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Journal of Asian and African Studies. 2004; 39(1-2):1-28.This chapter is a contribution to the ongoing debate about Africa and globalization and the interrelated issues of capitalism, marginalization, representation, and political leadership. Problematizing the discourse of Africa as "diseased" and "hapless," the World Bank's structural adjustment "cure-all" is presented as being much worse than the "disease" that preceded it. Proposing a critical ethics of globalization--which highlights the gap between globalization's miraculous, self-reflective images and the miserable conditions it creates--there is an attempt to uncover agents of change on the African continent. Social movements such as those fighting for water and electricity in Soweto, for land in Kenya, or against environmental destruction by oil companies in the Niger delta raise questions about the viability of globalization. Often led by women, these movements not only challenge the "male deal" that defines national governments and multinational corporations, but also call for a revaluation of subsistence economies and local democratic polities as alternatives to globalization. In short, this chapter offers important conceptual, as well as practical, challenges to globalization, indeed to the very nature of politics itself. (author's)
In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 189-210.This chapter addresses the full range of policies and programmes that bear directly on population patterns and trends and that guide and strengthen interventions in the broad field of population. While we will consider the impact of deliberate efforts to promote countries' adoption of national population policies, the adoption of formal population policies is but one facet of the much broader process of developing and implementing policies and programmes that guide and support population activities. (excerpt)
In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 113-135.The remarkable originality and achievements of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), held in Cairo in September 1994, have sometimes been disregarded in the years since. Most fair-minded people acknowledge that ICPD succeeded in its main aims. But for those of us who participated in earlier population conferences and in the preparations for Cairo, it can be said to have succeeded beyond our wildest dreams -- in terms of its intent and programmatic content at least. In addition, it helped mobilize the population, health, women's rights and allied communities to shape a broad agenda for the population and related development fields for the next two decades. Of the three international conferences organized by the United Nations to help build world consensus on the need to address population issues, ICPD was by far the most successful, measured by numbers attending, levels and quality of delegates, international media attention, and the quality of the final consensus -- and an important watershed. After long preparation and vigorous debate, more than 180 countries agreed to adopt the 16-chapter ICPD Programme of Action. The 115-page document outlines a 20-year plan to promote sustainable, human-centred development and a stable population, framing the issues with broad principles and specific actions. The Cairo Programme of Action was not simply an updating of the World Population Plan of Action (WPPA), agreed to at Bucharest and revised at Mexico City, but an entirely fresh and original programme, calling for a major shift in strategies away from demographic goals and towards more individual human welfare and development ones. ICPD was the largest intergovernmental conference on population ever held: 11,000 representatives from governments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), United Nations agencies and intergovernmental agencies participated, 4,000 NGOs held a parallel forum, and there was unprecedented media attention. ICPD was not just a single event, but an entire process culminating in the Cairo meeting. There were six expert group meetings, and regional conferences in Bali, Dakar, Geneva, Amman and Mexico City. There were many formal and informal NGO meetings and three official Preparatory Committee (PrepCom) meetings. Other crucial influences came from the 1987 Safe Motherhood Conference, the 1990 World Summit for Children, the 1990 Jomtien World Conference on Education for All, and the 1993 Vienna Conference on Human Rights. (author's)
In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 95-112.This chapter will seek to review and assess, both globally and nationally, UNFPA's experience thus far in encouraging and building partnerships, analysing and reflecting on some of the successes as well as on the constraints and challenges that exist in broadening partnerships. It will also attempt to explore some specific measures that may be taken to nurture and protect effective partnerships that will endure over time. (excerpt)
In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 47-80.This chapter explains the various mechanisms for fostering compliance with different rights relating to reproductive and sexual health, and explores programming options for fostering such compliance. The chapter is not exhaustive, but exploratory; recognizing that much more discussion is needed to address this issue adequately. (excerpt)
