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In: War and public health, edited by Barry S. Levy, Victor W. Sidel. Washington, D.C., American Public Health Association [APHA], 2000. 323-335.Why have educators failed to change in a changing world? There are at least three long-standing flaws in the academy, which work against change: departmental structure, misunderstanding of international education, and the narrow education of faculty. (excerpt)
JOURNAL OF SCHOOL HEALTH. 1990 Sep; 60(7):370-8.The UN and its family of operational agencies have existed for almost 5 decades. For school health personnel, to understand how these agencies operate--in particular, the World Health Organization (WHO)--is worthwhile. To understand how WHO influenced the practice of health education for school aged youth, some critical events that have occurred during the past 5 decades are reviewed and several current and future activities are identified and described. Austria, England, Norway, and Finland designed and conducted the WHO Cross-National Survey: Health Behavior of School aged Children. A core survey was set up and each country could add optional questions according to its own needs. The 2nd round of survey was done during the 1985 school year with 11 countries taking part. In May, 1989, more than 17 European nations and Canada decided to take part in the 3rd round, conducted during the next academic year. WHO has been working on Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)/Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDS) education. In 1988, the WHO Division of Health Education and Health Promotion was established. WHO is working with the US Centers for Disease Control's Division of Adolescent and School Health to set up a collaborating center emphasizing school health education. Recently in 3rd world countries, there has been a dramatic drop in infant mortality through the expanded program of immunization, increases in breast feeding, improvement of weaning practices, and oral rehydration therapy. This is the Child Survival Revolution. These efforts should be continued beyond infancy. This is known as the Child Development Revolution. An Action- Oriented Prototype Curriculum has been developed. It is used in teacher training and contains material on diarrheal disease control, expanded immunization programs, breast feeding, AIDS, and family planning. The strategy is to learn by action and discovery. (author's modified)
Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues. 1982 Jan-Mar; 5(1):23-33.A new discipline, health economics, which reflects the relationship between the health objective procuring adequate health care and the financial resources available, is becoming increasingly important. The WHO definition of health, that health is a "state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity," is criticized for not lending itself to direct measurement of the health of the individual or community. This concept should include consideration of the process of being well as well as the absence of disease. It must also recognize that services to promote health, to prevent, diagnose and treat disease and rehabilitate incapacitated people must be included in the concept. For economic analysis purposes, health services can be classified into medical care, public health services and environmental public health services. It is suggested that the cost of education and training of medical personnel and medical research should be included in computing the cost of health services. In defining economic concepts many factors including capital and current costs, and depreciation must be considered. In addition all health economists have differentiated the direct cost of sickness including cost of prevention, detection, treatment, rehabilitation, research, training, and capital investments from indirect costs which include loss of output to the economy, disability and premature death. Using these concepts, some understanding of cost trends, cost accounting, cost benefit analysis and cost efficiency analysis should be made available in the medical curriculum and for health administrators so that health management can be more standardized and effective. (summary in HIN)
the Manila (Philippines) Paper. 1983 Aug 29-Sep 4; 1 p.In this speech delivered during the conferment of an honorary degree by the University of the Philippines, Mr. Salas addresses the present problems and challenges facing the country and posing a threat to his young audience. He urges that the nation would be served best by trained, capable, inquiring and free individuals. The longer the problems remain unsolved, the longer and more difficult it will be to find constructive and workable solutions. An even more pronounced concern results from viewing the population in all its facets as so intimately related to all aspirations for development. Whether or not ready, the Philippines must respond to the issue since the future is in their hands. Although they can learn from other nations, their own solution is required. In the 14 years of Salas' association with the United Nations Fund for Population Activities, needs for developing countries have been responded to and projects presently operate in all of them. A better understanding of the problem has been reached and the conceptualization of it as a field that includes data collection, family planning, population dynamics, education, communication, policies and projects has resulted. It is a combination of demography, health, biological, environmental and social sciences and management. Despite popular opinion, population study is not limited to fertility control or family planning. Since the 1974 World Population Conference in Bucharest, population has been viewed in the context of development, considering cultural heritage. Salas briefly goes on to examine population growth since the early 20th century, citing a projection of 70 million in the year 2000. Can the Philippines sustain a population of this size and ensure an adequte standard of living? This is a question for future discussion in another article.