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  1. 1
    322025

    The practice of charging user fees at the point of service delivery for HIV / AIDS treatment and care.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2005 Dec. [4] p. (WHO Discussion Paper; WHO/HIV/2005.11)

    The global movement to expand access to antiretroviral treatment for people living with HIV/AIDS as part of a comprehensive response to the HIV pandemic is grounded in both the human right to health and in evidence on public-health outcomes. However, for many individuals in poor communities, the cost of treatment remains an insurmountable obstacle. Even with sliding fee scales, cost recovery at the point of service delivery is likely to depress uptake of antiretroviral treatment and decrease adherence by those already receiving it. Therefore, countries are being advised to adopt a policy of free access at the point of service delivery to HIV care and treatment, including antiretroviral therapy. This recommendation is based on the best available evidence and experience in countries. It is warranted as an element of the exceptional response needed to turn back the AIDS epidemic. With the endorsement by G8 leaders in July 2005 and UN Member States in September 2005 of efforts to move towards universal access to HIV treatment and care by 2010, health sector financing strategies must now move to the top of the international agenda. Rapid scale-up of programmes within the framework of the "3 by 5" target has underscored the challenge of equity, particularly for marginalized and rural populations. It is apparent that user charges at the point of service delivery "institutionalize exclusion" and undermine efforts towards universal access to health services. Abolishing them, however, requires prompt, sustained attention to long-term health system financing strategies, at both national and international levels. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    320923

    “3 by 5” progress report, December 2004.

    World Health Organization [WHO]; Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2005. 64 p.

    In an effort to keep abreast of rapid changes in the landscape of the HIV pandemic, WHO and UNAIDS report semiannually on progress toward "3 by 5". The first update was presented at the XV International AIDS Conference in Bangkok, Thailand, in July 2004. This second report measures progress made by countries and describes how international partners are supporting their efforts. In addition, it summarizes how the building blocks of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy programmes are being put into place and how issues beyond treatment are being addressed. It provides examples of country progress and a global estimate of the number of people receiving ARV therapy, and it assesses how well the therapy is working. It also identifies some of the challenges faced in resource-constrained settings and how these are being met by improving health care systems, links between prevention and treatment and providing equal access to quality care. This report is based on reports and updates provided by dozens of international, national and community organizations involved in scaling up ARV therapy. We thank everyone who has contributed to this progress report. WHO departments at the headquarters, regional and country levels worked with national governments and nongovernmental organizations to gather the latest information on the scaling up of ARV therapy. The UNAIDS Secretariat and the UNAIDS Cosponsors gathered information on how United Nations agencies and international nongovernmental organizations are translating the rapidly expanding commitment to "3 by 5" into action. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    320236

    Population, development and HIV / AIDS with particular emphasis on poverty: the concise report.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2005. [69] p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/247)

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic has been a gathering force for nearly a quarter-century, and it continues to be a major global challenge. AIDS finds its victims in both rich and poor countries. There is no region of the world where HIV/AIDS is not a potentially serious threat to the population. Sub-Saharan Africa has so far borne the brunt of the AIDS devastation, and the region continues to experience high rates of infection. About 3 million people in the region were newly infected with the virus in 2004. Countries in Eastern Europe and Asia now have the fastest-growing rates of HIV infection in the world, and the populous countries of China, India and Indonesia are of particular concern. In some more developed countries, there are signs of a resurgence of risky sex between men. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    320224

    Mali: Innovative design of the Multi-Sectoral AIDS Project (MAP).

