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  1. 1
    316667

    Health in Brazil and Latin America: The UN millennium goals and the role of nursing.

    Mendes IA

    2004 Nov-Dec; 12(6):847.

    The Millennium Goals were defined by the United Nations Organization in 2000 and approved by consensus during the Millennium Summit, a meeting that joined 147 heads of State. These goals reflect increasing concerns about the sustainability of the planet and about the serious problems affecting humanity. Constituted by a set of eight goals to be reached by 2015, they refer to the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger, universal access to basic education, gender equality promotion, infant mortality reduction, maternal health improvement, fight against HIV/Aids and other illnesses, guarantee of environmental sustainability and the establishment of a global partnership for development. Sustainability and development are closely linked to health and imply joint actions by States and civil society in the attempt to minimize the influence of the huge gap that exists between countries and persons. Thus, health and particularly nursing professionals' actions are paramount and can lead to local actions with regional, national and international impacts. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    186758

    The feminist agenda in population private voluntary organizations.

    Helzner J; Shepard B

    In: Women, international development, and politics: the bureaucratic mire. Updated and expanded edition, edited by Kathleen Staudt. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Temple University Press, 1997. 167-182.

    Using a feminist lens to inspect current PVO (private voluntary organization) family planning programs, we first define the feminist perspective as it applies to such programs and then compare that feminist vision with the reality found in the field. This paper examines the political dynamics of working for a feminist agenda within the community of population PVOs. The following case study illustrates these dynamics and leads to a discussion of both the obstacles to the realization of a feminist vision and the political strategies and attitudes that help implement this vision. Together, we draw on seventeen years of work with a variety of PVOs involved in family planning and reproductive health. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    179474

    Education for peace.

    Miles L

    In: War and public health, edited by Barry S. Levy, Victor W. Sidel. Washington, D.C., American Public Health Association [APHA], 2000. 323-335.

    Why have educators failed to change in a changing world? There are at least three long-standing flaws in the academy, which work against change: departmental structure, misunderstanding of international education, and the narrow education of faculty. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    179470

    Public health and the Persian Gulf War.

    Hoskins E

    In: War and public health, edited by Barry S. Levy, Victor W. Sidel. Washington, D.C., American Public Health Association [APHA], 2000. 254-278.

    War has always been disastrous for civilians, and the Persian Gulf War was no exception. Yet the image that has been perpetuated in the West is that the Gulf War was somehow "clean" and fought with "surgical precision" in a manner that minimized civilian casualties. However, massive wartime damage to Iraq's civilian infrastructure led to a breakdown in virtually all sectors of society. Economic sanctions further paralyzed Iraq's economy and made any meaningful post-war reconstruction all but impossible. Furthermore, the invasion of Kuwait and the subsequent Gulf War unleashed internal political events that have been responsible for further suffering and countless human fights violations. The human impact of these events is incalculable. In 1996, more than five years after the end of the war, the vast majority of Iraqi civilians still subsist in a state of extreme hardship, in which health care, nutrition, education, water, sanitation, and other basic services are minimal. As many as 500,000 children are believed to have died since the beginning of the Persian Gulf War, largely due to malnutrition and a resurgence of diarrheal and vaccine- preventable diseases. Health services are barely functioning due to shortages of supplies and equipment. Medicines, including insulin, antibiotics, and anesthetics, are in short supply. The psychological impact of the war has had a damaging and lasting effect on many of Iraq's estimated eight million children. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    179477

    Conflict resolution and mediation for health professionals.

    Lewer N

    In: War and public health, edited by Barry S. Levy, Victor W. Sidel. Washington, D.C., American Public Health Association [APHA], 2000. 375-387.

