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2004 Nov-Dec; 12(6):847.The Millennium Goals were defined by the United Nations Organization in 2000 and approved by consensus during the Millennium Summit, a meeting that joined 147 heads of State. These goals reflect increasing concerns about the sustainability of the planet and about the serious problems affecting humanity. Constituted by a set of eight goals to be reached by 2015, they refer to the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger, universal access to basic education, gender equality promotion, infant mortality reduction, maternal health improvement, fight against HIV/Aids and other illnesses, guarantee of environmental sustainability and the establishment of a global partnership for development. Sustainability and development are closely linked to health and imply joint actions by States and civil society in the attempt to minimize the influence of the huge gap that exists between countries and persons. Thus, health and particularly nursing professionals' actions are paramount and can lead to local actions with regional, national and international impacts. (excerpt)
Issue paper: Review of the human rights content of frameworks to assess the effectiveness of HIV / AIDS programming.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2004. Prepared for the 4th Meeting of the UNAIDS Global Reference Group on HIV / AIDS and Human Rights, August 23-25, 2004. 7 p.This paper examines approaches used by some of the primary intergovernmental and governmental agencies in assessing the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS programmes, as they have been reviewed by the UNAIDS Monitoring and Evaluation Reference Group (MERG). This is to attempt to begin to shed light on how the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS programs are currently assessed by UNAIDS, its partners, and other major organizations, and to understand the extent and ways in which human rights considerations form parts of these assessments. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2004. Prepared for the 4th Meeting of the UNAIDS Global Reference Group on HIV / AIDS and Human Rights, August 23-25, 2004. 7 p.This paper explores issues and approaches relevant to the assessment of the application of a rights based approach to the planning and implementation of HIV/AIDS strategies. It builds on the premise that the Reference Group may wish to recommend to UNAIDS a set of practical steps towards integrating human rights in HIV/AIDS policies and programs and monitoring the compliance of HIV/AIDS policies and programs with international human rights principles and guidelines, in particular those that have been explicitly promoted by UNAIDS in its publications and other work. Some suggested key issues are highlighted and, HIV testing strategies will be used as an example to the extent necessary to clarify concepts. (excerpt)
In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 189-210.This chapter addresses the full range of policies and programmes that bear directly on population patterns and trends and that guide and strengthen interventions in the broad field of population. While we will consider the impact of deliberate efforts to promote countries' adoption of national population policies, the adoption of formal population policies is but one facet of the much broader process of developing and implementing policies and programmes that guide and support population activities. (excerpt)
In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 113-135.The remarkable originality and achievements of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), held in Cairo in September 1994, have sometimes been disregarded in the years since. Most fair-minded people acknowledge that ICPD succeeded in its main aims. But for those of us who participated in earlier population conferences and in the preparations for Cairo, it can be said to have succeeded beyond our wildest dreams -- in terms of its intent and programmatic content at least. In addition, it helped mobilize the population, health, women's rights and allied communities to shape a broad agenda for the population and related development fields for the next two decades. Of the three international conferences organized by the United Nations to help build world consensus on the need to address population issues, ICPD was by far the most successful, measured by numbers attending, levels and quality of delegates, international media attention, and the quality of the final consensus -- and an important watershed. After long preparation and vigorous debate, more than 180 countries agreed to adopt the 16-chapter ICPD Programme of Action. The 115-page document outlines a 20-year plan to promote sustainable, human-centred development and a stable population, framing the issues with broad principles and specific actions. The Cairo Programme of Action was not simply an updating of the World Population Plan of Action (WPPA), agreed to at Bucharest and revised at Mexico City, but an entirely fresh and original programme, calling for a major shift in strategies away from demographic goals and towards more individual human welfare and development ones. ICPD was the largest intergovernmental conference on population ever held: 11,000 representatives from governments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), United Nations agencies and intergovernmental agencies participated, 4,000 NGOs held a parallel forum, and there was unprecedented media attention. ICPD was not just a single event, but an entire process culminating in the Cairo meeting. There were six expert group meetings, and regional conferences in Bali, Dakar, Geneva, Amman and Mexico City. There were many formal and informal NGO meetings and three official Preparatory Committee (PrepCom) meetings. Other crucial influences came from the 1987 Safe Motherhood Conference, the 1990 World Summit for Children, the 1990 Jomtien World Conference on Education for All, and the 1993 Vienna Conference on Human Rights. (author's)