    Khan AR

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, Knowledge and Learning Center, 2005 Nov. [2] p. (Findings Infobriefs No. 118; Good Practice Infobrief)

    The Mali Multi-sectoral AIDS Project (MAP) began implementation in late 2004 and is in the preliminary phases of the project cycle. This project has been commended by the World Bank's Board for its innovation and the involvement of the private sector to address HIV/AIDS. Mali is one of the poorest countries in the world due to factors such as its limited resource base, land-locked status and poor infrastructure. According to the 2001 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) published by the Ministry of Health, Mali's HIV/AIDS prevalence rate is estimated at 1.7% in 2001. The project objective is to support the Government of Malis efforts to control the spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and provide sustainable access to treatment and care to those infected with or affected by HIV/AIDS. While Mali currently has a low HIV prevalence rate by Sub-Saharan African standards, it runs a high risk of experiencing an increase in prevalence rates. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    319303

    Better procurement and supply management of HIV / AIDs drugs and supplies.

    Osewe PL; Habiyambere V; Li Bassi L

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, Global HIV / AIDS Program, 2005 Dec. 5 p.

    Many countries are working to expand access to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for millions of people with HIV/AIDS. Uninterrupted and timely supplies of safe, effective and affordable ARV drugs are needed. They must be dispensed correctly by health workers, and consistently taken by patients. A partnership between the World Bank and World Health Organization (WHO), in collaboration with the Global Fund for AIDS, TB and Malaria (GFATM), UNICEF, UNAIDS, and the American and French Governments is helping countries build capacity to procure and manage HIV/AIDS drugs and related supplies. This effort has helped support an increase in the number of people on ARV treatment in low- and middle income countries, from 400,000 at the end of 2003, to about one million in June 2005. (author's)
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  6. 6
    312055

    Supportive and palliative care for people living with HIV / AIDS.

    Schietinger H

    CommonHealth. 2005 Spring; 36-43.

    As defined by the World Health Organization (WHO):2 Palliative medicine is the study and management of patients with active, progressive, far advanced disease for whom the prognosis is limited and the focus of care is the quality of life. [It is] the active total care of patients whose disease is not responsive to curative treatment. Control of pain, of other symptoms, and of psychological, social, and spiritual problems, is paramount. The goal of palliative care is achievement of the best quality of life for patients and their families. Many aspects of palliative care are applicable earlier in the course of the illness, in conjunction with treatment. Palliative care: Affirms life and regards dying as a normal process; Neither hastens, nor postpones, death; Provides relief from pain and other distressing symptoms; Integrates the psychological and spiritual aspects of patient care; Offers a support system to help patients live as actively as possible until death; and Offers a support system to help families cope during a patient's illness and with their own bereavement. In short, palliative care comprehensively addresses the physical, emotional, and spiritual impact a life-threatening illness has on a person, no matter the stage of the illness. It places the sick person and his/her family, however defined, at the center of care and aggressively addresses all of the symptoms and problems experienced by them. Many healthcare providers apply certain elements of the palliative care treatment approach-- such as comprehensive care and aggressive symptom management-- to the care of all of their patients, not only those who are terminally ill, offering the type of care we would all like to receive when we are sick. (excerpt)
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  7. 7
    309702

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Mozambique. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Mozambique has over one million people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS (1.3 million as of the end of 2003). Although Mozambique's prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) is lower than some of the hardest hit countries in the region, it is higher than the sub-Saharan African region overall and recent estimates suggest that the prevalence rate may be on the rise. The epidemic poses significant development challenges to this low-income country. The Government of Mozambique formed a National AIDS Council (NAC) in 2000, and is currently operating its National Strategic Plan to Combat HIV/AIDS for 2005-2009. (excerpt)
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  8. 8
    309711

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Zimbabwe. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Zimbabwe has almost two million people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS (1.8 million as of the end of 2003), representing the third largest HIV/AIDS burden in sub-Saharan Africa. The HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) in Zimbabwe is among the highest in the world, although recent evidence suggests that prevalence may be starting to decline. The epidemic continues to pose significant development challenges to this low-income country, which faces additional complications including drought conditions, substantial internal migration and displacement, and other factors that exacerbate the epidemic's impact. The Government of Zimbabwe established a National AIDS Coordination Programme (NACP) in 1987. In 2000, the Government formed the National AIDS Council (NAC), and is currently developing its National AIDS Strategic Framework for 2005-2009. (excerpt)
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  9. 9
    309710