In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 175-188.This analysis looks at the United Nations Population Fund's (UNFPA's) work in the area of population-environment-development linkages. It then analyses the collective effects of 6 billion people, their consumption patterns, and resource use trends, in six different critical resource areas. (excerpt)
In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 24-46.The solemn commitment that was made in Cairo in 1994 to make reproductive health care universally available was a culmination of efforts made by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and all those concerned about a people-centred and human rights approach to population issues. The commitment posed important challenges to national governments and the international community, to policy makers, programme planners and service providers, and to the civil society at large. The role of UNFPA in building up the consensus for the reproductive health approach before Cairo had to continue after Cairo if the goals of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) were to be achieved. UNFPA continues to be needed to strengthen the commitment, maintain the momentum, mobilize the required resources, and help national governments and the international community move from word to action, and from rhetoric to reality. Reproductive health, including family planning and sexual health, is now one of three major programme areas for UNFPA. During 1997, reproductive health accounted for over 60 per cent of total programme allocations by the Fund. (excerpt)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2003 Jun; 81(6):461-462.Large infrastructure construction and rehabilitation works are the obvious priorities for integrating health impact assessment into the environmental assessment process, because of the specific risks generated by the sudden surge in human presence from migratory workers and because of the intrinsic health and safety hazards associated with construction. However, other sectors may also generate serious health hazards, for example, tourism development, an activity which is typically funded by the World Bank’s sister organization the International Finance Corporation (IFC). (excerpt)
Bamako, Mali, CERPOD, 1989. 20 p.The 9 countries in the Sahel that are members of the Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel (CILSS) are Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Chad, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Mali, Mauritania, Niger and Senegal. This booklet describes the historical and socio economic background of the CILSS countries and discusses the actual demographic situation, the dismal development problems that the region faces partly due to colonial policies and more recently to the World Bank's structural adjustment policies. A major constraint is that the economy has not developed fast enough to keep up with the rapidly growing population, especially since 46% of all Sahelians are under age 15. The population for the Sahel is estimated at 40 million making-up 7% of Africa's total population; the total fertility rate is 6.5; the growth rate is 3% and doubling the 23 years; the crude birth rate is 47.3/1000; life expectancy is 48.5 and the crude death rate is 17.4/1000; life expectancy is 49, 3 years the average in Africa of 52; infant mortality in 1988 was 143/1000 compared to the world-wide average of 75/1000; child mortality exceeds the infant mortality rate. The population of the Sahel is mostly rural with only Senegal having 40% of its population living in major cities. The least urban countries are Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger where the urban populations represent less that 1.4 of the total. However, if the present trends continue the capitals of the Sahelian countries will continue to grow and expand because of migration from the rural areas. In 1989 the Council of Ministers of CILSS adopted "the N'Djamena Plan of Action on Population and Development in the Sahel" recommending that countries adopt population policies that integrate development issues. In 1988 Senegal was the 1st and only country to adopt an explicit population policy.
In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 87-8.Solid population research, including regional and national surveys on fertility, mortality, and migration, has provided a foundation for development planning in the Ivory Coast. The population growth rate has risen from 3.6/year in the 1965-75 period to 4.3%/year since 1975. The birth rate is over 50/1000 and the fertility rate is 17/1000. The overall rate of population growth has been intensified by immigration, which has increased from 75,000 individuals/year in 1965-75 to a current level of 94,000 individuals/year. If current trends continue, aliens will comprise 30% of the country's population by 1990. Another trend has been widespread rural-urban migration. The rate of population growth in rural areas of the Ivory Coast was 1.8% in 1975-80, while that in urban areas was 8.8%. Rural development has been severely affected by a shortage of young men in the north and the savannah. The city of Abidjan holds 20% of the country's total population and half of the urban population. Another salient demographic feature is the young age profile of the population: 43% of current inhabitants are under 15 years of age. Improvements in the physical, social, economic, and psychological well-being of the Ivory Coast population require continued attention to modification of existing demographic trends through research-based population planning.
