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  1. 1

    The feminist agenda in population private voluntary organizations.

    Helzner J; Shepard B

    In: Women, international development, and politics: the bureaucratic mire. Updated and expanded edition, edited by Kathleen Staudt. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Temple University Press, 1997. 167-182.

    Using a feminist lens to inspect current PVO (private voluntary organization) family planning programs, we first define the feminist perspective as it applies to such programs and then compare that feminist vision with the reality found in the field. This paper examines the political dynamics of working for a feminist agenda within the community of population PVOs. The following case study illustrates these dynamics and leads to a discussion of both the obstacles to the realization of a feminist vision and the political strategies and attitudes that help implement this vision. Together, we draw on seventeen years of work with a variety of PVOs involved in family planning and reproductive health. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Family planning: impact on the individual and the family.

    Sadik N

    In: Family planning. Meeting challenges: promoting choices. The proceedings of the IPPF Family Planning Congress, New Delhi, October 1992, edited by Pramilla Senanayake and Ronald L. Kleinman. Carnforth, England, Parthenon Publishing Group, 1993. 7-14.

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) has been guided by the belief that family planning is a basic human right. The United Nations Population fund (UNFPA) and IPPF have had a long-standing cooperative relationship in this arena. Family planning is not only a human right, it is a necessity; projections indicate that world population will increase to 8.5 billion by 2025 and to 10 billion by 2050. The high and medium projections diverge sharply after the year 2000 depending on the effect of family planning acceptance and the spread of contraceptive prevalence. In 1989 the international community set a target of increasing contraceptive prevalence in developing countries from 387 million to 567 million by 2000. First the existing need for FP has to be met, since about 400 million couples do not have access to services. At least 150 million would use FP if services were available. The total cost of providing FP services would be $9 billion annually, which is a minute amount compared to total military expenditures. The positive impact of FP depends on voluntary acceptance, age, family, status, and parity, which fact rules out setting quotas or targets. A choice-based approach is preferred, which negates single-method FP programs. FP policies can succeed only if they invest in women with regard to education: this could end early marriage. The growing problem of adolescent pregnancy also has to be tackled. Maternal mortality and morbidity can be prevented by existing medical technology to treat their causes (hemorrhage, hypertension, infection, obstructed labor, and unsafe abortion). The promotion of breast feeding is important both for the child's health and for its temporary contraceptive effects. FP programs should also combat HIV/AIDS by providing information and counseling for women. In recent years the quality of care has come to the forefront in FP clinics where accessibility, privacy, and confidentiality of services are needed.
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  3. 3

    [Family planning associations and AIDS] Les associations de planification familiale et le Sida.

    Eugene KC

    In: Approches de planification familiale en Afrique: bilan et perspectives, sous la direction de Mohammed Bouzidi, Helmut Gorgen, Richard Turkson, Londres, Juillet 1992. London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], 1992. 83-91.

    AIDS is a disease and should be treated as such. But the idea of AIDS induces psychological discomfort that can manifest itself in various ways. Family planning associations are urgently called upon to occupy themselves with problems of AIDS because of their interest in family welfare and their closeness to the intimate aspects of life. In 1987 the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) began a program to assist family planning associations in combatting AIDS. The program required training in all aspects of AIDS and the creation and maintenance of a system to gather and disseminate information on AIDS prevention through condom use and sex education directed to various target groups. Rather than creating new vertical programs devoted to AIDS, strategies were integrated into traditional family planning programs. Some technical structures such as the AIDS prevention unit were created to coordinate regional programs. The Unit has produced educational materials and audiovisual supports on AIDS prevention and reproductive and sexual health in several languages. In 1989 the IPPF African Region was provided with two programs to stimulate and coordinate technical assistance to family planning associations. An English-language program is based in Nairobi and a french-language program is based in Lome, Togo. Assistance to family planning associations is organized around identification of needs, formulation of requests, and implementation of activities related to training, production of IEC materials, and evaluation. The question of AIDS prevention in Africa still lacks an organizing philosophy. For various reasons many individuals with confirmed positive tests are not informed of the results. A goal of the IPPf is to provide information directly and indirectly to target groups to reinforce their power in the process of sexual and affective negotiation. The obstacles and constraints faced by family planning associations and their programs result from the choice of preventive strategy. It is important that family planning associations develop their own strategies as a function of their priorities and plans in the area of IEC. Clients must be made aware of the need to use condoms and to modify their sexual and affective behavior to assure better sexual and reproductive health. The IEC strategy must be based on interpersonal communications and adapted to the specific circumstances of each community.
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  4. 4

    The decisive decade. Interview: Dr. Nafis Sadik.