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Zambia. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Zambia has almost one million people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS (920,000 as of the end of 2003). Zambia's HIV prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) is twice the rate in sub-Saharan Africa overall and the epidemic continues to pose one of the most significant development challenges to this low-income country. The Government of Zambia established a National AIDS Prevention and Control Programme in 1986. In 2000, the Government formed a National AIDS Council (NAC) and is currently implementing its National HIV/AIDS/STI/TB Implementation Plan for 2002-2005. (excerpt)
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  10. 10
    309709

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Uganda. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Uganda has more than a half million people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS (530,000 as of the end of 2003). The country of Uganda is widely considered to be an HIV/AIDS success story, having reduced its HIV prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) significantly over time, from one of the most severe epidemics in the 1980s, with a peak in the early-1990s, to a rate lower than that of the sub-Saharan African region overall. However, the epidemic has already had a significant impact in Uganda, and continues to pose development challenges to this low-income country. The Government of Uganda established a National AIDS Control Program (NACP) in 1986, the first HIV/AIDS control program in the region. In 1992, the Government formed the Uganda AIDS Commission (UAC), and is currently operating its National Strategic Framework for 2000/2001-2005/2006. (excerpt)
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  11. 11
    309708

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in the United Republic of Tanzania. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    The United Republic of Tanzania (mainland Tanzania and the island of Zanzibar), the largest country in East Africa, had an estimated 1.6 million people living with HIV/AIDS as of the end of 2003. Although Tanzania's prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) is lower than some of the hardest hit countries in the sub-Saharan African region, it is higher than the prevalence rate of the region overall (8.8% compared to 7.5%). The epidemic poses significant development challenges to this low-income country. In 1985, the National AIDS Control Programme was established to respond to the epidemic. The Tanzania Commission for AIDS (TACAIDS) and the Zanzibar AIDS Commission (ZAC) were created in 2001 and 2002, respectively. Tanzania is currently operating its National Multi-Sectoral Strategic Framework on HIV/AIDS for 2003-2007. (excerpt)
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  12. 12
    309707

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Swaziland. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Swaziland has the highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) in the world, a much higher rate than the sub-Saharan African region overall (38.8% compared to 7.5%). Moreover, a recent survey suggests that HIV prevalence rates in Swaziland continue to increase. As of the end of 2003, there were an estimated 220,000 people living with HIV/AIDS in Swaziland, or almost 4 in 10 adults. The epidemic has already had a profound effect in Swaziland, posing significant development challenges to this middle-income country. The Government of Swaziland created the Swaziland National AIDS Programme in 1987 to respond to the epidemic and declared HIV/AIDS a national disaster in 1999. In 2001, the National Emergency Response Council on HIV and AIDS (NERCHA) was established, and the National AIDS Strategic Plan for HIV/AIDS 2006 - 2008 is currently under development. (excerpt)
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  13. 13
    309706

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in South Africa. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    South Africa has the highest number of people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS in the world (5.3 million as of the end of 2003) and is one of the countries hardest hit by the epidemic. South Africa's HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) is much higher than that of the sub-Saharan African region overall, and although prevalence rates have begun to stabilize, the South African Government's most recent surveillance study indicates that prevalence may still be on the rise. The epidemic has already had a profound impact on many aspects of South African society and is projected to affect the country's economic, education, and health sectors if more is not done to stem its tide. As a middle-income country of significant political and economic importance in the African continent, the future course of South Africa's HIV/AIDS epidemic will have broader implications for Africa overall. The Government of South Africa established the National AIDS Coordinating Committee of South Africa (NACOSA) in 1992 and created the South African National AIDS Council (SANAC) in 2000. The country's HIV/AIDS/STD Strategic Plan for South Africa: 2000-2005 is currently being implemented. (author's)
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  14. 14
    309705

