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The evolution of policy on fertility in Tanzania: drawing on, and influence of international experience.
In: Population policy in Sub-Saharan Africa: drawing on international experience. Papers presented at the seminar organized by the IUSSP Committee on Policy and Population, in Kinshasa, Zaire, 27 February - 2 March 1989 / Echanges d'experiences internationales en matiere de politique de population en Afrique au Sud du Sahara. Communications presentees au seminaire organise par la Commission des Politiques Demographiques de l'UIESP, a Kinshasa, Zaire, 27 fevrier - 2 mars 1989. Liege, Belgium, International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP], 1989. 333-60.The idea of adoption of population policies globally was associated with the unprecedented high population growth rates of over 2.5%/annum in most underdeveloped countries after World War II. The goal of Tanzania's population policy is to facilitate economic recovery. The policy, rooted in the Coale-Hoover model, is not viable because of the unrealistic assumptions of the model: 1) internal and international economic structures are not conducive to savings and their translation into investments; 2) old-age structures resulting from fertility decline do not bode well for a labor-intensive economy like that of Tanzania if economic expansion has to take place; and 3) no clear and consistent relationship between population and economic growth has been empirically observed. The evolution of population policy in Tanzania went through 2 significant phases: 1) opposition to family planning which was a spontaneous response to problems of socioeconomic development including maternal and child health and rural-urban migration; 2) the change toward working for an explicit population policy with central focus on reduction of population growth rate and fertility limitation. Since the mid-1980s efforts were exerted to reduce the population growth rate from the 1967-78 estimate of an annual 3.2-2.5% by reducing the total fertility rate from about 7.0 to 4.0. From the start of the new phase, a UN Population Fund project, executed by the International Labor Organization, was established in the Ministry of Finance, Economic Affairs and Planning to organize a Population Planning Unit. The main activities of the project have been population awareness seminars and coordination of the activities of the National Population Committee that drew up proposals on population problems.
Journal of Modern African Studies. 1982; 20(1):45-67.Discusses the question of government policy toward control of population growth in its relation to economic development, especially in Africa, where population growth rates are high and the rate of economic growth very low. The author reviews the debate between supports of Marx and Malthus, and the family planning versus development debate which he sees as evolving from it. Merit may be found in the arguments of all sides, but some middle ground between the radical positions must be found. It must be recognized that a population problem exists, and that family planning can play a supportive role in keeping fertility rates down, but that a certain level of socioeconomic development must be reached before much can be done about the problem while recognizing that high fertility is itself and impediment to reaching this level of development. Cultural conditions leading to high fertility must also be considered, as well as the political and administrative dimension; both are briefly examined. The author concludes that assistance for population activities is worthwhile and desirable, but not at the expense of other areas of development which contribute to lowered fertility by themselves. The United States should review its policies with this in mind. In a postscript, the author notes that U.S. policy would appear to be undergoing review by the current administration; a shift towards urban Africa and towards encouragement of participation by private industry, evidently underway, would lessen the effect of U.S. development assistance on poverty and the high fertility rates in Africa.