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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Africa and globalization: marginalization and resistance.

    Gibson NC

    Journal of Asian and African Studies. 2004; 39(1-2):1-28.

    This chapter is a contribution to the ongoing debate about Africa and globalization and the interrelated issues of capitalism, marginalization, representation, and political leadership. Problematizing the discourse of Africa as "diseased" and "hapless," the World Bank's structural adjustment "cure-all" is presented as being much worse than the "disease" that preceded it. Proposing a critical ethics of globalization--which highlights the gap between globalization's miraculous, self-reflective images and the miserable conditions it creates--there is an attempt to uncover agents of change on the African continent. Social movements such as those fighting for water and electricity in Soweto, for land in Kenya, or against environmental destruction by oil companies in the Niger delta raise questions about the viability of globalization. Often led by women, these movements not only challenge the "male deal" that defines national governments and multinational corporations, but also call for a revaluation of subsistence economies and local democratic polities as alternatives to globalization. In short, this chapter offers important conceptual, as well as practical, challenges to globalization, indeed to the very nature of politics itself. (author's)
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  2. 2

    Africa and its diaspora: organizing and institutional issues.

    Akukwe C; Jammeh S; Foote M

    Chimera. 2004 Spring; 2(1):26-30.

    The need to organize a durable partnership between Africa and its people in the Diaspora is so obvious as to warrant little discussion. However, every partnership, even among blood relations, requires a clear raison d'etre. Why should a Brazilian-African become interested in South Africa's politics or economy? Why should a Nigerian unemployed university graduate believe that it is in his best interest to nurture a relationship with the Diaspora in the Caribbean? Why should a Senegalese-French citizen pay attention to the status of African-Americans in the United States? Why should a recent immigrant in the United States become involved in Africa-Diaspora partnership issues? Why should an inner city Diaspora family in the United States or Britain show interest in the political reforms in Kenya? These questions are neither rhetorical nor amenable to easy responses. At the core of the organizing issue in Africa-Diaspora partnership is the need to define a clear, unambiguous reason for this relationship. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Health must come before politics in WHO-Africa's reforms [editorial]

    Lancet. 2005 Mar 19; 365:1004.

    An impressive fanfare of melodic African gospel music heralded the long-awaited launch last week of the final report of the Commission for Africa. The 17-strong Commission, chaired by UK Prime Minister Tony Blair, set out to take “a fresh look” at Africa’s past and present, and make realistic recommendations for the continent’s survival. The Commission’s report is a laudable achievement: the hefty volume is a pragmatic and decisive review of Africa’s needs. It is, as promised, unfalteringly honest— and health initiatives are not spared criticism. According to the report, the failings of current health efforts are clear: there are too many initiatives and too little coordination. The Commission’s solution focuses on harmonisation of health policy at a national level and integration of donor-led initiatives into governmental plans. As if in preparation for these recommendations, Luís Sambo, head of the WHO’s African Regional Office, last week concluded a tour of the UK and USA by announcing sweeping reforms of WHO/AFRO. He plans to decentralise activities and give more authority to country representatives “to cope with potential increases in resources”. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    [Toward a new international penal law: some general reflections at the end of the century] Vers un nouveau droit international pénal: quelques réflexions générales à la fin du siècle.

    Aznar Gomez MJ

    In: La protection des droits de l'Homme entre la législation interne et le droit international. Actes du colloque organisé par le Centre de Recherches sur la Coopération Internationale pour le Développement de la Faculté de Droit de Marrakech avec le concours de la Fondation Hanns-Seidel, les 21 et 22 janvier 2000. Rabat, Morocco, Revue Marocaine d'Administration Locale et de Developpement, 2001. 33-56. (Thèmes Actuels No. 26)