In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 189-90.Population problems should be of great concern to all. The Swiss government is pleased to see the progress that has been made in dealing with population dilemmas since the Bucharest Conference, 1974. However, the government, taking into consideration the diversity of different cultures, believes that it is up to each government to individually decide their own approach to dealing with population problems. In developing countries high population growth has made it difficult for governments to deal with the poverty created by these dilemmas. The results are poor or inadequate social facilities. However, in developed countries the governments have to deal with an aging society and damage done to non-renewable resources. The Swiss government will continue to give support to individual governments, in addition to international NGOs such as the UN.
[Unpublished] 1989 Nov. 148 p. (A/E/BD/4/Sec. III)Population information, education and communication (IEC) are essential ingredients to promote awareness and understanding of population issues. Population information is the technical and statistical information used to create awareness of population issues among governments, NGO's, communities, families and individuals. This report is a comprehensive overview of IEC activities in population programs. The section on population information includes listing of all available publications and a history of population information centers and networks by region. The priorities for future population information activities include: 1) improving data bases and research; 2) linking population to environmental and other development issues; 3) identifying the role of women in population and development; 4) reiterating the case for family planning; 5) attracting and maintaining media attention and political commitment; and 6) applying new technology to population information programs. The section on population education discusses the early development of introducing and institutionalizing formal educational programs. The major issues in the future are: 1) awareness creation and sensitization; 2) coordination with other groups and sectors; 3) training; 4) conceptualization of population education; 5) content; 6) student grade levels; 7) materials; 8) evaluation and research; 9) institutionalization. There are also lessons to be learned from the section on non-formal population. The final section on population communications (PC) discusses lessons from 9 major different types of programs. The major issues for the future of PC are: qualitative research techniques; health educators/communicators; social marketing; language sensitivity; coordinated messages; target groups; opposition to population; institutionalization; technological advances; human sexuality and family size norms.
In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 118.The international political and economic crisis is exerting its heaviest toll on developing countries. Most unfortunate is the fact that the arms race not only threatens to destroy the planet through the outbreak of nuclear war, but is also wasting valuable resources that could be used to improve people's living conditions. The billions that are being spent on the arms race should be diverted to help meet man's basic needs and guarantee every individual's basic human rights in terms of food, health, housing, and employment. The struggle for the maintenance of world peace requires a constructive international effort. The World Population Conference can play an important role in urging a reorientation of priorities, so that all the world's individuals can be enabled to freely choose their own destinies and live in dignity.
In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 108.Mexico's population policy is based on the concept of the inter-relationship between population and development, with the aim being to improve the overall welfare of the people. Population control must be approached qualitatively rather than quantitatively, however. The most important unit for analysis and consideration of population control efforts is not the individual, but rather the family and the community. The Government of Mexico has sought to integrate population into all aspects of development policy and social change. In accord with this strategy, population programs comprise activities in all spheres of social and economic life and receive priority in areas such as population education, family planning, integrated development of the family, population growth and distribution, integration of women into development, development of indigenous groups, and research on population trends and development. To be effective, this approach requires the active participation and collaboration of all sectors of society, including government, workers, the community, academicians, and service organizations. To implement this strategy, a National Population Council was established in 1974 to assume responsibility for national demographic planning.
Sex roles, population and development in West Africa: policy-related studies on work and demographic issues.
Portsmouth, New Hampshire, Heinemann Educational Books, 1987. xiii, 242 p.This book is a compilation of essays and studies on West African familial situations and stereotypes. It was prepared for the World Employment Programme and financed by the United Nation's Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). The book is divided into 4 sections covering women's work; fertility, parenthood and development in Yoruba; population policies, family planning, and family life education in Ghana; and government plans and development policies in Sierra Leone, Nigeria, and Ghana. The appendix contains a list of Offices of Women's Affairs around West Africa. The objective of the book is to introduce empirical examples of women's roles at work in the hope that funding for the advancement of women in underdeveloped areas will continue.