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Seychelles. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    The HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with HIV/AIDS) in Seychelles remains fairly low, and significantly lower than other countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Estimated HIV/AIDS prevalence in Seychelles was 0.2% as of the end of 2002, or less than 200 people. However, the prevalence rate has increased over time, and data indicate that HIV/AIDS may be more widespread in this middle-income country than previously thought. The Seychelles Government began its response to the epidemic shortly after the first case of HIV was diagnosed in 1987, with an initial short-term plan; the following year, an AIDS-IEC Committee was formed within the Ministry of Health. The National AIDS Council (NAC) was launched in 2002. The Government also created a National AIDS Trust Fund in 2002 to help mobilize resources and coordinate prevention and care efforts. (excerpt)
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  15. 15
    309704

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Nigeria. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Nigeria has the third highest number of people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS in the world (3.6 million as of the end of 2003), after South Africa and India. Although Nigeria's HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) is still relatively low compared to some countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Nigeria is considered to be a "next wave" country; that is, it stands at a critical point in its epidemic where increased prevention and treatment efforts today could help stem the tide of a much more significant epidemic in the future. As the most populous country in Africa and one of the most populous nations in the world, even a small increase in the HIV/AIDS prevalence rate in this low-income country would represent a significant share of the global HIV/AIDS burden. The Government of Nigeria established the National AIDS Action Committee (NACA) in 2000 and has a National HIV/AIDS Strategic Plan for the 2005-2009 period. (excerpt)
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  16. 16
    309703

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Namibia. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Namibia has one of the highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rates (the percent of people living with the disease) in the world, a much higher rate than the sub-Saharan African region overall (21.3% compared to 7.5%). As of the end of 2003, there were 210,000 people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS in Namibia, or more than one in five adults. Although recent evidence suggests that prevalence may be starting to decline, the epidemic already poses significant challenges to this middle-income country, and high levels of unemployment and income disparity may further the spread of diseases such as HIV/AIDS. The Government of Namibia established a National AIDS Committee (NAC) in 1990 and is currently implementing the third National Strategic Plan on HIV/AIDS (2004-2009). (excerpt)
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  17. 17
    309701

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Mauritius. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Mauritius remains fairly concentrated. With fewer than one thousand people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS (700 as of the end of 2001), Mauritius' HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) is significantly lower than many of its neighboring countries and among the lowest in the sub-Saharan African region overall. However, there are signs of an increasing trend in HIV/AIDS cases in recent years in this middle-income country. In 1987, the Mauritius Ministry of Health and Quality of Life implemented a National AIDS Control and Prevention Programme. The Government of Mauritius also formed a National Coordinating Committee on HIV/AIDS and is currently operating under its National Strategic Plan for HIV/AIDS 2001-2005. (excerpt)
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  18. 18
    309700

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Malawi. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Malawi has almost one million people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS (900,000 as of the end of 2003). Malawi's HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) is almost twice the rate in sub-Saharan Africa overall (14.2% compared to 7.5% in 2003). The HIV/AIDS epidemic poses significant development challenges to this low-income country, which has been exacerbated by high levels of food insecurity. In 2001, the Government of Malawi formed a National AIDS Commission (NAC), which has been led by the Minister of State Responsible for HIV/AIDS Programmes since 2003. The Government developed a National HIV/AIDS Strategic Framework (2000-2004) to coordinate the country's response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and a new framework is being developed. (excerpt)
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  19. 19
    309699

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Madagascar. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    As of the end of 2003, there were an estimated 140,000 people living with HIV/AIDS in Madagascar, up from 100,000 in 2001.1 Recent studies suggest that the HIV/AIDS prevalence rate in Madagascar has begun to increase. Although Madagascar's HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) is still relatively low (1.7%) compared to the sub-Saharan African region overall and to its neighboring countries, there is concern that high levels of sexually transmitted infections (STI's) such as syphilis, could fuel the HIV/AIDS epidemic in this low-income country, as could other factors such as poverty and limited access to health and social services. The Government of Madagascar formed a National AIDS Committee in 2002 and is currently operating a National Strategic Framework on HIV/AIDS. (excerpt)
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  20. 20
    309698