    In classic international law, since the individual is separated from the international sphere by the legal fiction of the State, while international law at the dawn of the twenty-first century no longer governs only co-existence among States or the pursuit of their common goals, but also collective interests proper to the international community as a whole, the protection of human rights today is no longer part of the domain reserved to States. At the present time, we find that the individual is the subject of rights and the State is the subject of new duty, namely the respect of human rights. It is possible to identify, through the practice of diplomacy and international jurisprudence, a few general rules, divided into those relating to substance and those relating to procedure. Among the rules relating to substance, it is possible to identify the principles of sovereignty and cooperation, the elementary rules of humaneness and the rule of individual criminal liability. In the area of international sanction mechanisms in international law, the first image we see is that of the courts of Nuremberg and Tokyo. The classic approach to the sanctioning of individuals has really changed only since the end of the 1980's. These sanctions had long been in the hands of the State. In all cases, at least on the normative level, they left in their hands the obligation to obey and to enforce international criminal law, which at the present time is conveyed, among other ways, through the action of international tribunals, bilateral cooperation through international criminal judiciary assistance and multilateral cooperation. Several humanitarian tragedies, such as those in the former Yugoslavia, Iraq and Rwanda, have called into question the effectiveness of these new enforcement and sanction procedures; however the participation of public opinion and non-governmental organizations (NGO's), the political and judicial action of the United Nations have reinforced it.
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  5. 5

    Female rites of passage: Cameroon and female genital mutilation; time for change.

    Tabe M

    Tampa, Florida, Female Genital Cutting Education and Networking Project, 2001 Dec 28. 4 p.

    This is testimony from a twenty five year-old woman who has elected to stay anonymous. She is today living in Douala where to cam a living she is a prostitute. Two national surveys carried out in Cameroon between 1988 and 1999 have shown that many girls and women have undergone one form of female genital mutilation (FGM) or the other and a lot more are at the risk of the practice. The negative effects of FGM on the health of women and girls have contributed to maternal morbidity and mortality, and traumatic psychological and psychosexual effects. (excerpt)
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  6. 6

    Vaccines -- in Uganda, it's personal.

    Monico SM

    Global AIDSLink. 2003 Jun-Jul; 12.

    A bill was drafted and finally endorsed in early 1998 stating that the vaccine candidate had a favorable safety profile from pre-clinical and clinical testing in the country of origin; that there was evidence of clear benefit to the population; that there was a Memorandum of Understanding affirming interaction between UNAIDS/WHO manufacturers/sponsoring agencies and Ugandan representatives; and that the final decision about the vaccine candidate would be made by the government of Uganda, and endorsed by the parliament. The media closely followed these processes and, in February 1998, 40 army men -- a cohort that had undergone intensive preparation for 18 months since 1994 -- became the first volunteers recruited for the study. Despite the protracted nature of the process, it paved the way for other vaccine candidates to enter Uganda with minimal resistance, in an environment with the necessary infrastructure and level of community preparedness. Uganda now has an HIV Vaccine Preparedness Plan and, while the ALVAC trial ended successfully in 2001, three other vaccine candidates have already found their way into the country. (excerpt)
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  7. 7

    Children and AIDS: an impending calamity.

    United Nations Children's Fund [UNICEF]

    New York, New York, United Nations Children's Fund [UNICEF], 1990. 24 p.

    In some parts of Africa, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has infected between 1/5 and 1/4 of otherwise healthy adults of reproductive age. This is a calamity. Those who are fighting AIDS in Africa believe that changes in behavior are the only way to stop the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). WHO estimates that already 6.5 million people are infected; at least 2 million are women. By the year 2000, there will be 6 million AIDS cases. The UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) has been fighting to protect children and women from AIDS since 1987. Looked at here is the predicament of children and women in 3rd world countries. Also, the damage that AIDS is doing to families and communities and the need to contain it are discussed. Most AIDS cases in children are perinatal in origin. Barrier contraception is important in preventing the spread of AIDS. Deliberate family planning (FP) with modern contraceptive methods is unusual in most low-income African communities. Women frequently have less access to medical services than do men. The number of AIDS orphans is already beginning to affect family life. UNICEF estimates that worldwide 30 million children spend most of their time on the streets. They are then ripe for getting AIDS. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are being formed in response to AIDS. The primary health care structure is important for counselling and health education. During 1990 UNICEF plans to spend over US $6 million on special AIDS projects in Africa and almost US $2 million on global projects and projects elsewhere. In many countries UNICEF has helped develop information and education materials. UNICEF wants to reach young people. In Tanzania, workshops have been held to improve the accuracy of data given about AIDS.
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  8. 8

    More people: less earth. The shadow of man-kind.