    EARTHWATCH. 1989; (35):10-1.

    The interview with Dr. Nafis Sadik, Director of the UN Family Planning Association (UNFPA), involved questions about the Fund's major achievements, the effect of withdrawal of US funds on UNFPA programs, the role of UNFPA in bridging environmental, population, and development objectives as stated in the Bruntland Commission initiatives, awareness building, the role of UNFPA in dealing with resource deficits in countries with high growth populations, the seriousness of the 1990s decade as critical to the future. and UNFPA's priorities for the next 10 years. The Fund's accomplishments are in getting political systems to recognize as an important part of development, in broadening the concept of population to include quality of life and spatial distribution and growth, and in obtaining funding to continue operating without US funds. The US withdrawal of funds has affected UNFPA's funding in Africa since 1985. UNFPA is actively working to help other agencies integrate FP into conservation strategies, and to consider the education of women and provision for FP information in a variety of programs. Sustainable development must occur at the grass roots level, or from the ground up. Programs must be implemented with an understanding of local needs and desires and with cultural sensitivity. A review of findings over 20 years led to an understanding that many countries had no strategy or plans for population programs even with a lot of development assistance, and programs were transplanted without consideration of local needs. UNFPA is not urging that national development strategies must incorporate population planning, and to target education to young people who will soon be entering reproductive ages during the decade ahead. Governments have begun to recognize that the next 10 years will determine the future, and population does affect the crisis of resources. UNFPA's priorities are to the education of youth, to design special curricula in schools for educating about changing stereotypic men's and women's roles, to mobilize resources for US $6-10 billion, and to establish criteria for evaluating program effectiveness.
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  5. 5

    Our next forty years.

    Mahler H

    PEOPLE. 1992; 19(1):3-6.

    Marking the 40th birthday of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), Secretary-General Halfdan Mahler discusses the crisis facing the organization and calls for IPPF's moral reawakening. Examining the present conditions of the world. Mahler notes with frustration that crass materialism has enveloped the globe. During the 1980s, the economies of developing countries suffered badly. In addition, a vacuum of leadership has emerged, posing an obstacle to development. Development, says the secretary-general, means the actualizing of both the individual and society's potential. 3 rationales guide the family planning efforts of IPPF: development, health, and human rights. Evidence indicates that children in smaller families achieve higher social and economic levels than children in larger families, and that families, and that fewer children and birth spacing contribute to the well-being of mothers and children. The human rights rationale, explains mahler, implies the right to education about family planning and access to services. Opposition to family planning ignores the ethical dimensions of these 3 rationales. Unfortunately, says Mahler, some countries now seem to have retracted their commitment to family planning. It is this fact that brings a sense of urgency to the work of every Family Planning Association (FPA) and the IPPF. Unless IPPF and FPAs meet this challenge with determination, they risk the possibility of becoming irrelevant. Mahler explains that IPPF must engage in aggressive marketing of the characteristics that make family planning successful. Additionally, Mahler calls for a new pioneering role for IPPF that will bring about its moral reawakening. Mahler concludes by suggesting a vision of the future in which family planning has succeeded.
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  6. 6

    The ethics of population control.

    Warwick DP

    In: Population policy: contemporary issues, edited by Godfrey Roberts. New York, New York/London, England, Praeger, 1990. 21-37.