    Health professionals may find special opportunities for engagement in conflict resolution and mediation within their own communities and at other sites at which conflict is occurring or threatening to occur. This chapter briefly reviews the history of unofficial conflict resolution and mediation since 1945, describes the process of mediation, and considers applications of conflict resolution and mediation from the perspective of public health professionals. It is not within the scope of this chapter to delve into the complex history of international and domestic conflict management and resolution mechanisms. Useful reviews of the development of conflict resolution in historical, political, and theoretical contexts can be found in the background readings given at the end of this chapter. (excerpt)
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  6. 6
    101724

    [Statement of Chile] Intervencion.

    Chile

    [Unpublished] 1994. Presented at the International Conference on Population and Development [ICPD], Cairo, Egypt, September 5-13, 1994. [5] p.

    Chile's statement to the plenary session of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo refers to Chile's recent political history and the recuperation of democracy, which makes possible construction of a model of growth with equity. Chile participates in the international search for principles, values, and actions that guarantee human rights; improvement in living conditions; and commitment to the struggle for a better world, which will strengthen peace and international security. It is hoped that the Conference will lead to a political and operational recognition of the interdependence of population themes, sustained economic growth, and sustainable development. The persistence of poverty, inadequate satisfaction of basic needs, unemployment, and intolerance should be addressed by the Conference. Population measures adopted by Chile have their ethical basis in recognition of the family as the basic unit of society. Participation of women in decision making in all spheres of society is necessary if population goals are to be achieved. Chile's family planning policy is based on health and human rights. Chile subscribes to the concept of reproductive health but rejects abortion as a method of family planning. Chile supports sex education in the family and in the schools as a method of promoting responsible exercise of sexuality. Chile considers the struggle against extreme poverty to be a priority in the quest for a model of growth with equity.
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  7. 7
    106517

    A peace perspective on population and environment: people before weapons. Paz, poblacion y medio ambiente: el ser humano antes que el armamentismo.

    Arias Sanchez O

    Chicago, Illinois, John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, 1995. 16, 16 p. (International Lecture Series on Population Issues)

    Humanity's ability to continue to inhabit the earth is threatened by population growth and environmental degradation, and population and the environment are threatened by the ever-increasing militarization of the world. Developing countries spend $200 billion a year on armed forces and approximately $20.4 billion on arms purchases, whereas 4% of this budget would increase literacy by 50%, 12% would provide universal primary health care, and 8% would provide basic family planning services to all willing couples and stabilize world population by the year 2015. Weapons also destroy the environment, as seen in the case of Agent Orange in Viet Nam, in the Persian Gulf area after the recent war, and in areas of the world contaminated by nuclear testing. The arms trade flourishes despite the fact that most of the developing world faces no external enemy. Instead, 58 military regimes committed violent crimes towards their own citizens in 1992 alone. The atmosphere of violence spreads until arms are everywhere. In order to halt this cycle of death and destruction, a Global Demilitarization Fund must be established to distribute as a peace dividend voluntary contributions arising from reductions in military spending, and the UN Register of Conventional Arms must be strengthened. The US in particular must accept its role as a superpower and its responsibility to help the people of other nations. Thus, the US must stop using the sale of arms as a foreign policy strategy. Also, the US should increase its per capita amount of development assistance from its current disproportionately low level ($44 in 1991-92). In order to create a new world order, we need leaders who will use their power to improve conditions for mankind.
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  8. 8
    073832
    Peer Reviewed

    [Health without boundaries and boundaries in health] La salud sin fronteras y las fronteras en la salud.

    Soberon G; Valdes C; de Caso O

    SALUD PUBLICA DE MEXICO. 1989 Nov-Dec; 31(6):813-22.

