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In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 95-112.This chapter will seek to review and assess, both globally and nationally, UNFPA's experience thus far in encouraging and building partnerships, analysing and reflecting on some of the successes as well as on the constraints and challenges that exist in broadening partnerships. It will also attempt to explore some specific measures that may be taken to nurture and protect effective partnerships that will endure over time. (excerpt)
Primary health care and traditional medicine: considering the background of changing health concepts in Africa.
Social Science and Medicine. 1979 Sep; 13B(3):175-82.The stress placed on utilizing traditional medical practitioners in fulfilling the basic health needs for citizens of developing countries and the reasons behind the recent enthusiastic endorsement by international agencies and national governments of the primary health care strategy were examined in reference to Africa. In attempting to provide low cost alternative health care systems in Africa, considerable attention was given to developing schemes for integrating traditional medical practitioners into the health care system. Despite these efforts, little integration has occurred. The development of a collaborative form of integration between these two types of medical systems, except in such areas as the utilization of traditional birth attendants, is impossible. In the treatment and diagnosis of disease Western medicine demands the acceptance of the scientific etiology of disease, and this view clashes with traditional conceptions of disease etiology. Under these conditions the only type of integration that can occur is a structural one in which traditional medicine is placed in a subordinate position to Western medicine. Currently, this problem is reflected by the fact that most programs stress the recruitment of young men and women from rural areas for training programs in which only Western oriented medical concepts are taught. Despite the fact that the need to improve the health status of rural populations has been recognized for a long time, concerted efforts to deal with the problem have only recently been undertaken. These recent efforts are economically motivated. The economic value of rural populations as a source for fulfilling the labor needs of urban residents and as a market for the consumer goods produced by urban dwellers has only recently been realized. In order to preserve this labor and market resource, the health and well-being of rural dwellers must now be promoted. Furthermore, the initial emphasis on community involvement in health related decision making has all but disappeared. The seriousness of the committment of agencies and governments to promote community development must, therefore, be questioned.
In: International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). East and Southeast Asia and Oceania Region (ESEAOR). Community education for family planning services. Proceedings of a Seminar-Workshop held in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, March 24-29, 1975. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, IPPF/ESEAOR, 1976. p. 13-16The policy of the IPPF has recently undergone some changes as has world opinion and the stance of governments. Policy is easier to change than the practices of Family Planning Associations and the pattern of work done for the family planning movement. The intention of the organizers of this workshop is to build on experience and to take advantage of the new opportunities rather than to reject that which is good in the more conventional information and education programs. Family planning is now regarded as fundamental to the quality of life, and several recent events support that the time is right to move out into the community. Last August, 135 governments approved the World Population Plan of Action, and there was firm endorsement of family planning as a basic human right and agreement on many population action points for governments. The IPPF has recognized the need to include family planning in all other broad developmental programs, and other international agencies are beginning to recognize the need to include family planning in their developmental programs. 3 weeks ago at a meeting of the Population Commission at U.N. Headquarters, Julia Henderson, Secretary-General of the IPPF urged that the target year of 1985 be reinstated at least for the provision of information and education. Although services would probably take longer to establish member Family Planning Associations would experiment with new, community-based delivery systems for contraceptive supplies.