    On the basis of the orthodox assumption that population growth constitutes an obstacle to economic development, most countries have established programs aimed at reducing fertility through contraception. The methods used by family planning programs, ranging from voluntary acceptance through educational and informational campaigns to financial incentives or disincentives to outright forced sterilization, raise complex ethical issues. Specifically, there are 5 ethical principles--freedom, justice, welfare, truth-telling, and security/survival--that can be used to evaluate deliberate attempts to control human fertility. Such an approach suggests that forced abortion, compulsory sterilization, and all other forms of heavy pressure on clients to accept a given means of fertility control violate human freedom, justice, and welfare. The violations inherent in financial incentives are demonstrated by the fact that they are attractive only to the poor and disadvantaged sectors of the population. Family planning programs that offer incentives to field workers to meet acceptor quotas often lead to a disregard of client health and welfare by subtly encouraging workers to withhold information on medical side effects, outright deceive clients about methods that are not being promoted by the family planning program, and fail to take the time for adequate medical counseling and follow-up. Even programs that provide free choice to clients are illusory if the methods offered include controversial agents such as Depo-Provera and acceptors lack the capacity to make an informed choice about longterm effects. Recommended is the establishment of an international code of ethics for population programs drafted by a broad working group that does not have a vested interest in the code's terms.
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  7. 7

    Innovations from the Integrated Family Planning and Parasite Control Project: PDA experience.

    Phawaphutanond P

    INTEGRATION. 1990 Apr; (23):4-11.

    Since 1976, the Integrated Family Planning and Parasite Control (IP) has been conducted by the Population and Community Development Association (PDA) through the financial support of the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning (JOICFP). Family planning was integrated with other activities starting with parasite control and then environmental sanitation. In 1976, PDAs activities were focused on a community-based delivery (CBD) system for contraception in rural Thailand. In the IPs first years, the PDA conducted mass treatment campaigns using both the local plant "maklua" and modern medicines. Various motivational activities were included, such as letting children see the parasites under a microscope. Many villagers showed up for treatment. Later, however, they were reinfected and failed to get further treatment. Since 1981, the major emphasis of the IP rural program has been to push building of latrines and improved water resources. PDA has started a major project for safe storage of rainwater. Some 11,300 liter bamboo-reinforced concrete rainwater storage tanks are being built in northeast Thailand. Giant water jars for rainwater catchment with a 2000-liter capacity are produced. The financing of PDAs environmental sanitation construction activities is unique. Villagers pay back the cost of the raw materials of the tank, latrine, or jar they received. Repayments go into a revolving fund which can be lent to other families. Peer pressure has made repayment levels approach or exceed 100% in target districts. Villagers are trained to produce the casings, bricks, and other things needed for building. Individuals from building crews are selected and given special training in construction techniques and are taught the potential health benefits of each activity. These people become village sanitation engineers. Villagers can engage in income-generating activities and receive technical assistance from the PDA. The IP has taken on a community participation approach. The PDAs Family Planning (FP) Health Checkup Program is the urban version of the IP. In 1989, the PDA sold 11,109 cycles of pills and 2100 packages of 3-piece condoms through FP volunteers based in 459 enterprises. These FP volunteers also tell their co-workers about parasite control and other issues that they learned from the annual refresher courses. The PDA also does school health checkup services. The PDA generated funds to keep the programs ongoing. The Thai government actively supports the work of the nongovernmental organizations.
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  8. 8

    [International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF] La Federation Internationale pour La Planification Familiale (I.P.P.F.)

    Ayavon A

    In: Rapport final de la conference sur le bien-etre familial au Tchad: N'Djamena, 15-21 Octobre 1988, edited by Leslie Leila Brandon. N'Djamena, Chad, Republique du Tchad, Ministere de la Snate Publique, Secretariat d'Etat, Direction Generale, Unite, Travail Progres, [1988 Dec.]. 1-9.