    This conference paper reflects on various aspects of international health, especially as they affect Mexico and its neighbors. Health is a concern and responsibility of the entire society. The broadness of the concept of health proposed by the World Health Organization (a state of complete physical, mental, and social wellbeing and not just absence of disease) implies that intersectorial action and community participation are of utmost importance. The concept of health care is evolving from individual curative care to integral care of the health of the population, involving knowledge of a person's genetic and biological components, environmental effects, behavioral factors, and the organization and operation of health services. Health is not just a medical question, it represents a social aspect and a basic need. Primary health care expresses the movement of health beyond the purely medical realm into a broader dimension with a goal of promotion and prevention and of community participation. Although frequent mention is made of the pathology typical of developing countries and of the epidemiologic transition, in reality health problems do not stop at international borders. Diseases but also scientific knowledge and medical technology rapidly spread beyond their places of emergence. Mexico's northern and southern borders are considered priority areas for national development. Strengthening of the states bordering on the US, Guatemala, and Belize is part of Mexico's strategy of decentralizing national life. The northern border includes states with adverse geographical conditions but the highest standard of living in Mexico. Closeness to the US entails a number of consequences, e.g., importation of AIDS, undocumented migration, transculturation of living styles, and addiction. The southern border is geographically distinct but also difficult. The health and living conditions of neighbors to the south are poorer and deprived than in Mexico, and political upheavals in Central America have led to the presence of refugees. In the past few years Mexico has reached health agreements with the governments of the 3 neighboring countries which cover areas such as epidemiologic surveillance and disease control. Mexico has also attempted to improve health conditions in the border regions by diagnosing health conditions in them, evaluating the achievements of their health programs, specifying priority health interventions, promoting participation of neighboring countries and international organizations in the search for better health, and promoting decentralization of health care. International health agencies such as the World and Pan American Health Organizations promote achievement of the highest possible levels of health for all peoples, while private organizations such as the Population Council and Rockefeller Foundation are also active in this area.
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  9. 9
    069594
    Peer Reviewed

    Solidarity and AIDS: introduction.

    Krieger N

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEALTH SERVICES. 1991; 21(3):505-10.

    This article asks the reader to carefully consider the personal implications of AIDS were either he or close friends and relatives afflicted with the syndrome. We are urged to acknowledge the limited capabilities of personal and social response to the epidemic, and recognize the associated degree of social inequity and knowledge deficiency which exists. Summaries of 3 articles are discussed as highly integrated in their common call for global solidarity in the fight against HIV infections and AIDS. Pros and cons of Cuba's evolving response to AIDS are considered, paying attention to the country's recent abandonment of health policy which isolated those infected with HIV, in favor of renewed social integration of these individuals. Brazil's inadequate, untimely, and erred response to AIDS is then strongly criticized in the 2nd article summary. Finally, the 3rd article by Dr. Jonathan Mann, former head of the World Health Organization's Global program on AIDS, on AIDS prevention in the 1990s is discussed. Covering behavioral change and the critical role of political factors in AIDS prevention, Mann asserts the need to apply current concepts and strategies, while developing new ones, and to reassess values and concepts guiding work in the field. AIDS and its associated crises threaten the survival of humanity. It is not just a disease to be solved by information, but is intimately linked to issues of sexuality, health, and human behavior which are in turn shaped by social, political, economic, and cultural factors. Strong, concerted political resolve is essential in developing, implementing, and sustaining an action agenda against AIDS set by people with AIDS and those at risk of infection. Vision, resources, and leadership are called for in this war closely linked to the struggle for worldwide social justice.
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  10. 10
    069810

    [Populations on the planet] Populations sur la planete.

    Levy ML

    Population et Societes. 1991 Dec; (263):1-3.

    This work contrasts 2 world population atlases published in 1991, 1 the work of a demographer and the other of a geographer. Both works synthesize the concepts of demography as it is currently practiced. The work by the geography, Daniel Noin, (Atlas of World Population) has a more detailed bibliography and glossary and concentrates on the contemporary population situation. The other work (The Population of the World. From Antiquity to 2050), by Jean-Claude Chesnais, takes a historic approach. The 2 works are complementary and neither raises ecological alarms. They stress different issues in their conclusions, Chesnais asking whether the nations of Europe can compensate for their loss of demographic and economic power by regrouping into an entity large enough to maintain influence, Noin identifying fertility decline in the poor countries as the major current demographic challenge. Both authors use the same analytical instrument and rely on UN statistics. The UN, since its origin, has been the site of a confrontation between 2 schools of demographic thought, the American which is preoccupied with rapid population growth in the poor countries, and the French, which stresses fertility decline and demographic aging in the developed countries. The analytical instrument in both cases is the theory of demographic transition, on which both authors have already written. The 2 authors classify the countries differently, 1 identifying 5 stages of transition and the other 3 stages and 8 types of countries. Agreement on the basic phenomenon of the transition is accompanied by some difference of interpretation.
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  11. 11
    272545
    Peer Reviewed

    The World Health Organization: school health initiatives.