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Lesotho. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Lesotho has one of the highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rates (the percent of people living with the disease) in the world, a much higher rate than the sub-Saharan African region overall (28.9% compared to 7.5%). As of the end of 2003, there were an estimated 320,000 people living with HIV/AIDS in Lesotho, or almost 3 in 10 adults. The epidemic has already had a profound effect in Lesotho, posing significant development challenges to this very low-income country. The Government of Lesotho formed the Lesotho AIDS Programme Coordinating Authority (LAPCA) in 2001, and is currently developing a National AIDS Strategic Plan for 2005-2008. The Government has also established a National AIDS Commission (NAC) to coordinate the country's response to the epidemic. (excerpt)
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  21. 21
    309697

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Kenya. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Kenya has more than one million people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS (1.2 million as of the end of 2003). Kenya's HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) is just below that of the sub-Saharan African region overall (6.7% compared to 7.5%). Recent data indicate that the country's HIV prevalence rate may be on the decline in some areas. However, the HIV/AIDS epidemic poses significant challenges to this low-income country. The Government of Kenya first established a National AIDS Control Council (NACC) in 1999, and has a National Strategic Framework for HIV/AIDS for 2005-2010. (excerpt)
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  22. 22
    309696

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Ghana. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    There were an estimated 350,000 people living with HIV/AIDS in Ghana as of the end of 2003. The HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) in Ghana is still relatively low compared to the sub-Saharan African region overall, and appears to be fairly stable, but there are an increasing number of people living with HIV/AIDS in this low-income country, posing challenges to both prevention and treatment efforts. The Government of Ghana created a National Advisory Commission on AIDS (NACA) in 1985 and established a National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) in 1987. The Ghana AIDS Commission was inaugurated in 2000, followed by the implementation of the country's National Strategic Framework (NSF) on HIV/AIDS for 2001-2005. (excerpt)
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  23. 23
    309695

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has more than one million people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS (1.1 million as of the end of 2003). Although the DRC's HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease), is still relatively low (4.2%) compared to the sub-Saharan African region overall and to some of the region's hardest hit countries, this low-income country is in a post-conflict period and faces numerous challenges including HIV/AIDS. The Government of the DRC established a National AIDS Control Programme in 1987 and has a National HIV/AIDS Strategic Plan for 1999-2008. (excerpt)
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  24. 24
    309694

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Botswana. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Botswana has the second highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) in the world (37.3%), a much higher rate than the sub-Saharan African region overall. As of the end of 2003, there were an estimated 350,000 people living with HIV/AIDS in Botswana, or more than a third of the country's adult population. The epidemic has already had a profound effect in Botswana, posing significant development challenges to this middle-income country. The Government of Botswana created a National AIDS Coordinating Agency (NACA) in 1999, and is currently operating its National Strategic Plan on HIV/AIDS for 2003-2009. (excerpt)
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  25. 25
    305191

    Strengthening country responses to HIV and AIDS.

    SAfAIDS News. 2005 Sep; 11(3):11-12.

    The AIDS epidemic has become a genuine global emergency with rising numbers of new infections, increasing numbers of deaths and the impact of the epidemic increasingly being felt particularly by the rising numbers of children made orphans or vulnerable by AIDS. The scale of the emergency has resulted in an unprecedented response by African countries, civil society and the international community. Today, there are more resources for HIV prevention, care, support and treatment than ever before. This increase in resources is coupled with an increasing number of actors becoming involved in the AIDS response, often leading to unclear roles and leadership and dispersed authority that may undermine national plans and priorities. Furthermore, resources are often dissipated and scattered, transaction costs have increased, capacities are distracted and weakened while monitoring and evaluation remains fragmented. The result has been that a substantial amount of available resources are not being used effectively and not getting to the people that need them most. (excerpt)
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