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) is a charitable organization whose pioneering activities in family planning (FP) have extended all over the world. It was created in India in 1952 with 8 associations; today IPPF affiliates are in over 120 countries. IPPF believes that knowledge about FP is a human right and that a well-balanced world population with appropriate resources is a precondition to happiness, prosperity and peace for mankind. Through the creation of national associations, IPPF encourages the development of FP services and positive public opinion towards FP. IPPF's principal objective is improving a family's quality of life through FP. Other objectives include: 1) encouraging people to learn about FP and to practice responsible parenthood; 2) increasing people's awareness about demographic problems; 3) stimulating research in fertility and contraceptive methods; 4) stimulating and maintaining FP associations worldwide; 5) stimulating and promoting FP worldwide by collaborating with other organizations; 6) sponsoring conferences, seminars and work groups at regional and international levels. IPPF is made up of 6 regions: Sub-Saharan Africa, East and South Asia and Oceania; Middle East and North Africa; and the Western Region. Activities for all regions are coordinated through IPPF headquarters in London under the leadership of a Secretary General. Each region is assigned a regional council which organizes the representatives of the regions associations. The Sub-Saharan African region has 4 bureaus: Nairobi, Kenya; Lome, Togo; Mbabane, Swaziland and Brazzaville, Congo. IPPF is active in the areas of women's development, youth programs and male involvement. IPPF's activities in Sub-Saharan Africa in general and specifically in Francophone Africa have been increasing in the past years. There are now IPPF Affiliates in the Central African Republic, Congo, Cameroon, Guinea-Conakry, Rwanda, Benin, Madagascar, Mali, Togo, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, Senegal and Zaire. future.
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  9. 9

    The control of AIDS.

    Sencer D

    In: Workshop on the Integration of AIDS Related Curricula into Family Planning Training Programs, Quality Hotel, Arlington, Virginia, May 10-11, 1988. Documents, distributed by The Family Planning Management Training Project [FPMT] of Management Sciences for Health [MSI] Boston, Massachusetts, Management Sciences for Health, The Family Planning Management Training Project, 1988 May. [24] p..

    Current objectives in the fight against AIDS are focused on reducing transmission. International cooperation must be guided by principles including allowing the World Health Organization and participating governments, not donors, to determine policy; work done in developing countries must achieve the same standards as in the US; relationships between health and population programs, donor agencies and governments must be characterized by cooperation, not competition; and flexibility is necessary to respond to new information. Sensitivity is essential, as the control of AIDS involves personal issues, and the diagnosis of AIDS has profound implications. Surveillance is essential to detect and control infection and to guide public policy. As few infections currently result from medical injection, interventions have focused on the difficult problem of modifying sexual behavior, with little success. Social research is essential to determine means of behavior modification and to evaluate their efficacy. A brief history of the AIDS epidemic, as well as a summary of its epidemiology are provided. Efforts to control the spread of AIDS and to care for victims are draining the resources of basic health care programs, interfering with the delivery of primary health care. The extra demands that will be placed on family planning programs, including the shift in emphasis to barrier methods will strain these programs. WHO is currently undertaking a global effort to reduce morbidity and mortality from HIV infections and prevent transmission. Its strategies focus on preventing sexual, blood borne and perinatal transmission, therapeutic drugs against HIV, vaccine development, and helping infected people, and society, deal with the illness. Other agencies which have developed programs are USAID, the DHHS and the Centers for Disease control in the US.
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  10. 10

    Multilateral support for family planning.

    North J

    In: Family planning within primary health care, edited by F. Curtis Swezy and Cynthia P. Green. Washington, D.C., National Council for International Health, 1987. 112-4.

    The World Bank's appreciation of the unique role of NGOs in working beyond the effective reach of government systems in reaching underserved populations and communities has come with its increasing involvement in social sector development. NGO understanding of the needs of communities, underserved populations, and special subgroups constitutes a strong basis for designing and implementing actions to promote social and behavioral change. NGOs can complement the skills available within governments to put their people-oriented policies into meaningful effect. This NGO support may be sine qua non for the success of such policies, and of the programs and projects the Bank supports in the social sectors. The Bank is still developing ways to encourage NGO participation in such programs and projects. Staff in the Population, Health and Nutrition Department of the Bank are directing much more effort now to working with NGOs in family health and population work, particularly in subSaharan Africa where the greatest current challenge exists. At the international level, in order to promote policy dialogue with an operational perspective between the Bank and the NGO community, a Bank/NGO committee has been established. Composed of NGO representatives from both donor and recipient countries and Bank staff, it meets regularly and has proven helpful in identifying mutual interests and common objectives in a number of important areas, including food security. The committee does not replace collaborative mechanisms at the country level, but it has been successful in inspiring both the Bank and NGPs to pursue collaboration more assiduously at the country and sectoral levels.
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  11. 11

    The population problem in Turkey (as seen from the perspective of a foreign donor).