    Gold RS

    JOURNAL OF SCHOOL HEALTH. 1990 Sep; 60(7):370-8.

    The UN and its family of operational agencies have existed for almost 5 decades. For school health personnel, to understand how these agencies operate--in particular, the World Health Organization (WHO)--is worthwhile. To understand how WHO influenced the practice of health education for school aged youth, some critical events that have occurred during the past 5 decades are reviewed and several current and future activities are identified and described. Austria, England, Norway, and Finland designed and conducted the WHO Cross-National Survey: Health Behavior of School aged Children. A core survey was set up and each country could add optional questions according to its own needs. The 2nd round of survey was done during the 1985 school year with 11 countries taking part. In May, 1989, more than 17 European nations and Canada decided to take part in the 3rd round, conducted during the next academic year. WHO has been working on Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)/Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDS) education. In 1988, the WHO Division of Health Education and Health Promotion was established. WHO is working with the US Centers for Disease Control's Division of Adolescent and School Health to set up a collaborating center emphasizing school health education. Recently in 3rd world countries, there has been a dramatic drop in infant mortality through the expanded program of immunization, increases in breast feeding, improvement of weaning practices, and oral rehydration therapy. This is the Child Survival Revolution. These efforts should be continued beyond infancy. This is known as the Child Development Revolution. An Action- Oriented Prototype Curriculum has been developed. It is used in teacher training and contains material on diarrheal disease control, expanded immunization programs, breast feeding, AIDS, and family planning. The strategy is to learn by action and discovery. (author's modified)
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  12. 12
    055121

    Statement, International Conference on Population, Mexico City, 6 August 1984.

    Bartlett Diaz M

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 207-10.

    The Minister of the Interior of Mexico expresses his wish for a successful Conference. The government of Mexico welcomes the gathering of members of the international community to discuss population and demographic factors. The primary aim of this Conference is the discussion of results and problems since the 1974 Bucharest Conference. The Committee recognized the interdependent relationship between economics and population factors. The conclusion of the Bucharest Conference was that governments had to affect social and economic change in order to deal with population problems. Recommendations made by the Committee at the conclusion of the Bucharest Conference were that governments would work to: decrease infant and maternal mortality and morbidity; improve the quality of life for its people; and encourage countries to deal with the problems through research and exchange of information.
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  13. 13
    054968

    Chile.

    Pinochet A

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 35-6.

    The government of Chile looks forward to sending a delegation to the 1984 World Population Conference. The government feels that any social and/or economic programs implemented must benefit the individual and the family. However, the government of Chile takes into account the basic rights of individuals when it implements its population programs and policies. The aim of the Chilean government, then, is to help all Chileans achieve their maximum potential. The aims of the government have been limited only by the availability of resources. However, careful resource management has enabled the government of Chile to implement programs which have: decreased infant mortality rates from 6.52/1,000 live births in 1974 to 23.6 in 1982 and 21.0 in 1983; decreased maternal mortality rates; and increased life expectancy from 63.76 years in 1970-1975 to 69.72 in 1980-85. The government of Chile also recognizes the importance of financial assistance through UN agencies and/or bilateral channels. In order to deal with population concerns worldwide, cooperation is a necessity among the members of the international community. To this end, the government of Chile will work in cooperation with other countries to help in the improvement of population problems and concerns.
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  14. 14
    054963

    Cuba.

    Castro Ruz F

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 43-4.

