Your search found 12 Results
AIDS. 2016 Nov 28; 30(18):2865-2873.OBJECTIVE: In 2015, the WHO recommended initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in all HIV-positive patients regardless of CD4 cell count. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of immediate versus deferred ART initiation among patients with CD4 cell counts exceeding 500cells/mul in four resource-limited countries (South Africa, Nigeria, Uganda, and India). DESIGN: A 5-year Markov model with annual cycles, including patients at CD4 cell counts more than 500 cells/mul initiating ART or deferring therapy until historic ART initiation criteria of CD4 cell counts more than 350 cells/mul were met. METHODS: The incidence of opportunistic infections, malignancies, cardiovascular disease, unscheduled hospitalizations, and death, were informed by the START trial results. Risk of HIV transmission was obtained from a systematic review. Disability weights were based on published literature. Cost inputs were inflated to 2014 US dollars and based on local sources. Results were expressed in cost per disability-adjusted life years averted and measured against WHO cost-effectiveness thresholds. RESULTS: Immediate initiation of ART is associated with a cost per disability-adjusted life years averted of -$317 [95% confidence interval (CI): -$796-$817] in South Africa; -$507 (95% CI: -$765-$837) in Nigeria; -$136 (-$382-$459) in Uganda; and -$78 (-$256-$374) in India. The results are largely driven by the impact of ART on reducing the risk of new HIV transmissions. CONCLUSIONS: In HIV-positive patients with CD4 counts above 500 cells/mul in the four studied countries, immediate initiation of ART versus deferred therapy until historic eligibility criteria are met is cost-effective and likely even cost-saving over time.
Do countries rely on the World Health Organization for translating research findings into clinical guidelines? A case study.
Globalization and Health. 2016 Oct 6; 12(1):58.BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization's (WHO) antiretroviral therapy (ART) guidelines have generally been adopted rapidly and with high fidelity by countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Thus far, however, WHO has not published specific guidance on nutritional care and support for (non-pregnant) adults living with HIV despite a solid evidence base for some interventions. This offers an opportunity for a case study on whether national clinical guidelines in sub-Saharan Africa provide concrete recommendations in the face of limited guidance by WHO. This study, therefore, aims to determine if national HIV treatment guidelines in sub-Saharan Africa contain specific guidance on nutritional care and support for non-pregnant adults living with HIV. METHODS: We identified the most recent national HIV treatment guidelines in sub-Saharan African countries with English as an official language. Using pre-specified criteria, we determined for each guideline whether it provides guidance to clinicians on each of five components of nutritional care and support for adults living with HIV: assessment of nutritional status, dietary counseling, micronutrient supplementation, ready-to-use therapeutic or supplementary foods, and food subsidies. RESULTS: We found that national HIV treatment guidelines in sub-Saharan Africa generally do not contain concrete recommendations on nutritional care and support for non-pregnant adults living with HIV. CONCLUSIONS: Given that decisions on nutritional care and support are inevitably being made at the clinician-patient level, and that clinicians have a relative disadvantage in systematically identifying, summarizing, and weighing up research evidence compared to WHO and national governments, there is a need for more specific clinical guidance. In our view, such guidance should at a minimum recommend daily micronutrient supplements for adults living with HIV who are in pre-ART stages, regular dietary counseling, periodic assessment of anthropometric status, and additional nutritional management of undernourished patients. More broadly, our findings suggest that countries in sub-Saharan Africa look to WHO for guidance in translating evidence into clinical guidelines. It is, thus, likely that the development of concrete recommendations by WHO on nutritional interventions for people living with HIV would lead to more specific guidelines at the country-level and, ultimately, better clinical decisions and treatment outcomes.