    Holzhausen W


    From the perspective of the UN Fund for Population Activities, Turkey has a population problem of some magnitude. In 1987 the population reached 50 million, up from 25 million in 1957. Consistent with world trends, the population growth rate in Turkey declined from 2.5% between 1965-73 to 2.2% between 1973-84; it is expected to further decrease to 2.0% between 1980 and 2000. This is due primarily to a marked decline of the crude birthrate from 41/1000 in 1965 to 30/1000 in 1984. These effects have been outweighed by a more dramatic decline in the death rate from 14/1000 in 1965 to 9/1000 in 1984. Assuming Turkey to reach a Net Reproduction Rate of 1 by 2010, the World Bank estimates Turkey's population to reach some 109 million by the middle of the 21st century. The population could reach something like 150 million in the mid-21st century. Some significant progress has been made in Turkey in recent years in the area of family planning. Yet, some policy makers do not seem fully convinced of the urgency of creating an ever-increasing "awareness" among the population and of the need for more forceful family planning strategies. Government allocations for Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning (MCH/FP) services continue to be insufficient to realize a major breakthrough in curbing the population boom in the foreseeable future. Most foreign donors do not consider Turkey a priority country. It is believed to have sufficient expertise in most fields and to be able to raise most of the financial resources it needs for development. The UNFPA is the leading donor in the field of family planning, spending some US $800,000 at thi time. Foreign inputs into Turkey's family planning program are modest, most likely not exceeding US $1 million/year. Government expenditures are about 10 times higher. This independence in decision making is a positive factor. Turkey does not need to consider policy prescriptions that foreign donors sometimes hold out to recipients of aid. It may be difficult for foreign donors to support a politically or economically motivated policy of curtailing Turkey's population growth, but they should wholeheartedly assist Turkey in its effort to expand and improve its MCH/FP services. Donors and international organizations also may try to persuade governments of developing countries to allocate more funds to primary education and to the fight against social and economic imbalances. Donors should continue to focus on investing in all sectors that have a bearing on economic development.
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  12. 12

    Report to the council: present and future programme, statement made at the Twenty-eighth Session of the UNDP Governing Council, United Nations, New York, 12 June 1981.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1981]. 19 p.

    This report reviews: 1) United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) performance in 1980, including financial expenditures; 2) projects and programs submitted to the Governing Council for approval; 3) a work plan and request for approval authority; 4) the UNDP operational reserve; 5) the future role of UNFPA; 6) the proposed World Population Conference in 1984; and 7) the State of the World Population Report--which appears as the 1st chapter of the printed version of the UNFPA's annual report. The final figure for pledges and contributions for 1980 was US$125.5 million, an increase of 12% over 1979. Expenditures totaled US$147.5 million. Family planning programs continued to absorb the largest % of UNFPA allocations--41.7%. In the face of growing demand from the developing countries for assistance and limited resources available UNFPA will continue to concentrate on countries with the most urgent population problems and needs. It is necessary that the priority country system be revised or updated every 5 years in order to ensure that UNFPA will continue to respond to changing circumstnaces and needs in the developing world. In the future, the Fund intends to promote a more broad-based, multi-sectoral approach to population issues. In addition, the Fund will emphasize developing self-reliance by putting a time limit on various projects receiving UNFPA support.
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  13. 13

    El autentico espiritu de la cooperacion international. The true spirit of international cooperation, statement made at the Meeting of the National Population Council of the Government of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico, 16 March 1981.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1981]. 8 p. (Speech Series No. 63)

    Mexico's achievements in the field of population and development stand out clearly among the countries of the Western Hemisphere. The family planning program has made considerable progress since it was initiated in 1973. A major reason for the success is the commitment of the Government. This support is reflected in Mexico's unique 1974 General Population Law which established the National Population Council and which provides legal basis for the population programs. With this legislation, Mexico has taken the lead among the countries in Latin America in recognizing the population factor as an integral component of the development process. UNFPA has provided modest assistance to the Government of Mexico, but it has been a partnership in the true spirit of international co-operation.
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  14. 14