    The government of Cuba eagerly looks forward to the World Population conference, for it presents an opportunity for countries to review the results of the problems and progress of the last 10 years. Despite expectations of population growth until the year 2000, some countries, specifically underdeveloped ones, will be more affected than others. It is in these countries that the greatest aid and assistance is needed. The government of Cuba has pointed out in one of the recent journals that it published that it is the moral duty of the international community to deal with the monumental task of feeding, clothing and educating the underprivileged. The government of Cuba does not believe that the cause of uncontrolled population growth is the result of biological factors; it is the result of socioeconomic factors. To date, the world has undergone severe economic change in addition to experiencing an arms race urged on by the Reagan Administration. The result is the hindrance to any population or socioeconomic program which would sharply curtail the misery of millions of people in underdeveloped countries.
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  15. 15
    055113

    United States.

    Reagan R

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 168.

    It has been recognized by world leaders that increasing population trends have an effect on social and economic factors. The government of the United States works to combat population problems, globally, by providing multilateral and bilateral assistance to developing countries. The United States feels that emphasis should be placed on technological advances as a way of dealing with environmental and economic problems. However, the rights of the individual, regardless of religious or cultural values, have to be respected when implementing population programmes. The U.S., while concerned with change in demographic variables, feels that concern should also be shown for the welfare of children, allowing them the chance to develop both physically and mentally.
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  16. 16
    055030

    Jamaica.

    Seaga EP

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 89.

    Rapid population growth has impeded the efforts of the Government of Jamaica to provide adequate social services such as education and health care to all sectors of the population. Moreover, the population-related problems of high unemployment, widespread rural-urban migration, and an unequal distribution of income have hindered the country's development process. Jamaica's National Population Policy, adopted in 1983, seeks to establish a coherent set of goals in terms of achieving a population size that is consistent with sustained economic development. Targets of this policy include a population not exceeding 3 million by the year 2000; attainment of an average total fertility rate of 2 births/woman by the end of the 1980s; an increase in life expectancy from the current level of 70 years to 73 years by 2000; a reduction in the outmigration of skilled labor through increased employment opportunities; and improvements in the areas of housing, nutrition, education, and environmental conditions. Although fertility remains unacceptably high, the crude birth rate has declined in the post-Independence period, from 40/1000 in 1960 to 27/1000 in 1980. Crucial to the attainment of these goals is the involvement of all areas of government and the private sector.
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  17. 17
    054976

    Bolivia.

    Siles Zuazo H

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 21-2.

    The government of Bolivia has implemented population policies which dealt with controlling rising population trends. Bolivia has one of the lowest population growth rates in Latin America; however, this is in part due to a high mortality rate in the rural areas and small cities. The government of Bolivia has to deal with internal migration and unequal geographical distribution. The result has been a strain on social and agricultural resources. The government seeks to deal with reducing mortality and morbidity rates by implementing programmes which deal with the improvement of sanitation, food, and health care services. The government looks to encourage movement to undeveloped, unused rural areas in an attempt to utilize its agricultural potential.
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  18. 18
    055078

    Nicaragua.

    Ortega Saavedra D

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 118.

    The international political and economic crisis is exerting its heaviest toll on developing countries. Most unfortunate is the fact that the arms race not only threatens to destroy the planet through the outbreak of nuclear war, but is also wasting valuable resources that could be used to improve people's living conditions. The billions that are being spent on the arms race should be diverted to help meet man's basic needs and guarantee every individual's basic human rights in terms of food, health, housing, and employment. The struggle for the maintenance of world peace requires a constructive international effort. The World Population Conference can play an important role in urging a reorientation of priorities, so that all the world's individuals can be enabled to freely choose their own destinies and live in dignity.
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  19. 19
    055065

    Mexico.

    De la Madrid Hurtado M

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 108.