    Maguire DC

    In: Ethics for a small planet: new horizons on population, consumption, and ecology, [by] Daniel C. Maguire and Larry L. Rasmussen. Albany, New York, State University of New York Press, 1998. 1-63. (SUNY Series in Religious Studies)

    This essay on population, consumption, and ecology, opens with a short review of the crisis caused by overpopulation and the inequitable distribution of resources. This discussion is then amplified by a close look at conditions and responses to these conditions in Egypt, China, and the Indian state of Kerala and at the six most common interrelated problems that threaten our existence: maldistribution, the perversion of national governments into the service of the elite, unfair distributional patterns protected by a military support system, male dominance, indifference, and a lack of reproductive health services. Next, the essay considers the role of government and ways to achieve freedom of reproductive choices while reducing birth rates. The remainder of the essay is devoted to a consideration of the role of religions in the next millennium; the prospects for religious revolution and renaissance; the nature of religion and of God, whether God exists; the experience of the sacred; the relationship of ethics and religion; the incongruity of a sacramental, monotheistic view of God with the violence of nature; the maleness of the God-symbol; the "posthumous egoism" that seeks an afterlife and views the earth as a mere stopping-off place on the journey; and the need for religion, as a sense of the sacred, to fuel the cultural revolution needed to solve the planet's problems. The essay concludes that, despite the fact that the apocalypse is reality for much of the world, hope remains and was palpable during the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development.
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  9. 9

    [Family planning associations and AIDS] Les associations de planification familiale et le Sida.

    Eugene KC

    In: Approches de planification familiale en Afrique: bilan et perspectives, sous la direction de Mohammed Bouzidi, Helmut Gorgen, Richard Turkson, Londres, Juillet 1992. London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], 1992. 83-91.

    AIDS is a disease and should be treated as such. But the idea of AIDS induces psychological discomfort that can manifest itself in various ways. Family planning associations are urgently called upon to occupy themselves with problems of AIDS because of their interest in family welfare and their closeness to the intimate aspects of life. In 1987 the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) began a program to assist family planning associations in combatting AIDS. The program required training in all aspects of AIDS and the creation and maintenance of a system to gather and disseminate information on AIDS prevention through condom use and sex education directed to various target groups. Rather than creating new vertical programs devoted to AIDS, strategies were integrated into traditional family planning programs. Some technical structures such as the AIDS prevention unit were created to coordinate regional programs. The Unit has produced educational materials and audiovisual supports on AIDS prevention and reproductive and sexual health in several languages. In 1989 the IPPF African Region was provided with two programs to stimulate and coordinate technical assistance to family planning associations. An English-language program is based in Nairobi and a french-language program is based in Lome, Togo. Assistance to family planning associations is organized around identification of needs, formulation of requests, and implementation of activities related to training, production of IEC materials, and evaluation. The question of AIDS prevention in Africa still lacks an organizing philosophy. For various reasons many individuals with confirmed positive tests are not informed of the results. A goal of the IPPf is to provide information directly and indirectly to target groups to reinforce their power in the process of sexual and affective negotiation. The obstacles and constraints faced by family planning associations and their programs result from the choice of preventive strategy. It is important that family planning associations develop their own strategies as a function of their priorities and plans in the area of IEC. Clients must be made aware of the need to use condoms and to modify their sexual and affective behavior to assure better sexual and reproductive health. The IEC strategy must be based on interpersonal communications and adapted to the specific circumstances of each community.
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  10. 10

    The evolution of policy on fertility in Tanzania: drawing on, and influence of international experience.

    Kamuzora CL

    In: Population policy in Sub-Saharan Africa: drawing on international experience. Papers presented at the seminar organized by the IUSSP Committee on Policy and Population, in Kinshasa, Zaire, 27 February - 2 March 1989 / Echanges d'experiences internationales en matiere de politique de population en Afrique au Sud du Sahara. Communications presentees au seminaire organise par la Commission des Politiques Demographiques de l'UIESP, a Kinshasa, Zaire, 27 fevrier - 2 mars 1989. Liege, Belgium, International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP], 1989. 333-60.