NUFUSBILIM DERGISI/TURKISH JOURNAL OF POPULATION STUDIES. 1987; 9:63-73.From the perspective of the UN Fund for Population Activities, Turkey has a population problem of some magnitude. In 1987 the population reached 50 million, up from 25 million in 1957. Consistent with world trends, the population growth rate in Turkey declined from 2.5% between 1965-73 to 2.2% between 1973-84; it is expected to further decrease to 2.0% between 1980 and 2000. This is due primarily to a marked decline of the crude birthrate from 41/1000 in 1965 to 30/1000 in 1984. These effects have been outweighed by a more dramatic decline in the death rate from 14/1000 in 1965 to 9/1000 in 1984. Assuming Turkey to reach a Net Reproduction Rate of 1 by 2010, the World Bank estimates Turkey's population to reach some 109 million by the middle of the 21st century. The population could reach something like 150 million in the mid-21st century. Some significant progress has been made in Turkey in recent years in the area of family planning. Yet, some policy makers do not seem fully convinced of the urgency of creating an ever-increasing "awareness" among the population and of the need for more forceful family planning strategies. Government allocations for Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning (MCH/FP) services continue to be insufficient to realize a major breakthrough in curbing the population boom in the foreseeable future. Most foreign donors do not consider Turkey a priority country. It is believed to have sufficient expertise in most fields and to be able to raise most of the financial resources it needs for development. The UNFPA is the leading donor in the field of family planning, spending some US $800,000 at thi time. Foreign inputs into Turkey's family planning program are modest, most likely not exceeding US $1 million/year. Government expenditures are about 10 times higher. This independence in decision making is a positive factor. Turkey does not need to consider policy prescriptions that foreign donors sometimes hold out to recipients of aid. It may be difficult for foreign donors to support a politically or economically motivated policy of curtailing Turkey's population growth, but they should wholeheartedly assist Turkey in its effort to expand and improve its MCH/FP services. Donors and international organizations also may try to persuade governments of developing countries to allocate more funds to primary education and to the fight against social and economic imbalances. Donors should continue to focus on investing in all sectors that have a bearing on economic development.
POPULI. 1986; 13(2):4-19.In the early 1970s the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) provided major support for censuses in Sub-Saharan Africa because of the paucity of population data. The Fund then increasingly supported studies that clarified the relation between population and development, promoted awareness of population issues, and provided the foundation on which national population policies could be built. Recently the expanded interest in and demand for family planning services, in the context of maternal-child health care, have received an increasing share of UNFPA allocations. The Fund also places great importance on projects that contribute to the development of Africa's human resources. Most African leaders have devoted increasing interest and commitment to population issues signalling an emerging consensus that population is a major African issue, deserving of urgent attention. Although awareness among African leaders has risen dramatically in recent years, the formulation and implementation of population policies is still at an incipient stage and many obstacles remain to be overcome: low level of resources for socioeconomic development, lack of infrastructure, inadequate data and the dearth of trained manpower. Declining mortality rates and continuing high fertility rates are largely responsible for the surge in the African population growth rate in the 1970s and 1980s. Rates of economic growth and per capita food production are low and in some cases decreasing. To the extent that the population factor plays a role in determining the region's future, it should be an integral part of socioeconomic development plans. In accordance with the approach suggested in the World Population Plan of Action, UNFPA works with African governments on the wide variety of population issues the countries themselves perceive as important.