    The Indonesia experience, statement made at the Special Convocation, University of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia, 14 February, 1981.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1981]. 4 p. (Speech Series No. 62)

    This statement reviews some of Indonesia's achievements in the field of population and development. The family planning program has made considerable progress, which is reflected in the decline of the birth rate from 45/1000 in the latter 1/2 of the 1960s to 35/1000 in the 1980s. In 1976 less than 20% of married women in the reproductive ages were using contraception to limit their family size. This has now risen to over 30%. The establishment of BKKBN--the National Family Planning Co-ordinating Board has played a major role in enlisting community participation in both urban and rural areas, in establishing projects for community-based distribution of contraceptives, and in integrating local leadership support of the program. The UNFPA contributed US$15 million of assistance in 1972. In 1980, US$30 million was approved for 5 years to support the current program. This contribution is but a small portion of the self-reliant effort the Government is committing to national family planning.
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  15. 15

    Women and World Population Year, decision-making for development, statement made at the Women's Forum on Population and Development, New York, 25 February 1974.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1974]. 8 p.

    This statement briefly traces the history of development and population programs from the 1960's till the present and discusses what these programs can do for women. The cumulative effect of apparently minor innovations which help to ease the work load in the home is far greater than it might appear. There are significant material benefits but more important are the effects of the way a woman perceives herself. She has, for the 1st time, opportunity to widen her horizons, Increased education, employment and equality tend to lower family size as well. It is therefore important to ensure the commitment and participation of women in family planning programs, so that women become active rather than passive tools of policies which ultimately affect their lives.
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  16. 16

    International population assistance--a spur to national effort, statement made at the Institute of Man and Science, Rensselaerville, N.Y., 6 May 1973.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1973]. 8 p.

    Nothing concerns aid-administrators more today than the probability that the volume of development assistance which showed an accelerated rate of increase in its early years has not reached a plateau from which ascent is difficult to foresee. This predicament is real, in spite of the multi-national commitment of donors and recipients to the strategies of the Second Development Decade which set a desired rate of increase in the volume of assistance up to 1980. This state of affairs does not hold true for population assistance as yet. The volume of resources available for population assistance has so far been adequate to meet the demands of countries in need and in their capacity to absorb the assistance. The prospects for increases in the volume are good as 1974 approaches. If international population assistance is to act as a spur to development, its aim should be the creation of clear national population objectives toward which the country's human resources should be mobilized. Necessary components of this primary aim are: the creation of an administrative infrastructure, training facilities, and adequate communication to carry out national population objectives. The Fund will continue to assist countries and deliberately apply a portion of the assistance to spurring the countries to undertake these programs themselves, by continuing to train as much of each country's human resources as possible, and assisting in the building of their own institutions.
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  17. 17
    Peer Reviewed

    U.S. population policies, development, and the rural poor of Africa.

    Green E

    Journal of Modern African Studies. 1982; 20(1):45-67.

    Discusses the question of government policy toward control of population growth in its relation to economic development, especially in Africa, where population growth rates are high and the rate of economic growth very low. The author reviews the debate between supports of Marx and Malthus, and the family planning versus development debate which he sees as evolving from it. Merit may be found in the arguments of all sides, but some middle ground between the radical positions must be found. It must be recognized that a population problem exists, and that family planning can play a supportive role in keeping fertility rates down, but that a certain level of socioeconomic development must be reached before much can be done about the problem while recognizing that high fertility is itself and impediment to reaching this level of development. Cultural conditions leading to high fertility must also be considered, as well as the political and administrative dimension; both are briefly examined. The author concludes that assistance for population activities is worthwhile and desirable, but not at the expense of other areas of development which contribute to lowered fertility by themselves. The United States should review its policies with this in mind. In a postscript, the author notes that U.S. policy would appear to be undergoing review by the current administration; a shift towards urban Africa and towards encouragement of participation by private industry, evidently underway, would lessen the effect of U.S. development assistance on poverty and the high fertility rates in Africa.
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  18. 18

    Financing of programs.

    McComie V

    Forum. 1982 Feb; 4(2):2-6.