    The idea of adoption of population policies globally was associated with the unprecedented high population growth rates of over 2.5%/annum in most underdeveloped countries after World War II. The goal of Tanzania's population policy is to facilitate economic recovery. The policy, rooted in the Coale-Hoover model, is not viable because of the unrealistic assumptions of the model: 1) internal and international economic structures are not conducive to savings and their translation into investments; 2) old-age structures resulting from fertility decline do not bode well for a labor-intensive economy like that of Tanzania if economic expansion has to take place; and 3) no clear and consistent relationship between population and economic growth has been empirically observed. The evolution of population policy in Tanzania went through 2 significant phases: 1) opposition to family planning which was a spontaneous response to problems of socioeconomic development including maternal and child health and rural-urban migration; 2) the change toward working for an explicit population policy with central focus on reduction of population growth rate and fertility limitation. Since the mid-1980s efforts were exerted to reduce the population growth rate from the 1967-78 estimate of an annual 3.2-2.5% by reducing the total fertility rate from about 7.0 to 4.0. From the start of the new phase, a UN Population Fund project, executed by the International Labor Organization, was established in the Ministry of Finance, Economic Affairs and Planning to organize a Population Planning Unit. The main activities of the project have been population awareness seminars and coordination of the activities of the National Population Committee that drew up proposals on population problems.
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  11. 11

    AIDS and blood transfusions: ensuring safe blood supplies.

    Finger WR

    NETWORK. 1990 Apr; 11(2):5-7,20.

    Safe and adequate blood supplies are needed, especially in high Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevalence rate areas. Tests for HIV are available in most developing countries today. Much virus screening is taking place. The best way to control HIV's transmission is to establish a blood transfusion system (BTS). Proper storage, distribution, collection, and testing of blood must be done. Trained technicians and appropriate criteria for using transfusions should be included in any BTS. Establishing a central BTS requires much money and the national government must be committed to it. In 1988, WHO started the Global Blood Safety Initiative (GBSI) in conjunction with others. It's objective is to support integrated BTSs in all countries. 8 countries have been chosen for priorities, to develop BTSs. GBSI is also working in other countries to train technicians, get blood donors, and prevent HIV infections. A major problem in most developing countries is adequate blood supplies. In rural areas, many transfusions come from family members. Blood can be screened, and results given in 10-15 minutes. Large city hospitals can use ELISH HIV testing. It requires a 1-day wait for results but costs < the faster tests. Paid donors do not like blood screening, because it may lead to loss of income. Large countries need to use testing facilities in different regions. But smaller ones can use a centralized system, if they have good transportation. In November, 1989 a workshop was held in Yaounde, the capital of Cameroon, to set up appropriate blood transfusion guidelines. 45 physicians and blood bank managers took part. 9 of the 10 provinces were represented. The conference concluded that the number of transfusions should be reduced, and volunteer donors should be sought. In February, 1990 more than 700 Romanian children had been infected with HIV. This may have been caused by injecting adult blood into young babies who appear anemic. This is known as microtransfusion and health officials have banned it.
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  12. 12

    Population and development in the Sahel: the challenges of rapid population growth.

    Institut du Sahel. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur la Population pour le Developpement [CERPOD]

    Bamako, Mali, CERPOD, 1989. 20 p.

    The 9 countries in the Sahel that are members of the Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel (CILSS) are Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Chad, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Mali, Mauritania, Niger and Senegal. This booklet describes the historical and socio economic background of the CILSS countries and discusses the actual demographic situation, the dismal development problems that the region faces partly due to colonial policies and more recently to the World Bank's structural adjustment policies. A major constraint is that the economy has not developed fast enough to keep up with the rapidly growing population, especially since 46% of all Sahelians are under age 15. The population for the Sahel is estimated at 40 million making-up 7% of Africa's total population; the total fertility rate is 6.5; the growth rate is 3% and doubling the 23 years; the crude birth rate is 47.3/1000; life expectancy is 48.5 and the crude death rate is 17.4/1000; life expectancy is 49, 3 years the average in Africa of 52; infant mortality in 1988 was 143/1000 compared to the world-wide average of 75/1000; child mortality exceeds the infant mortality rate. The population of the Sahel is mostly rural with only Senegal having 40% of its population living in major cities. The least urban countries are Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger where the urban populations represent less that 1.4 of the total. However, if the present trends continue the capitals of the Sahelian countries will continue to grow and expand because of migration from the rural areas. In 1989 the Council of Ministers of CILSS adopted "the N'Djamena Plan of Action on Population and Development in the Sahel" recommending that countries adopt population policies that integrate development issues. In 1988 Senegal was the 1st and only country to adopt an explicit population policy.
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  13. 13

    The effect of economic change on gender roles: the case of Tanzania.

    Swantz ML

    Development. 1988; (2-3):93-6.

