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  1. 1

    Caring for children orphaned by AIDS [editorial]

    Moy R

    Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. 1999 Apr; 45(2):64-65.

    The Joint United Nation Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) chose 'Children Living in a World with AIDS' as its theme for the 1997 World AIDS Campaign. The overall aim of the campaign was to create 'an increased understanding of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and its global dimensions, with an emphasis on promoting action and social policies to prevent HIV transmission and to minimise the epidemic's impact on children, their families and their communities'. Among the facts that emerged in the UNAIDS documentation for this campaign were the following: everyday 1000 children become infected with HIV; of the 1.5 million people worldwide who died of AIDS in 1996, 350 000 were children; AIDS may increase infant mortality by as much as 75 per cent and under-5 child mortality by more than 100 per cent in the regions most affected by the disease by the year 2000; 90 per cent of HIV positive children under the age of 15 years are infected through vertical mother to child Transmission; nearly 1 million children are living with HIV and suffer the physical and psychological consequences of infection; over 9 million children are estimated to have lost one or other or both parents to AIDS. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Status and trends of STI, HIV and AIDS at the end of the millennium, Western Pacific Region, 1999.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for the Western Pacific

    Manila, Philippines, WHO, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 1999. [15] p.

    It is estimated that more than 700 000 people were living with HIV infection in the Western Pacific Region in 1998, with more than 18 000 new AIDS cases occurring in the same year. In contrast, the cumulative number of HIV diagnoses reported in all countries of the Region was about 100 000 and reported AIDS incidence in 1998 was 3300. This reflects a very high level of under-diagnosis and under-reporting of HIV and AIDS cases in the Region. The number of people living with HIV infection is projected to reach 1 million in 2000, and the yearly number of new cases of AIDS to doubled. Analysis of the trend of the relative proportion in HIV risk exposure based on reported cases in the Region suggests that there have been three waves. First, sexual contact among men was the driving force in the early epidemic in Australia and New Zealand, with rapid decrease in prevalence by the late 1980's. Second, the widespread sharing of equipment among injecting drug users (IDUs), primarily in Malaysia, China and Viet Nam was most important during the late 1980s and early 1990s, eventually leveling off around 40% of reported cases (it should be noted that this mode of transmission is probably over-represented due to the mandatory HIV testing of injecting drug users in rehabilitation centres or prison). Finally, the more recent trend has been a steady increase in the proportion of reported cases associated with heterosexual contact. Transmission of the virus through this mode has been gradually increasing since the beginning of the epidemic and is expected to continue to increase in the future. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    [AIDS. World review. Anatomy of the epidemic] SIDA. Resumen mundial. Anatomía de la epidemia.

    VIDAS. 1999 Jan; 2(12):5-8.

    According to the most recent estimates of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the World Health Organization (WHO), at the end of 1998 the number of people living with HIV (the virus that causes AIDS) will have grown to 33.4 million, 10% more than just a year earlier. The epidemic has not been controlled anywhere. In practically all countries of the world, new infections occurred in 1998. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    A cultural approach to HIV / AIDS prevention and care, UNESCO / UNAIDS research project. Uganda's experience: country report.

    Sengendo J; Sekatawa EK

    Paris, France, UNESCO, Cultural Policies for Development Unit, 1999. 61 p. (Studies and Reports, Special Series, Issue No. 1)

    Nearly two decades since a new syndrome, the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was first recognised in 1981, and its aetiological agent the human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] identified in 1983, there is still no cure nor is a vaccine against the disease available. Interventions intended to bring about changes in behaviour remain the principal means of preventing further spread and counselling is the main avenue for alleviating the adverse impact of the disease. Uganda, in common with other countries of Eastern and Central Africa, is one of the worst hit. By the end of 1997, UNAIDS estimated that between 400,000 - 500,000 Ugandans had already died of AIDS - related illnesses, out of a population of 20 million. Currently, HIV/AIDS is the leading cause of deaths among adults aged 25 - 44 and ranks only second to malaria in the general population, (Ministry of Health). It is estimated that about 1.8 million Ugandans, or 9 per cent of the population are infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. (excerpt)
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  5. 5

    A cultural approach to HIV / AIDS prevention and care, UNESCO / UNAIDS research project. South Africa's experience: country report.

    UNESCO. Cultural Policies for Development Unit; Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Paris, France, UNESCO, Cultural Policies for Development Unit, 1999. 49 p. (Studies and Reports, Special Series, Issue No. 3)

