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Exploring disparities between global HIV / AIDS funding and recent tsunami relief efforts: an ethical analysis.
Developing World Bioethics. 2007; 7(1):1-7.The objective was to contrast relief efforts for the 26 December 2004 tsunami with current global HIV/AIDS relief efforts and analyse possible reasons for the disparity. Methods: Literature review and ethical analysis. Just over 273,000 people died in the tsunami, resulting in relief efforts of more than US$10 bn, which is sufficient to achieve the United Nation's long-term recovery plan for South East Asia. In contrast, 14 times more people died from HIV/AIDS in 2004, with UNAIDS predicting a US$8 bn funding gap for HIV/AIDS in developing nations between now and 2007. This disparity raises two important ethical questions. First, what is it that motivates a more empathic response to the victims of the tsunami than to those affected by HIV/AIDS? Second, is there a morally relevant difference between the two tragedies that justifies the difference in the international response? The principle of justice requires that two cases similarly situated be treated similarly. For the difference in the international response to the tsunami and HIV/AIDS to be justified, the tragedies have to be shown to be dissimilar in some relevant respect. Are the tragedies of the tsunami disaster and the HIV/AIDS pandemic sufficiently different, in relevant respects, to justify the difference in scope of the response by the international community? We detected no morally relevant distinction between the tsunami and the HIV/AIDS pandemic that justifies the disparity. Therefore, we must conclude that the international response to HIV/ AIDS violates the fundamental principles of justice and fairness. (author's)
In: Women's human rights: unfinished business, edited by Adriana Gomez and Deborah Meacham. Santiago, Chile, Latin American and Caribbean Women's Health Network, 2003. 10-14. (Women's Health Collection No. 7)The legal and political realms of international women's rights have both influenced each other more than criminal law. Developments in the protection of human rights through criminal law is a recent phenomenon compared to the wider framework of women's human rights protection. Although the political recommendations, such as those found in Platforms for Action, do not have the force of law, they do provide a starting point for working towards the goal of agreements on the commitments and priorities not only between the governments, but with civil society as well. However, these processes have not been without conflict, and the dialogue with civil society has incorporated other movements and NGOs whose interests are far from consistent with those of the women's movement. (excerpt)
BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2003 Jul 5; 327:3-4.One promising strategy is to market sanitation and handwashing as if they were consumer products like cars or shampoo. Consumers see the building of a toilet as a home improvement not as a health intervention. Equally they use soap to make hands look, feel, and smell good, not to prevent sickness. Public money could be spent on marketing hygiene and toilets, thus generating demand that can then be met by the private sector. The private sector also knows how to generate behaviour change through marketing. If consumer demand for hygiene and toilets can be stimulated with the help of the private sector, public funds can be liberated to support public infrastructure and to help the very poorest who cannot afford to adopt new technologies. This approach is being tested in six countries, where public-private partnerships between soap companies, governments, and agencies such as theWorld Bank aim to increase rates of handwashing with soap massively (www.globalhandwashing.org). (excerpt)
Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. 1999; 10(1):17-20.There is a need for increasing international collaboration in the search for a safe and effective HIV vaccine. In addition to the ethical issues that must be considered in conducting any clinical research, unique issues arise in vaccine research and in international research. Careful deliberation and guideline development regarding the ethics of international vaccine research was the focus of a series of recent consultations sponsored by Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) around the world. (author's)
In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 98-9.Liberia is characterized by a high fertility rate; its current total fertility rate of 6.7 children/woman is one of the highest in Africa. Also quite high is the country's 18/1000 mortality rate. Until the 1980s, Liberia was able to maintain a favorable balance between an increasing population and the gross domestic product. In more recent years, however, the economic growth rate has fallen behind the population growth rate, with a subsequent sharp decline in the standard of living. Economic recovery is currently the cornerstone of Liberia's development policy, and the protection and enhancement of the population's welfare by proper planning is a key goal. Population policies that will accelerate the pace of achieving national economic objectives are under consideration. Of particular concern is the massive migration of rural residents to urban areas. In response to this trend, development projects in rural areas are being expanded.