    Traditionally, approaches to population policy have been largely conditioned by economic theories. The population dictum held that increased economic development would assure improved human development. Population control, along with increased economic productivity were seen to be the major determinants in increasing the quality of life for all. Later, a changed philosophy emerged with the realization that the issue was not a simple one--human factors had to be considered, and economic goals should not be sought at the expense of social dislocation. In particular, education, health, human rights and other interrelated factors were considered integral to the development of population policy. Education was singled out as the key to informed and effective adoption of a rational population policy. The problem of funding for population policy implementation remains a delicate one. Logically, it must take the form of a balancing out of the inequities in economic resources within the society. More and more it is apparent that help must come from within--everyone must regard this problem as his own. In an era of international "stagflation," countries cannot be dependent on international aid. Most importantly, throughout the process of planning and development it must be kept in mind that the need, 1st and foremost, is to upgrade the human condition without regard for personal standing.
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  19. 19


    Sanhueza H

    In: International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region (IPPF/WHR) Regional Council Meeting, Washington, D.C., April 1981. Messages of the Regional Council of IPPF/WHR (Washington, D.C., April 8, 1981). New York, IPPF/WHR, 1981. 26-31.

    Much has been accomplished since the early days of the introduction of family planning in Chile. The rapid spread of family planning activities through the 39 family planning associations of the Western Hemisphere Region (WHR) indicates the great need there is to be met. The job is made easier by the unique and highly effective organization of the WHR. Each association is of local origin and management, yet all are free to interact in an exchange of ideas. The policy making and governing bodies are composed of volunteer members, lending assurance of the dedication of those in positions of leadership. Although fertility rates in some areas of Latin America and the Caribbean have declined, this should not lead to the premature conclusion that the population problem has been solved--much still needs to be done. Unfortunately, at this time we are also experiencing a decline in financial support. In 1980 IPPF real support for the Associations of Latin America showed a decline, and the same bleak picture is projected for 1981 and 1982. Fund raising has therefore become a top priority for the Region as a whole. Fortunately, the Associations have been attracting funding from other sources; this commendable trend must be encouraged. The Regional Office has also concentrated on increasing management efficiency through a series of seminars--it is hoped that eventually all Associations in the Region will have access to these. The work of Associations in the Caribbean has increased in 1980 thanks to a 3-year grant from the U.S. Government. The Region is continuing its dialogue with the Catholic Church and continues to make efforts to strengthen its relationship with parliamentarians. The goal of free access to family planning in the region still has not been met--to this end WHR will join forces with like minded organizations, public or private, to integrate programs in ways that bring benefits to all.
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  20. 20

    Indirect cost rates of organizations providing technical assistance in population.

    Piotrow PT

    [Unpublished] 1981. Paper prepared for the International Workshop on Cost-Effectiveness Analysis and Cost-Benefit Analysis in Family Planning Programs, St. Michaels, Maryland, Aug 1981. 7 p.

    The object of this analysis of indirect cost rates of organizations providing technical assistance in population is to measure operating efficiency. With incomplete and unchecked data on a single Project X, a pattern was discovered. Indirect costs were lowest for 2 state universities and a nonprofit population specialist, mid-range for other universities, and highest for agencies working primarily on government contracts. The approach of this study would be limited even with better data. Some of the limitations are 1) it calculates costs only, not cost-effectiveness; 2) salaries, caliber and skills of personnel are not considered; 3) no 1 project's budget can be a fair test of efficiency for organizations best suited for different types of projects; 4) sources of support which may reduce overhead are not accounted for; 5) types of work provided by indirect costs may vary; 6) treatment of consumable commodities varies among organizations; 7) no distinction is made between various types of excluded subcontracts. There are 2 disturbing considerations involved in deciding whether or not to try to refine this methodology: 1) if comparison of a single budget item is unreasonable, how can complex programs be compared? 2) What are the implications of the increase in control of the donor agencies over budgeting, hence management processes of funding recipients?
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  21. 21

    Population and development: problems of the 80s.

    Henderson J

    In: Population and development. New York, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region, 1981. 23-32.