    Mexico's population policy is based on the concept of the inter-relationship between population and development, with the aim being to improve the overall welfare of the people. Population control must be approached qualitatively rather than quantitatively, however. The most important unit for analysis and consideration of population control efforts is not the individual, but rather the family and the community. The Government of Mexico has sought to integrate population into all aspects of development policy and social change. In accord with this strategy, population programs comprise activities in all spheres of social and economic life and receive priority in areas such as population education, family planning, integrated development of the family, population growth and distribution, integration of women into development, development of indigenous groups, and research on population trends and development. To be effective, this approach requires the active participation and collaboration of all sectors of society, including government, workers, the community, academicians, and service organizations. To implement this strategy, a National Population Council was established in 1974 to assume responsibility for national demographic planning.
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  20. 20
    056689
    Peer Reviewed

    The United States, China, and the United Nations Population Fund: dynamics of US policymaking.

    Crane BB; Finkle JL

    POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW. 1989 Mar; 15(1):23-59.

    Retreating from the leadership role it had assumed since the 1960's in multilateral cooperation in the population field, the US government in 1985 suspended support to the United Nations Population Funded (UNFPA). US actions, taken on the grounds that UNFPA is assisting a coercive population program in China, have provoked domestic controversy among groups who differ sharply over the ethical questions involved, as well as over questions of fact. Opponents of UNFPA funding, mainly drawn from the New Right, have prevailed thus far, aided by an effective appeal to human rights norms and relevant policy precedents and by a favorable institutional setting. (Author's) (summaries in ENG, FRE, SPA).
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  21. 21
    041131

    The origins and implementation of America's international population policy.

    Donaldson PJ

    [Unpublished] 1987. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Chicago, Illinois, April 30-May 2, 1987. 24 p.

    Since the post-World War II period, the US's international population program was justified by the need to slow world population growth, serve the political interests of the US, and improve human welfare. The population field has shifted from a focus on differential reproduction by class or race to a concern for the social, economic, and environmental consequences of different patterns of reproduction. World War II put an end to most public expressions of racist sentiments with respect to population control. The modern consensus views rapid population growth in developing countries to be a hindrance to longterm economic improvement. Family planning services are supported because of their benefits to maternal and child health. On the other hand, many population advisors continue to view family planning programs as part of America's effort to civilize the Third World and socialize the world's poor to US values. A tension continues in the population field between the desire to control the menace that rapid population growth represents to the world order and the eagerness to enhance individual freedom and promote health and development. The belief that a certain demographic balance is necessary unifies population policy analysts, however. A desire for stability is common to both the reformists who want to make contraception more available to promote responsible parenthood and enhance development and the security analyst who supports population control because it contributes to a reduction in urban unrest and international tensions. US population policy in the years ahead is likely to continue to be based on a combination of self-interest and wider vision.
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  22. 22
    270321

    The challenges ahead.

    Guerra de Macedo C

    WORLD HEALTH. 1987 Oct; 26-9.

    In the next 13 years, health services must be created that will double present coverage. Preparations must be made for a population in which the proportion of elderly persons is increasing each year, and which is becoming increasingly urbanized, both geographically and culturally. The approval in 1986 by the Pan American Sanitary Conference--the highest policy organization of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO) in the Western Hemisphere--of program priorities for the 1987-1990 quadrennium has provided the tools to confront these challenges in a systematic and pragmatic way. This political decision established the quadrennial frame of reference for the Organization's cooperation in transforming health systems, with its activities now underway in 3 related areas of priority: the development of the health infrastructure, with emphasis on primary health care; specific programs for priority health problems among the most vulnerable groups; and the information management needed to carry out these programs. By targeting these 3 areas, the member countries have given the Organization a mandate to move effectively against the potential catastrophe of 300 million people lacking health services by century's end. This is a regional approach, developed on the basis of the particular socioeconomic and health conditions of the Western Hemisphere. But it is also an approach fitting perfectly within the principles which the Member States of the WHO accepted when they approved in 1977 the universal call for Health for All by the Year 2000.
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  23. 23
    268140

    Population policy after Mexico City.