Oral Diseases. 2016 Apr; 22 Suppl 1:42-5.Four million people of the global total of 35 million with HIV infection are from South-East Asia. ART is currently utilized by 15 million people and has led to a dramatic decline in the mortality rate, including those in low- and middle-income countries. A reduction in sexually transmitted HIV and in comorbidities including tuberculosis has also followed. Current recommendations for the initiation of antiretroviral therapy in people who are HIV+ are essentially to initiate ART irrespective of CD4 cell count and clinical stage. The frequency of HIV testing should be culturally specific and based on the HIV incidence in different key populations but phasing in viral load technology in LMIC is an urgent priority and this needs resources and capacity. With the availability of simplified potent ART regimens, persons with HIV now live longer. The recent WHO treatment guidelines recommending routine HIV testing and earlier initiation of treatment should be the stepping stone for ending the AIDS epidemic and to meet the UNAIDS mission of 90*90*90. (c) 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
[HIV-1 resistance to antiretroviral drugs in pregnant women from Buenos Aires metropolitan area] Resistencia de HIV-1 a drogas antirretrovirales en gestantes del area Metropolitana de Buenos Aires.
Medicina. 2016; 76(6):349-354.The study aimed to determine the prevalence of antiretroviral resistance associated mutations in HIV-1 infected pregnant woman treated in Buenos Aires metropolitan area (period 2008-2014). A total of 136 women with viral load = 500 copies/ml were included: 77 (56.6%) were treatment-naive and 59 (43.4%) were antiretroviral-experienced patients either with current (n: 24) or previous (n = 35) antiretroviral therapy. Genotypic baseline resistance was investigated in plasma of antiretroviral-naive patients and antiretroviral-experienced patients. The resistance mutations were identified according to the lists of the World Health Organization and the International Antiviral Society, respectively. Frequencies of resistance associated mutations detected in 2008-2011 and 2012-2014 were compared. A total of 37 (27.2%) women presented at least one resistance associated mutation: 25/94 (26.5%) in 2008-2011 and 12/42 (28.5%) in 2012-2014 (p > 0.05). Among naives, 15 (19.5%) had at least one mutation: 10/49 (20.4%) in the period 2008-2011 and 5/28 (17.8%) in 2012-2014 (p > 0.05). The resistance mutations detected in naives were associated with non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, being K103N the most common mutation in both periods. In antiretroviral experienced patients, 22/59 (37.3%) had at least one resistance mutation. This study demonstrates a high frequency of resistance associated mutations which remained stable in the period analyzed. These levels suggest an increased circulation of HIV-1 antiretroviral resistant strains in our setting compared to previous reports from Argentina.
Potential impact of multiple interventions on HIV incidence in a hyperendemic region in Western Kenya: a modelling study.
BMC Infectious Diseases. 2016 Apr 29; 16:189.BACKGROUND: Multiple prevention interventions, including early antiretroviral therapy initiation, may reduce HIV incidence in hyperendemic settings. Our aim was to predict the short-term impact of various single and combined interventions on HIV spreading in the adult population of Ndhiwa subcounty (Nyanza Province, Kenya). METHODS: A mathematical model was used with data on adults (15-59 years) from the Ndhiwa HIV Impact in Population Survey to compare the impacts on HIV prevalence, HIV incidence rate, and population viral load suppression of various interventions. These interventions included: improving the cascade of care (use of three guidelines), increasing voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC), and implementing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use among HIV-uninfected women. RESULTS: After four years, improving separately the cascade of care under the WHO 2013 guidelines and under the treat-all strategy would reduce the overall HIV incidence rate by 46 and 58 %, respectively, vs. the baseline rate, and by 35 and 49 %, respectively, vs. the implementation of the current Kenyan guidelines. With conservative and optimistic scenarios, VMMC and PrEP would reduce the HIV incidence rate by 15-25 % and 22-28 % vs. the baseline, respectively. Combining the WHO 2013 guidelines with VMMC would reduce the HIV incidence rate by 35-56 % and combining the treat-all strategy with VMMC would reduce it by 49-65 %. Combining the WHO 2013 guidelines, VMMC, and PrEP would reduce the HIV incidence rate by 46-67 %. CONCLUSIONS: The impacts of the WHO 2013 guidelines and the treat-all strategy were relatively close; their implementation is desirable to reduce HIV spread. Combining several strategies is promising in adult populations of hyperendemic areas but requires regular, reliable, and costly monitoring.
Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine. 2016; 17(1): p.Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) HIV treatment guidelines have been used by various countries to revise their national guidelines. Our study discusses the national policy response to the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa and quantifies delays in adopting the WHO guidelines published in 2009, 2013 and 2015. Methods: From the Internet, health authorities and experts, and community members, we collected 59 published HIV guidelines from 33 countries in the sub-Saharan African region, and abstracted dates of publication and antiretroviral therapy (ART) eligibility criteria. For these 33 countries, representing 97% regional HIV burden in 2015, the number of months taken to adopt the WHO 2009, 2013 and/or 2015 guidelines were calculated to determine the average delay in months needed to publish revised national guidelines. Findings: Of the 33 countries, 3 (6% regional burden) are recommending ART according to the WHO 2015 guidelines (irrespective of CD4 count); 19 (65% regional burden) are recommending ART according to the WHO 2013 guidelines (CD4 count = 500 cells/mm3); and 11 (26% regional burden) according to the WHO 2009 guidelines (CD4 count = 350 cells/mm3). The average time lag to WHO 2009 guidelines adoption in 33 countries was 24 (range 3–56) months. The 22 that have adopted the WHO 2013 guidelines took an average of 10 (range 0–36) months, whilst the three countries that adopted the WHO 2015 guidelines took an average of 8 (range 7–9) months. Conclusion: There is an urgent need to shorten the time lag in adopting and implementing the new WHO guidelines recommending ‘treatment for all’ to achieve the 90-90-90 targets.
Prevalence of Malnutrition and Associated Factors among Hospitalized Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia.
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences. 2016 May; 26(3):217-26.BACKGROUND: HIV/AIDS predisposes to malnutrition. Malnutrition exacerbates HIV/AIDS progression resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. The magnitude of malnutrition in HIV/AIDS patients has not been well studied in Ethiopian setup. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of malnutrition and associated factors among HIV/AIDS patients admitted to Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH). METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the nutritional status of 109 HIV/AIDS patients admitted from November 2013 to July 2014. Cohort design was also used for outcome assessment. Serum levels of hemoglobin, albumin and CD4 counts were determined. Data were organized, coded, cleaned, entered into a computer and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Descriptive analysis was done initially. Those variables in the bivariate analysis with P-value < 0.25 were then considered as candidates to be included in the multivariable logistic regression model. A P-vale of < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 32.7+/-8.12 with male to female ratio of 1:1.9. Patients were in either clinical stage, 3(46.8%), or stage, 4(53.2%). Forty nine (45%) of the respondents had a CD4 count of < 200 cells/microL. The overall prevalence of malnutrition was 46.8% (BMI<18.5kg/m2) and 44.1% (MUAC= 20cm). Eighty four (77.1%) of the patients had a serum albumin level of =3.5g/dl while 76 (69.6%) of the patients had anemia (Hg<12g/dl). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of malnutrition was found to be high. WHO Stage 4 disease and CD4 count <200cells/microl were independent predictors of malnutrition.