    Within the framework of the UNESCO/UNAIDS joint project “A cultural approach to HIV/AIDS prevention and care”, it was decided to carry out country assessments on the subject, in various regions of the world seriously hit by the epidemic, the first one being Southern Africa. Besides Angola, Malawi, Uganda and Zimbabwe, the case of South Africa appeared particularly relevant, as regards both the current situation in the country and the public priority given to the issue by the highest national authorities. This assessment was carried out in co-operation with the UNESCO Pretoria Office, the WHO Liaison Office in South Africa and UNESCO’s Culture Sector in Paris, through consulting the Section of Cultural Research and Management. Most of the information used in this work was drawn from discussions held in the Pretoria UNESCO Office, with various institutional partners. Complementary information and documentation was found in the WHO Information Center in Pretoria, supplemented by academic and cultural documentation devoted to Southern Africa in general and, in some cases, to South Africa. As requested in the terms of reference of the project, the assessment dealt with two major topics: (i) the consideration of cultural factors in the South Africa National Plan for HIV/AIDS prevention and care; (ii) a first approach to in-depth investigation on the cultural determinants and effects of the epidemic. However, in-depth local studies on the subject could not be carried out, due to the novelty of the approach taken and the time requirements needed for sophisticated scientific field research. (excerpt)
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  6. 6

    A cultural approach to HIV / AIDS prevention and care. UNESCO / UNAIDS research project. Thailand's experience: country report.

    Viddhanaphuti C

    Paris, France, UNESCO, Cultural Policies for Development Unit, 1999. 35 p. (Studies and Reports, Special Series, Issue No. 6)

    Since the mid-eighties, the fight against HIV/AIDS has gradually mobilized governments, international agencies and non-governmental organizations. However, it became evident that despite massive action to inform the public about the risks, behavioural changes were not occurring as expected. The infection continued to expand rapidly and serious questions began to emerge as to the efficiency of the efforts undertaken in combating the illness. Experience has demonstrated that the HIV/AIDS epidemic is a complex, multifaceted issue that requires close cooperation and therefore multidimensional strategies. The establishment of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) in 1994 initiated a new approach to the prevention and care of this disease. The first requirement stressed was the need for increased coordination between institutions. An emphasis was also made on the need to work on both prevention and treatment while considering the significant social factors involved. As a result UNAIDS was involved in several studies focusing on developing new methodological strategies with which to tackle the issue. Following a proposal made by UNESCO’s Culture Sector to the UNAIDS Programme, on taking a cultural approach to HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment for sustainable development, a joint project “A Cultural Approach to HIV/AIDS: Prevention and Care” was launched in May 1998. The goals were to stimulate thinking and discussion and reconsider existing tools with a cultural approach. Taking a cultural approach means considering a population’s characteristics - including lifestyles and beliefs - as essential references to the creation of action plans. This is indispensable if behaviour patterns are to be changed on a long-term basis, a vital condition for slowing down or for stopping the expansion of the epidemic. In the first phase, of the project (1998-1999) nine country assessments were carried out in three regions: Sub-Saharan Africa (Angola, Malawi, South Africa, Uganda, Zimbabwe), Asia and the Pacific (Thailand and bordering countries) and the Caribbean (Cuba, Dominican Republic, Jamaica). The findings of these studies were discussed in three subregional workshops held in Cuba, Zimbabwe and Thailand, between April and June 1999. All country assessments as well as the proceedings of the workshops are published within the present Special Series of Studies and Reports of the Cultural Policies for Development Unit. (excerpt)
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  7. 7

    A cultural approach to HIV / AIDS prevention and care. UNESCO / UNAIDS research project. Angola's experience: country report.

    Castelo MA; Gaspan M; Félix BV

    Paris, France, UNESCO, Cultural Policies for Development Unit, 1999. 81 p. (Studies and Reports, Special Series, Issue No. 4)

    The failure of prevention campaigns is not only a result of institutional factors. Social and Cultural factors also play an important role in the spread of the disease. In addition, AIDS is a disease that does not effect solely the health sector. Since it also effects the productive sector of the population, this disease could have unforeseeable consequences on the socio-economic development of a country. This study analyses the institutional responses to AIDS and the effects of the disease on people from different economic backgrounds. It encompasses population groups that are active participants of the country’s production process and those most vulnerable to the spread of the disease. An analysis is also made of the many socio-cultural factors that facilitate the spread of AIDS. Moreover, a case study is elaborated in which people’s attitudes towards such factors are explored as well as the changes in behavioural patterns that the situation demands. (author's)
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  8. 8

    Comfort and hope. Six case studies on mobilizing family and community care for and by people with HIV / AIDS.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 1999 Jun. 94 p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection; UNAIDS/99.10E)

    This booklet presents six case studies on mobilizing family and community care for and by people with HIV/AIDS. The case studies included in this collection stem from the Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) presentation entitled, “Home and Community Care: It Works!," which documents the experiences and lessons learned by community-level projects in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. These six case studies include: 1) Project Hope--Projeto Esperanca de Sao Miguel Paulista, Brazil; 2) The Diocese of Kitui HIV/AIDS Programme, Kenya; 3) The Drug User Program, Ikhlas Community Centre, Pink Triangle, Malaysia; 4) The Tateni Home Care Services, South Africa; 5) Sanpatong Home-based Care Project, Thailand; and 6) The Chirumhanzu Home-based Care Project, Zimbabwe. It is noted that all these projects were chosen because they reflected most or all of what UNAIDS considers key elements of home and community care, as well as most of UNAIDS’ Best Practice criteria.
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