World Education Reports. 1985 Nov; (24):15-7.In the last decade we have come to radically redefine our understanding of how women fit into the socioeconomic fabric of developing countries. At least 2 factors have contributed to this realignment in our thinking. 1st, events around the UN Decade for Women dramatized women's invisibility in development planning, and mobilized human and financial resources around the issue. 2nd, the process of modernization underway in all developing countries has dramatically changed how women live and what they do. In the last decade, more and more women have become the sole providers and caretakers of the household, and have been forced to find ways to earn income to feed and clothe their families. Like many other organizations, USAID, in its current policy, emphasizes the need to integrate women as contributors to and beneficiaries of all projects, rather than to design projects specifically geared to women. Integrating women into income generation projects requires building into every step of a project--its design, implementation and evaluation--mechanisms to assure that women are not left out. The integration of women into all income generating projects is still difficult to implement. 4 reasons are suggested here: 1) resistance on the part of planners and practitioners who are still not convinced that women contribute substantially to a family's income; 2) few professionals have the expertise necessary to address the gender issue; 3) reaching women may require a larger initial investment of project funds; and 4) reaching women may require experimenting with approaches that will fit into their village or urban reality.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. ix, 534 p. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements ST/ESA/SER.A/90)Contained in this volume are the report (Part I) and the selected papers (Part II) of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development which review past trends and their likely future course in each of the 4 areas, taking into account not only evolving concepts but also the need to consider population, resources, environment and development as a unified structure. Trends noted in the population factor include world population growth and the differences between rates in the developed and developing countries; the decline in the proportion of the population who are very young and the concomitant increase in the average age of the population. Discussed within the resource factor are the labor force, the problem of increasing capital shortage, expenditures on armaments, trends in the supply and productivity of arable land, erosion and degradation of topsoil and energy sources. Many of the problems identified overlap with the environment factor, which centers on the problem of pollution. The group on the development factor was influenced by a pervasiv sense of "crisis" in current economic trends. Concern was also expressed regarding the qualitative aspects of current development trends, defined as the perverse effects of having adopted inappropriate styles of development. Part II begins with a general overview of recent levels and trends in the 4 areas along with the concepts of carrying capacity and optimum population. Other papers discuss the impact of trends in resources, environment and development on demographic prospects; long-term effects of global population growth on the international system; economic considerations in the choice of alternative paths to a stationary population and the need for integration of demographic factors in development planning. The various papers on the resources and environment factor focus on resources as a barrier to population growth; the effects of population growth on renewable resources; food production and population growth in Africa; the frailty of the balance between the 4 areas and the need for a holistic approach on a scale useful for regional planning. Also addressed are: social development; population and international economic relations; development, lifestyles, population and environment in Latin America; issues of population growth, inequality and poverty; health, population and development trends; education requirements and trends in female literacy; the challenge posed by the aging of populations; and population and development in the ECE region.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1984. 36 p. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements)In his address to national leaders in Nairobi, Kenya, Clausen expresses his views on population growth and development. Rapid population growth slows development in the developing countries. There is a strong link between population growth rates and the rate of economic and social development. The World Bank is determined to support the struggle against poverty in developing countries. Population growth will mean lower living standards for hundreds of millions of people. Proposals for reducing population growth raise difficult questions about the proper domain of public policy. Clausen presents a historical overview of population growth in the past 2 decades, and discusses the problem of imbalance between natural resources and people, and the effect on the labor force. Rapid population growth creates urban economic and social problems that may be unmanageable. National policy is a means to combat overwhelmingly high fertility, since governments have a duty to society as a whole, both today's generation and future ones. Peoples may be having more children than they actually want because of lack of information or access to fertility control methods. Family planning is a health measure that can significantly reduce infant mortality. A combination of social development and family planning is needed to teduce fertility. Clausen briefly reviews the effect of economic and technological changes on population growth, focusing on how the Bank can support an effective combination of economic and social development with extending and improving family planning and health services. The World Bank offers its support to combat rapid population growth by helping improve understanding through its economic and sector work and through policy dialogue with member countries; by supporting developing strategies that naturally buiild demand for smaller families, especially by improving opportunities in education and income generation; and by helping supply safe, effective and affordable family planning and other basic health services focused on the poor in both urban and rural areas. In the next few years, the Bank intends at least to double its population and related health lending as part of a major effort involving donors and developing countries with a primay focus on Africa and Asia. An effective policy requires the participation of many ministeries and clear direction and support from the highest government levels.
Aging population and development, statement made at the European Follow-up Forum on Aging, Castelgandolfo, Italy, 6-11 September, 1981.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 7 p.UNFPA's concern over the issue of aging and the agency's ability to help alleviate some of the problems caused by aging, is discussed. Aging is a feature of both developed and developing countries. In the world as a whole, the number of older people has nearly doubled since 1950, and 1/2 of them live in the less developed countries. Such a shift in the balance of ages will have many profound consequences for the world a generation or more hence. The capacity to confront successfully the wide variety of issues raised by aging is not determined by a country's economic position or its status as a developed or developing country. Many of the economic and social systems which permit the elderly to make a positive contribution, and hold them in most esteem as valued members of the community, are among the economically less developed. All countries need to develop an economic structure which caters to the needs and abilities of older people, either through social security, living and working facilities for older people, or as is the case of the less developed countries, through extended family networks.