    Repetto R

    World Resources Institute Journal. 1985; 5-16.

    In Mexico City, the 2nd Population Corference emphasized the inextricable links between population, resources, environment and development and the need to integrate population and development programs. Essential points included in the core of the consensus enunciated in Mexico City are summarized. The US position at the Conference emphasized that population goals and policies must be considered not as ends in themselves but in the context of social and economic strategies designed to enhance the human conditions in a manner consistent with basic values. The US statement maintained that effective voluntary family planning programs will result in substantial declines in family size only to the extent that development changes the economic motivation and parents' desire for large families. This position evolved however after considerable pressure on the Reagan administration. The administration's initial position, considerable elements of which remain in the US policy statement, had quite a different emphasis. Its argument is summarized and criticized on the grounds that it is remarkably insensitive to the facts, especially in its assertion that the rise of economic statism in the developing countries after World War II constrained economic growth and thus created population problems. Rapid demograpphic transition in low income countries requires not only social and economic change that is broadly shared, but also vigorous governement population policies. The policies and programs put forward by consensus at Mexico City cannot be regarded as short-term ameliorative efforts. They require radical changes in development strategies to broaden access to education, health services, employment opportunities, and other basic needs. For the governemnt of the US to minimize the importance of rapid and widespread implementation of the policies adopted by consensus at Mexico City would be a disservice to the US and to the rest of the world. Population policies and programs and sound economic policies support one another, and all are essential for successful development.
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  24. 24
    267814

    Population, resources, environment and development.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. ix, 534 p. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements ST/ESA/SER.A/90)

    Contained in this volume are the report (Part I) and the selected papers (Part II) of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development which review past trends and their likely future course in each of the 4 areas, taking into account not only evolving concepts but also the need to consider population, resources, environment and development as a unified structure. Trends noted in the population factor include world population growth and the differences between rates in the developed and developing countries; the decline in the proportion of the population who are very young and the concomitant increase in the average age of the population. Discussed within the resource factor are the labor force, the problem of increasing capital shortage, expenditures on armaments, trends in the supply and productivity of arable land, erosion and degradation of topsoil and energy sources. Many of the problems identified overlap with the environment factor, which centers on the problem of pollution. The group on the development factor was influenced by a pervasiv sense of "crisis" in current economic trends. Concern was also expressed regarding the qualitative aspects of current development trends, defined as the perverse effects of having adopted inappropriate styles of development. Part II begins with a general overview of recent levels and trends in the 4 areas along with the concepts of carrying capacity and optimum population. Other papers discuss the impact of trends in resources, environment and development on demographic prospects; long-term effects of global population growth on the international system; economic considerations in the choice of alternative paths to a stationary population and the need for integration of demographic factors in development planning. The various papers on the resources and environment factor focus on resources as a barrier to population growth; the effects of population growth on renewable resources; food production and population growth in Africa; the frailty of the balance between the 4 areas and the need for a holistic approach on a scale useful for regional planning. Also addressed are: social development; population and international economic relations; development, lifestyles, population and environment in Latin America; issues of population growth, inequality and poverty; health, population and development trends; education requirements and trends in female literacy; the challenge posed by the aging of populations; and population and development in the ECE region.
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  25. 25
    267125

    El autentico espiritu de la cooperacion international. The true spirit of international cooperation, statement made at the Meeting of the National Population Council of the Government of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico, 16 March 1981.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1981]. 8 p. (Speech Series No. 63)

    Mexico's achievements in the field of population and development stand out clearly among the countries of the Western Hemisphere. The family planning program has made considerable progress since it was initiated in 1973. A major reason for the success is the commitment of the Government. This support is reflected in Mexico's unique 1974 General Population Law which established the National Population Council and which provides legal basis for the population programs. With this legislation, Mexico has taken the lead among the countries in Latin America in recognizing the population factor as an integral component of the development process. UNFPA has provided modest assistance to the Government of Mexico, but it has been a partnership in the true spirit of international co-operation.
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