fact, it is not unthinkable that in some distant future the concept of population and the interest of the Commission may be applied to beings presently unknown to mankind.
New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, 1980. 10 p. (Speech Series No. 51.)The author invokes the media to report on relevant global issues such as population and development in a way that makes them interesting to the public. World fertility trends are discussed; it is pointed out that though fertility is slowly declining, population is still growing, especially in developing countries. Population growth and redistribution is seen as a source of social, political and economic tension. Changing fertility and mortality rates affect population characteristics such as age distribution, which in turn impinge on employment, education, housing and food supplies. Global expenditure on population research and programs is cited as 0.1% that of armament, which is seen as not really a problem-solving investment. The United Nations Fund for Population Activities is described as being nonprescriptive, and not promoting any particular population policy, but rather leaving policy up to the recipient government to decide. In conclusion the author emphasizes that it is the right of each couple to decide on the desired number and spacing of children and to have the information, education and means to do so.