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  1. 1

    The population problem in Turkey (as seen from the perspective of a foreign donor).

    Holzhausen W


    From the perspective of the UN Fund for Population Activities, Turkey has a population problem of some magnitude. In 1987 the population reached 50 million, up from 25 million in 1957. Consistent with world trends, the population growth rate in Turkey declined from 2.5% between 1965-73 to 2.2% between 1973-84; it is expected to further decrease to 2.0% between 1980 and 2000. This is due primarily to a marked decline of the crude birthrate from 41/1000 in 1965 to 30/1000 in 1984. These effects have been outweighed by a more dramatic decline in the death rate from 14/1000 in 1965 to 9/1000 in 1984. Assuming Turkey to reach a Net Reproduction Rate of 1 by 2010, the World Bank estimates Turkey's population to reach some 109 million by the middle of the 21st century. The population could reach something like 150 million in the mid-21st century. Some significant progress has been made in Turkey in recent years in the area of family planning. Yet, some policy makers do not seem fully convinced of the urgency of creating an ever-increasing "awareness" among the population and of the need for more forceful family planning strategies. Government allocations for Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning (MCH/FP) services continue to be insufficient to realize a major breakthrough in curbing the population boom in the foreseeable future. Most foreign donors do not consider Turkey a priority country. It is believed to have sufficient expertise in most fields and to be able to raise most of the financial resources it needs for development. The UNFPA is the leading donor in the field of family planning, spending some US $800,000 at thi time. Foreign inputs into Turkey's family planning program are modest, most likely not exceeding US $1 million/year. Government expenditures are about 10 times higher. This independence in decision making is a positive factor. Turkey does not need to consider policy prescriptions that foreign donors sometimes hold out to recipients of aid. It may be difficult for foreign donors to support a politically or economically motivated policy of curtailing Turkey's population growth, but they should wholeheartedly assist Turkey in its effort to expand and improve its MCH/FP services. Donors and international organizations also may try to persuade governments of developing countries to allocate more funds to primary education and to the fight against social and economic imbalances. Donors should continue to focus on investing in all sectors that have a bearing on economic development.
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  2. 2

    The state of world population 1981.

    Salas RM

    New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, 1981. 6 p.

    Assesses world population status and prospects in 1981 through a consideration of population projections, historical patterns of population growth, the quickening pace of decline in world population growth rates, regional diversity, the significance of family size, assistance for population programs, and the need for greater commitment to the population control effort. U.N. projections of the level at which world population will stabilize range from 8.0 billion to 14.2 billion; the level will depend on the speed and extent of decline in fertility. Global resources, environment, and development will be severely strained by this large population. Comparison of historical experiences of population decline supports the belief that the demographic transition can be brought about in the less developed countries in the remaining years of this century. The estimated growth rate of 1.73% per year between 1975 and 1980 for the world's population confirms the downward trend in global population growth. The growth rate of developing countries remains higher than it was in 1950-55 despite worldwide family planning efforts. Annual increments in total population will be progressively higher for the rest of this century despite the decline in the annual global growth rate. Different world regions will attain stabilization at different times in the future. South Asia and Africa will account for 60% of the world's total population at the time of stabilization. A large proportion of the world's poor are unable to exercise their right to decide the number of children they want through lack of access to contraception. International assistance to population control programs will continue to be needed into the foreseeable future.
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  3. 3

    A demographer's view of the world population plan of action.


    Liege, International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, 1974. 26 p. (Lecture Series on Population, Bucharest 1974)

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