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  1. 1

    Family planning and the Gulf war.

    Hanafi H

    PEOPLE. 1991; 18(2):24-5.

    The effect of the Gulf War on family planning services in the Arab Region is discussed. The war may also underscore the problems of inequities in the distribution of wealth, misuse of natural resources, displacement of people (refugees and human rights), and precariousness of economies based on disorganized imported/exported labor. It is hoped that this will lead to a coordinated population policy on migration and population movements in the Arab Region. The Arab world has also exposed it's high fertility rates, mortality rates, poverty, and conditions of women. The IPPF family planning associates have functioned in 14 Arab countries with hesitant support. The scarce family planning resources may be diverted to investments in national security and emergency care and curative services. Health, education, nutrition, and joblessness are critical for Iraqis, Jordanians, and those fleeing or being expelled from Iraq, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia. Their status may be no better than the refugees stranded in Jordan. Attitudes from the war may lead to pressure on mothers to replace the dead, or retreat into thinking about safety in numbers. Public opinion against the West's imperialist plots about family planning, as evidenced in Israel's pronatalist policies, may equate family planning with being anti-Islamic and antinationalist. These fears are further exacerbated by the fundamentalist concerns about anti-Islamic family planning. Religious fanaticism also threatens the newly acquired rights of women to choose the desired number of children, to education, and to hold public office. A further complication is the political nature of international assistance which may punish poorer Arab nations for their rebellion, or be distributed based on political aims. No Arab nation is neutral and IPPF will suffer resulting in fewer exchanges and regional-based activities.
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  2. 2

    The management problem in national family planning programs: the IBRD approach.

    Baldwin GB

    In: Ford Foundation. Readings on family planning and population program management. Background papers for a Ford Foundation meeting on population, Elsinore, Denmark, June 1972. New York, Ford Foundation, 1973. p. 81-89

    A brief look at World Bank-supported family planning programs in Jamaica, Indonesia, and India shows how the Bank's varied project-by-project approach to program organization can serve as a carrier of management improvement or institution building. A precondition of effective management is that it be embedded in a sound organization which must be well-administered. Management positions themselves must be filled by leaders who can get the job done and inspire others. Unusually high salaries can be offered to attract top people. 2 organizational principles considered especially desirable are: 1) that national family planning agencies be established outside the Ministry of Health, helping agencies develop a needed breadth of view; and 2) that family planning services requiring medical supervision be offered through regular health services. In its efforts to improve the management of family planning projects, the Bank follows 2 principles: 1) it builds into its projects certain organizational arrangements and program activities which it thinks will make for good management; and 2) it follows up on its projects to see if the host government is living up to its side of the bargain. Often, these institution building or management strengthening activities are treated as conditions which the Bank attaches to the money it lends.
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