Report to ECOSOC, statement made to the Economic and Social Council at its Second Regular Session of 1981, United Nations, Geneva, 2 July 1981.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 7 p.This statement discusses the vital role population problems and issues play in global development. The developing countries will be faced with population growth rates in the 1980s of around 2%/year. According to United Nations projections, the share of the total world population living in the developing countries would rise from 74% at present to 80% by the year 2000. A striking feature of the prospective future population growth is that the largest increases in population will occur in the poorest countries and regions of the world which also experienced the largest increases in recent decades. The various forces generated by population growth, the imbalance of resources and the lack of gainful employment opportunities will undoubtedly affect economic and social stability. In many developing countries, population pressures have been particularly acute in the cities, where increasing migration from the rural areas has caused social problems to be more severe. Recent projections prepared by the UN indicate that it will be possible to stabilize the world population between the latter part of the 21st and the 1st half of the 22nd century but only if the current level of population activities in various parts of the world can be maintained. However, there exists today considerable disparity between resources and demand for population assistance. This tight resource situation has necessitated that the Fund devote its major attention to building self-reliance in developing countries. The Fund's goals and policies are briefly outlined.
Report to the council: present and future programme, statement made at the Twenty-eighth Session of the UNDP Governing Council, United Nations, New York, 12 June 1981.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 19 p.This report reviews: 1) United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) performance in 1980, including financial expenditures; 2) projects and programs submitted to the Governing Council for approval; 3) a work plan and request for approval authority; 4) the UNDP operational reserve; 5) the future role of UNFPA; 6) the proposed World Population Conference in 1984; and 7) the State of the World Population Report--which appears as the 1st chapter of the printed version of the UNFPA's annual report. The final figure for pledges and contributions for 1980 was US$125.5 million, an increase of 12% over 1979. Expenditures totaled US$147.5 million. Family planning programs continued to absorb the largest % of UNFPA allocations--41.7%. In the face of growing demand from the developing countries for assistance and limited resources available UNFPA will continue to concentrate on countries with the most urgent population problems and needs. It is necessary that the priority country system be revised or updated every 5 years in order to ensure that UNFPA will continue to respond to changing circumstnaces and needs in the developing world. In the future, the Fund intends to promote a more broad-based, multi-sectoral approach to population issues. In addition, the Fund will emphasize developing self-reliance by putting a time limit on various projects receiving UNFPA support.
El autentico espiritu de la cooperacion international. The true spirit of international cooperation, statement made at the Meeting of the National Population Council of the Government of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico, 16 March 1981.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 8 p. (Speech Series No. 63)Mexico's achievements in the field of population and development stand out clearly among the countries of the Western Hemisphere. The family planning program has made considerable progress since it was initiated in 1973. A major reason for the success is the commitment of the Government. This support is reflected in Mexico's unique 1974 General Population Law which established the National Population Council and which provides legal basis for the population programs. With this legislation, Mexico has taken the lead among the countries in Latin America in recognizing the population factor as an integral component of the development process. UNFPA has provided modest assistance to the Government of Mexico, but it has been a partnership in the true spirit of international co-operation.
Statement to the Population Commission, statement made at the Twenty-first Session of the United Nations Population Commission, United Nations, New York, 29 January 1981.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 5 p. (Speech Series No. 61)This statement reviews some of the developments in the field of population programs and international assistance. UNFPA requires that population policies be considered as an integral part of the overall development policies. Much of the credit for the positive acceptance around the world of population as a vital and essential component in development planning and as an important area of international assistance belongs to the Population Commission and to the foundations it has laid for a United Nations program in this area during its 34 years of work.