[Quality of life and its related factors among HIV/AIDS patients from HIV serodiscordant couples in Zhoukou of Henan province].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]. 2016 Apr; 50(4):339-45.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the quality of life and its related factors among HIV/AIDS patients from HIV serodiscordant couples in Zhoukou city of Henan province. METHODS: During January to May in 2015, by the convenience sample, World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire for Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF) (Chinese version) and a self-edited questionnaire were used to investigate 1 251 HIV/AIDS patients who were confirmed with HIV positive by local CDC, registered in"HIV serodiscordant family" and agreed to participate in a face-to-face interview with above 18 year-old based on the local CDC , township hospitals and village clinics of 9 counties and 1 district of Zhoukou city, excluding the HIV/AIDS patients who were in divorce, death by one side, unknowing about his HIV status, with mental illness and disturbance of consciousness, incorrectly understanding the content of the questionnaire, and reluctant to participate in this study. The scores of quality of life of physical, psychological, social relations, and environmental domain were calculated. The related factors of the scores of different domains were analyzed by Multiple Two Classification Unconditioned Logistic Regression. RESULTS: The scores of investigation objects in the physical, psychological, social relations, and environmental domain were 12.00+/- 2.02, 12.07 +/- 2.07, 11.87 +/- 1.99, and 11.09 +/- 1.84, respectively. The multiple Unconditioned Logistic Regression analysis indicated that age <40 years, on ART and no other sickness in last two weeks were beneficial factors associated with physical domain with OR (95%CI): 0.61 (0.35-1.06), 0.52 (0.30-0.90), and 1.66 (1.09-2.52), respectively. The possibility of no poverty and no other sickness in last two weeks increased to 0.15(0.09-0.26) and 1.57(1.06-2.33) times of those who was in poverty and with other sickness in last two weeks in physical domain. The possibility of participants who were below 40 years old and with children increased to 0.58 (0.34-0.98) and 0.37 (0.23-0.57) times of who were above 40 years old and without children in psychological domain. The factors of with AIDS related symptoms, no children and with other sickness in last two week were found to be significantly associated with environmental domain with OR (95%CI): 0.65 (0.48-0.88), 0.66 (0.51-0.85), and 0.65 (0.51-0.84), respectively . CONCLUSION: The scores of every domain of quality of life in HIV serodiscordant couples of Zhoukou city were good. Age, whether having AIDS related symptoms, whether to accept ART , children, status of poverty, and whether suffering from other diseases in last two weeks were the main factors associated with the quality of life.
Breastmilk Output in a Disadvantaged Community with High HIV Prevalence as Determined by the Deuterium Oxide Dose-to-Mother Technique.
Breastfeeding Medicine. 2016 Mar; 11(2):64-9.INTRODUCTION: World Health Organization breastfeeding guidelines for HIV-infected mothers are exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months and then continued breastfeeding for 12 months, provided the mother is receiving antiretroviral prophylaxis. Many African women perceive that breastmilk alone is not sufficient for their infant's nutritional requirements for the first 6 months of life, and mixed feeding is a common practice. METHODOLOGY: A stable isotope technique was used to determine breastmilk output volumes and maternal body composition objectively at five different time points in the first year of the infant's life. RESULTS: Breastmilk output volumes were high for HIV-infected mothers: 831 +/- 185 g/day at 6 weeks; 899 +/- 188 g/day at 3 months; 871 +/- 293 g/day at 6 months; 679 +/- 281 g/day at 9 months; and 755 +/- 287 g/day at 12 months. These high output volumes had no negative impact on the mother's fat-free mass. The breastmilk output volumes for HIV-uninfected mothers were not significantly different to the outputs for HIV-infected mothers at any of the time points (p > 0.05): 948 +/- 223 g/day at 6 weeks; 925 +/- 227 g/day at 3 months; 902 +/- 286 g/day at 6 months; 746 +/- 263 g/day at 9 months; and 713 +/- 264 g/day at 12 months. CONCLUSION: This study using objective methodology shows that breastmilk outputs of HIV-infected mothers were relatively high (and within published reference ranges), and mothers are able to provide sufficient breastmilk for their infants without compromising their own fat-free mass.
Assessing the impact of defining a global priority research agenda to address HIV-associated tuberculosis.
Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2016 Nov; 21(11):1420-1427.Objectives In 2010, the WHO issued 77 priority research questions (PRQs) to address HIV-associated TB. Objective of the this study was to assess the impact of defining the research agenda in stimulating and directing research around priority research questions. Methods We used number and type of scientific publications as a proxy to quantitatively assess the impact of research agenda setting. We conducted 77 single systematic reviews -one for every PRQ -building 77 different search strategies using PRQs’ keywords. Multivariate logistic regression models were applied to assess the quantity and quality of research produced over time and accounting for selected covariates. Results In 2009-2015, PRQs were addressed by 1631 publications (median: 11 studies published per PRQ, range 1-96). The most published area was ‘Intensified TB case finding’ (median: 23 studies/PRQ, range: 2-74). The majority (62.1%, n = 1013) were published as original studies, and more than half (58%, n = 585) were conducted in the African region. Original studies’ publication increased over the study period (P trend = <0.001). They focused more on the ‘Intensified TB case finding’ (OR = 2.17, 95% CI: 1.56-2.93) and ‘Drug-resistant TB and HIV infection’ (OR = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.47-3.06) areas than non-original studies. Original studies were published in journals of lower impact factor and received a smaller number of citations than non-original studies (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.42-0.69). Conclusion The generation of evidence to address PRQs has increased over time particularly in selected fields. Setting a priority research agenda for HIV-associated TB might have positively influenced the direction and the conduct of research and contributed to the global response to such a major threat to health.
Guideline: Updates on HIV and infant feeding. The duration of breastfeeding and support from health services to improve feeding practices among mothers living with HIV.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2016.  p.The objective of this guideline is to improve the HIV-free survival of HIV-exposed infants by providing guidance on appropriate infant feeding practices and use of ARV drugs for mothers living with HIV and by updating WHO-related tools and training materials. The guideline is intended mainly for countries with high HIV prevalence and settings in which diarrhoea, pneumonia and undernutrition are common causes of infant and child mortality. However, it may also be relevant to settings with a low prevalence of HIV depending on the background rates and causes of infant and child mortality. This guideline aims to help Member States and their partners in their efforts to make informed decisions on the appropriate nutrition actions to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals, the global targets set in the comprehensive implementation plan on maternal, infant and young child nutrition, the Global Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health (2016-2030) and the Global Health Sector Strategy on Sexually Transmitted Infections 2016-2021. The target audience for this guideline includes: (1) national policy-makers in health ministries; (2) programme managers working in child health, essential drugs and health worker training; (3) health-care providers, researchers and clinicians providing services to pregnant women and mothers living with HIV at various levels of health care; and (4) development partners providing financial and/or technical support for child health programmes, including those in conflict and emergency settings. (Excerpt)
Implementation and Operational Research: Implementation of the WHO 2011 Recommendations for Isoniazid Preventive Therapy (IPT) in Children Living With HIV/AIDS: A Ugandan Experience.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2016 Jan 1; 71(1):e1-8.BACKGROUND: Intensified tuberculosis (TB) case finding and isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) are strongly recommended for children who are HIV infected. Data are needed to assess the feasibility of the WHO 2011 intensified tuberculosis case finding/IPT clinical algorithm. METHODS: Children who are HIV infected and attending Nsambya Home Care at Nsambya Hospital, Uganda, were screened for TB following WHO recommendations. IPT was given for 6 months after excluding TB. Factors associated with time to IPT initiation were investigated by multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression. Health care workers were interviewed on reasons for delay in IPT initiation. RESULTS: Among the 899 (49% male) children with HIV, 529 (58.8%) were screened for TB from January 2011 to February 2013. Children with active TB were 36/529 (6.8%), 24 (4.5%) were lost to follow-ups and 280 (52.9%) started IPT, 86/280 (30.7%) within 3 months of TB screening and 194/280 (69.3%) thereafter. Among the 529 children screened for TB, longer time to IPT initiation was independently associated with cough at TB screening (hazard ratio 0.62, P = 0.02, 95% confidence interval: 0.41 to 0.94). Four children (1% of those starting treatments) interrupted IPT because of a 5-fold increase in liver function measurements. In the survey, Health care workers reported poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy, poor attendance to periodic HIV follow-ups, and pill burden as the 3 main reasons to delay IPT. CONCLUSION: In resource-constrained settings, considerable delays in IPT initiation may occur, particularly in children with HIV who are presenting with cough at TB screening. The good safety profile of isoniazid in antiretroviral-therapy-experienced children provides further support to IPT implementation in this population.