    25-40% of households in East Africa are female-headed because women are either single, divorced, widows or made responsible for their families; there are other cases where women are de facto principal supporters of their families in spite of men retaining positions as figure heads. In Tanzania, unlike other African countries, the country has begun to prosper as a result of the structural adjustment policies of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. This article discusses 3 major points: 1) that the rapid social and economic changes have not been communicated to the majority of people causing resistance to new policies; 2) the changing role of women in a Tanzania with a stronger economy; and 3) the need for donor agencies to respond positively to people's self-reliance and initiation of new projects.
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  14. 14

    Cape Verde.

    Pereira AM

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 32.

    The government of Cape Verde believes that the 1984 World Population Conference is a fine example of understanding between nations working to solve a problem which affects them all. It is this realization of a common problem which led to the 1st World Population Conference: the subsequent drafting of the 1974 Plan of Action; and the establishment of a 2nd Conference to deal with discussing results from the implementation of the 1974 Plan of Action. Since its independence, the government of Cape Verde has worked to implement various population programs in addition to conducting the 1st national census by computer. Of primary concern to the government of Cape Verde is the discussion of population problems--population growth, fertility and birth rates--which affects the society of Cape Verde. The government expects that the Conference will be beneficial to all involved.
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  15. 15


    Habre H

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 34.

    The government of Chad would like to join other nations in expressing its statements on population problems. The nation of Chad has been affected by drought, decertification, and war; these problems have only worked to exacerbate population problems. Factors such as malnutrition, famine, and human mortality have led to mass emigration from rural to urban areas and particularly the capital of Chad, N'Djamena. The results have been an increase in the population from 300,000 in 1978 to 500,000 in 1984. The United Nations has assisted the government of Chad in implementing social programs. However, to deal with problems at both the national and international level, cooperation is needed between members of the international community. The government of Chad welcomes any recommendations made during the 1984 World Conference.
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  16. 16


    Sassou-Nguesso D

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 41.

    The demographic and social policy of the government of the Congo looks to improve the living conditions of its people. All of the programs implemented by the government look to improve the living conditions of the people in the following ways: decreasing maternal and infant mortality rates; decreasing illiteracy rates by providing compulsory education for all; improving family health care; and improving population distribution by creating villages and developing urban areas. To insure that these policies will succeed the government has implemented measures which will open up access to the country's interior, improve communications, and provide and implement programs that will adequately collect statistical data. The government hopes that this measures will provide conditions which will help individuals achieve personal fulfillment.
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  17. 17

    Ivory Coast.

    Houphouet-Boigny F

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 87-8.

    Solid population research, including regional and national surveys on fertility, mortality, and migration, has provided a foundation for development planning in the Ivory Coast. The population growth rate has risen from 3.6/year in the 1965-75 period to 4.3%/year since 1975. The birth rate is over 50/1000 and the fertility rate is 17/1000. The overall rate of population growth has been intensified by immigration, which has increased from 75,000 individuals/year in 1965-75 to a current level of 94,000 individuals/year. If current trends continue, aliens will comprise 30% of the country's population by 1990. Another trend has been widespread rural-urban migration. The rate of population growth in rural areas of the Ivory Coast was 1.8% in 1975-80, while that in urban areas was 8.8%. Rural development has been severely affected by a shortage of young men in the north and the savannah. The city of Abidjan holds 20% of the country's total population and half of the urban population. Another salient demographic feature is the young age profile of the population: 43% of current inhabitants are under 15 years of age. Improvements in the physical, social, economic, and psychological well-being of the Ivory Coast population require continued attention to modification of existing demographic trends through research-based population planning.
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  18. 18


    Obote AM

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 160.

    The increase in the world's population and the demand for social facilities such as health, education, and employment opportunities places an ever greater importance on the implementation of population policy programmes. The government of Uganda, faced with having to deal with population control while combatting national and international factors, has responded by implementing daring economic measures. The national policy is now concerned with a recovery initiative aimed at improving the rural and urban sectors.
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  19. 19

    United Republic of Tanzania.

    Nyerere JK

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 166-7.

    It is necessary for governments to address the population problems with an increased sense of urgency. Population issues have a direct effect on socioeconomic development. Despite increased implementation of health programmes, countries in Africa, namely Tanzania, are still being crippled by widespread disease. Lack of modern facilities and conveniences contribute to debilitating conditions found in the rural areas. Effective population policies are needed to deal with increasing poverty. However, it is very difficult for governments experiencing political instability to divert funds from law and order forces to programmes designed to improve the quality of life. The government of Tanzania emphasizes the importance of rural development programmes designed to stem the flow of internal migration to urban areas. The government has stressed that any population programmes implemented will have to deal with health care facilities and education.
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  20. 20

    Upper Volta.