In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 95-112.This chapter will seek to review and assess, both globally and nationally, UNFPA's experience thus far in encouraging and building partnerships, analysing and reflecting on some of the successes as well as on the constraints and challenges that exist in broadening partnerships. It will also attempt to explore some specific measures that may be taken to nurture and protect effective partnerships that will endure over time. (excerpt)
In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 47-80.This chapter explains the various mechanisms for fostering compliance with different rights relating to reproductive and sexual health, and explores programming options for fostering such compliance. The chapter is not exhaustive, but exploratory; recognizing that much more discussion is needed to address this issue adequately. (excerpt)
In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 175-188.This analysis looks at the United Nations Population Fund's (UNFPA's) work in the area of population-environment-development linkages. It then analyses the collective effects of 6 billion people, their consumption patterns, and resource use trends, in six different critical resource areas. (excerpt)
In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 24-46.The solemn commitment that was made in Cairo in 1994 to make reproductive health care universally available was a culmination of efforts made by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and all those concerned about a people-centred and human rights approach to population issues. The commitment posed important challenges to national governments and the international community, to policy makers, programme planners and service providers, and to the civil society at large. The role of UNFPA in building up the consensus for the reproductive health approach before Cairo had to continue after Cairo if the goals of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) were to be achieved. UNFPA continues to be needed to strengthen the commitment, maintain the momentum, mobilize the required resources, and help national governments and the international community move from word to action, and from rhetoric to reality. Reproductive health, including family planning and sexual health, is now one of three major programme areas for UNFPA. During 1997, reproductive health accounted for over 60 per cent of total programme allocations by the Fund. (excerpt)
Tampa, Florida, Female Genital Cutting Education and Networking Project, 2001 Dec 28. 4 p.This is testimony from a twenty five year-old woman who has elected to stay anonymous. She is today living in Douala where to cam a living she is a prostitute. Two national surveys carried out in Cameroon between 1988 and 1999 have shown that many girls and women have undergone one form of female genital mutilation (FGM) or the other and a lot more are at the risk of the practice. The negative effects of FGM on the health of women and girls have contributed to maternal morbidity and mortality, and traumatic psychological and psychosexual effects. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2002. 39 p.Derived from the Latin verb adolescere (to grow into maturity), adolescence is a period when character crystallizes and identity forms. It is also a period when many adolescents are contributing to society in remarkable ways: as parents, workers, caretakers of young children and elders and as role models. There are no simple solutions, no single intervention that can respond to the multiple challenges facing adolescents today. They need access to information, skills and services. They also need to feel safe, supported and connected to adults in their lives. Society has an obligation to shepherd its young people through their adolescent years and to treat them with respect and understanding. When it assumes these responsibilities, the benefits multiply in ways never imagined. (excerpt)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2003 Jun; 81(6):461-462.Large infrastructure construction and rehabilitation works are the obvious priorities for integrating health impact assessment into the environmental assessment process, because of the specific risks generated by the sudden surge in human presence from migratory workers and because of the intrinsic health and safety hazards associated with construction. However, other sectors may also generate serious health hazards, for example, tourism development, an activity which is typically funded by the World Bank’s sister organization the International Finance Corporation (IFC). (excerpt)
El autentico espiritu de la cooperacion international. The true spirit of international cooperation, statement made at the Meeting of the National Population Council of the Government of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico, 16 March 1981.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 8 p. (Speech Series No. 63)Mexico's achievements in the field of population and development stand out clearly among the countries of the Western Hemisphere. The family planning program has made considerable progress since it was initiated in 1973. A major reason for the success is the commitment of the Government. This support is reflected in Mexico's unique 1974 General Population Law which established the National Population Council and which provides legal basis for the population programs. With this legislation, Mexico has taken the lead among the countries in Latin America in recognizing the population factor as an integral component of the development process. UNFPA has provided modest assistance to the Government of Mexico, but it has been a partnership in the true spirit of international co-operation.
Genus. 1976; 32(1-2):45-70.Add to my documents.