    Speaks of the need to integrate population policy and development programs as advocated by the IPPF as early as in 1930, which most countries now adopt though more in a theoretical than operational way. Some areas in which population and development problems are associated are in the educational process which in Latin American Countries is part of the development plans; reduction of the growth rate to balance with employment opportunities; geographic distribution of the population to reduce the pace of urbanization and promoting regional and rural development; international migration; female literacy; a community based program which concerns itself with economic development as well as primary health and family planning services of the community. National and international contributions and commitment to family planning have to be increased. The comment that follows estimates a total population of 600 million in Latin America by the year 2000 without an explicit population policy and a total population of 510 million through following a policy similar to Mexico's. Efforts must be directed towards achieving population goals in this century to prevent a collapse in the next.
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  22. 22

    Family planning above party politics: proceedings of the Seminar.

    Seminar on Population and Development (1980: Colombo)

    Colombo, Sri Lanka, [Ministry of Plan Implementation?] 1980. 29 p.

    Speeches delivered by representatives of the 3 major political parties and the remarks of various officials of international donor organizations are presented. The seminar coincided with a visit to Sri Lanka of a UNFPA needs mission. The party representatives were in agreement that population growth in Sri Lanka must be curbed if development is to be achieved, and that all parties must cooperate in implementing population control and family planning programs. Strong support of the Government's Population Policy and Family Planning Programme was voiced. The history of organized family planning in Sri Lanka, ecological limitations of the country, the need to utilize paramedical personnel in service delivery and to establish better service delivery systems were touched upon by several of the speakers.
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  23. 23

    IPPF perspectives.

    Sai FT

    In: Jelliffe DB, Jelliffe EF, Sai FT, Senanayake P, eds. Lactation, fertility and the working woman. London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1979. 7-9.

    The principal objective of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) -- an international federation of 95 voluntary national family planning associations with operations in 110 countries -- is to enable people to practice responsible parenthood as a matter of human right, family welfare, and the well-being of the community. A second IPPF objective is to increase understanding on the part of people and governments of the demographic problems existing in their communities and the world. In the area of lactation the IPPF has had several activities in the past few years. 1 activity was a Biological Sciences Workshop on Lactation and Contraception in November 1976. A 2nd activity is a study on breastfeeding being conducted in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO). The Central Medical Committee of the IPPF passed a resolution early in 1976 which states that lactation is a good thing in itself, that breastfeeding is the best way of feeding an infant in the early months, if not the early years of its life, and that breastfeeding is a good contraceptive in its own right. A definite advantage of breastfeeding is that there is more avoidance of pregnancy and more protection of women from unwanted pregnancy by breastfeeding than by all combined scientific technology in family planning based programs. Some of the problems of breastfeeding and outside work relate to sheer expense, both in a positive and negative sense. There is also the question of inconvenience of breastfeeding. 1 approach to the disadvantages has been prolonged maternity leave with pay. Another approach is causing the child to invert its feeding rhythm.
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  24. 24

    Planned parenthood: its role in national development.


    Africa Link. 1979 Jul; 19-20.

    Dr. Fadlu-Deen told the participants of the Regional Exchange Programme of the International Union of Child Welfare held in Sierra Leone in 1978 that family planning services can not be offered in isolation; they must be integrated into development plans at the national level and into programs designed to provide general medical services and assistance relevant to the needs of the particular country or community. One can not naively go into villages where 50% of the children die before age 5 and expect the residents to accept contraceptives. Depending on the community's needs, one must develop a more comprehensive program designed to improve general family life. In Sierra Leone family planning is oriented toward improving the quality of family life and focuses on 1) helping couples space their children and determine their own family size; 2) providing maternal and child health and nutritional services; and 3) developing community self-help projects. Countries differ in their needs for family planning. Many countries, especially in Asia, are so crowded that it is imperative that their governments take strong actions to control family size. In many African countries, on the other hand, there are adequate supplies of land and resources, but the general conditions of life are poor. Family planning programs must, therefore, stress those aspects relevant to each country. In all countries, the development of a national program and policy is a vital impetus to the development of grass-roots efforts.
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  25. 25

    Principles of programming and management in family planning.


    Paper prepared for Medical Women's International Association Asian Regional Conference on Family Planning, Manila, Philippines, Jan. 1974. 19 p

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