    Sankara T

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 169.

    Interests in population issues has increased in recent years. At both the national and international levels, conferences have been held and population programmes implemented. The government of Upper Volta has paid close attention to population problems in an attempt to improve the quality of life for its people. Population growth rates have never been of any great concern to the government of Upper Volta, primarily due to a high rate of emigration. However, the government is at present trying to find economic alternatives to deal with mass emigration. The government is also trying to speed up urban development, improve education, improve health care, and family planning policies. The government hopes to work closely with other governments dealing with population problems.
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  21. 21


    Kaunda KD

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 177-8.

    The government of Zambia has begun to concern itself with improving the living conditions of its people. Since the Bucharest Population Conference, countries in Africa have experienced a growth in population, in addition to declines in its various economies. The population of Zambia increased at a rate of 3.1% between 1969-1980. If this trend continues, the population will double in 23 years. Thus, the government seeks to implement population programmes which will deal with the rising population variables, while introducing programs which will stimulate economic growth. It is the policy of the government to provide free education, provide free health services, and work to improve the status of women in its society.
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  22. 22


    Mugabe RG

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 179.

    The government of Zimbabwe has taken into account the seriousness of population factors on socioeconomic development. The government has taken care to include various population programs in its National Development Plans. Independence for Zimbabwe heralded problems with insufficient demographic and socioeconomic data. The government in 1982, implemented its 1st census, followed by a national survey on Zimbabwean households. Present day population programs deal with data collection and provision of family planning and population awareness programs. Zimbabwe shares population problems similar to other developing countries: internal and external migration; high mortality and morbidity rates; and the low status of women. In response to these, the government has implemented various population programmes dealing with health care, family planning, and creating equity in all facets of society. The government of Zimbabwe recognizes and endorses the principles of national sovereignty and respect for the rights of individuals, as outlined in the World Population Plan of Action.
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  23. 23


    Barre MS

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 145.

    The government of Somalia is committed to improving the quality of life for its people. It stresses the importance of improving the health and nutrition of both mother and child in its attempt to quell rising maternal and infant morbidity and mortality rates. The health programmes implemented by the Somalian government will stress the importance of child spacing to insure both the health of mother and child. In addition to this, the government hopes to implement programmes which will encourage a pattern of population distribution throughout its sparsely populated country.
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  24. 24


    Nimeri GM

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 149-50.

    The population of the Sudan, according to a 1983 census was 22 million. The Sudan, the largest country in Africa, has experienced high population growth. The population in 1955 was 10.3 million, and it has doubled in the space of 27 years. The population growth rate was figured at 2.8%/year, indicating that the population will double again in the next 25 years. The government of the Sudan has to deal with strains on services consumer goods caused by 50% of the population being under the age of 15. Internal and external immigration produce strains on the Sudanese workforce, cities and government resources. The primary concern of the Sudanese government in its National Population Policy programmes, is to balance the population and other facts of the Sudanese community, namely manpower size. The government is an attempt to understanding changing population variables, plans the following: to conduct a census on the population every 10 years; give consideration in its programs to the protection of the family; and to give special attention to women, in both an economic and political capacity.
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  25. 25


    Kerekou M

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 18-9.

    The population of Benin is 3.8 million inhabitants spread over an area of 112,600 kilometers. The population is growing at an annual average of 2.7%, in 26 years it will be double what it is today. The government of Benin realizing the effect of demographic factors on the economic and social development have included population policies in their national programmes. Results of statistical surveys conducted by the government are as follows: despite the importance accorded health care in the national budget, there has been a rise in infant mortality rates; and massive migration from rural to urban areas in addition, to the migration of young Beninese men to other countries. Lack of reliable statistical resources has forced the government to include in its national program the creation of 2 institutions under the auspices of the Ministry of Planning, Statistics and Economic Analysis (MPSAE) and the National Institute of Statistics and Economic Analysis (INSAE). The government also looks to create a family welfare project to improve maternal and child health and implement a research project which will consider the problems which exist in implementing sex education in all schools.
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