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Paris, France, UNESCO, 2008.  p. (Advocacy Briefing Note; ED/UNP/HIV/2008/IATT-ABN2)Education and HIV & AIDS are inextricably linked. On the one hand, the chances of achieving crucial education goals set by the international community are severely threatened by HIV and AIDS. On the other hand, global commitments to strategies, policies and programs that reduce the vulnerability of children and young people to HIV will not be met without the full contribution of the education sector. Preventing and mitigating the impact of the AIDS epidemic through the education sector is critical, yet all too often responsibility for education and HIV has fallen under different spheres of authority. HIV and AIDS is frequently an add-on to the existing education system, rather than an integral part of education planning. A comprehensive sector-wide approach which mainstreams HIV and AIDS into existing education sector programs - taking account of the underlying causes of vulnerability to HIV infection and the longer term consequences of AIDS - is a crucial step towards addressing the epidemic. In addition, early mainstreaming actions in low prevalence countries may help to stem the surge of AIDS epidemics and reduce the likelihood that concentrated epidemics become more generalized. (excerpt)
Supporting civil society organisations to reach key populations in the Latin American and Caribbean region. A look at HIV / AIDS projects financed by the World Bank.
[Brighton, United Kingdom], International HIV / AIDS Alliance, 2006. 52 p.The purpose of this study is to assess the extent to which World Bank financed projects are supporting civil society organisations (CSOs) to reach four key populations (men who have sex with men (MSM), sex workers (SW), intravenous drug users (IDUs) and persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region. The study refers to the first three key populations (KPs) as 'at-risk KPs' when discussing KPs who may or may not be HIV infected. The study has two main outputs: an initial mapping of World Bank financed AIDS prevention and control projects in LAC and the role of CSOs and KPs in those projects; identification of factors that impede or facilitate CSO access to World Bank resources that target KPs. The International HIV/AIDS Alliance has commissioned this study to improve understanding of the dynamics at the country level with World Bank financed projects concerning CSOs and KPs. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Knowledge and Learning Center, 2005 Nov.  p. (Findings Infobriefs No. 118; Good Practice Infobrief)The Mali Multi-sectoral AIDS Project (MAP) began implementation in late 2004 and is in the preliminary phases of the project cycle. This project has been commended by the World Bank's Board for its innovation and the involvement of the private sector to address HIV/AIDS. Mali is one of the poorest countries in the world due to factors such as its limited resource base, land-locked status and poor infrastructure. According to the 2001 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) published by the Ministry of Health, Mali's HIV/AIDS prevalence rate is estimated at 1.7% in 2001. The project objective is to support the Government of Malis efforts to control the spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and provide sustainable access to treatment and care to those infected with or affected by HIV/AIDS. While Mali currently has a low HIV prevalence rate by Sub-Saharan African standards, it runs a high risk of experiencing an increase in prevalence rates. (excerpt)
CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2007 Jun 5; 176(12):1728-1730.Between the early 1980s and 2000 the prevalence rate of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa increased from less than 1% to 12%, as illustrated in the prevalence maps in Fig. 1. This represents an increase in the number of people living with HIV infection from less than 1 million to 22 million. During this period, neither African governments nor the international donor community sufficiently prioritized HIV/AIDS or allocated adequate resources to help prevent and control its spread. In sub-Saharan Africa, the total amount of official development assistance actually declined in the 1990s, to about $3 per HIV-infected person by 1999. By this time, the international donor community had begun to focus on the HIV/AIDS pandemic and in 2000 began to send billions of dollars to sub-Saharan Africa to tackle the crisis. These investments appear to have had a positive effect: between 2000 and December 2005, HIV prevalence rates among adults were reported to have decreased in more than two-thirds of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa, falling from a mean rate of 10% to 7.5%. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2007 Feb 24; 369(9562):626-627.In today's Lancet, Longde Wang and colleagues report on many remarkable recent improvements in the control of tuberculosis in China. The progress is good news in view of the size and global importance of the tuberculosis burden in China and the faltering of control in the 1990s, as noted by Wang. The fruitful partnership with WHO, the World Bank, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, and several governments and non-governmental organisations is also noteworthy, as is the commitment to transparent reporting and health-system reform in China today in the environment after the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome. Better control of tuberculosis in China is also timely in view of the high rates of multidrug resistance, and the emergence of HIV infection in some population subgroups also at high risk of tuberculosis. One group of special concern are work migrants, most often poor young men, who leave the countryside to join the wage economy in towns and cities all over China. Some come from areas such as Henan Province where huge numbers of peasants were infected with HIV from scandalous plasma--donor practices in the 1990s. Many male migrants are at risk of unprotected sex when away from home. And men are also at higher risk of tuberculosis than women in China because the male-to-female ratio of adults with pulmonary tuberculosis is about 2:1 or more, reflecting a real risk excess rather than differential detection or notification. So several factors converge in young male migrant workers to put them at risk of both HIV and tuberculosis, and this convergence must be of great concern. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, AIDS Campaign Team for Africa, 2000 Sep. 16 p.HIV/AIDS is a major development crisis. Not since the Black Death devastated medieval Europe has humankind observed infectious disease deaths on such a scale. Life expectancies, which rose steadily before the onset of the HIV epidemic, are decreasing in nearly all the 25 countries where the adult prevalence rate exceeds 5 percent. In the countries most heavily affected by HIV/AIDS, life expectancy is projected to fall to about 30 years by 2010– a level not seen since the beginning of the 20th century. Various factors related to poverty, inequality, gender inequality, sexually transmitted infections, social norms, political and social changes, including labor migration, conflicts and ethnic factions have facilitated the rapid spread of HIV. But what has enabled HIV/AIDS to undermine economic and social development is its unprecedented erosion of some of the main determinants of economic growth such as social capital, domestic savings and human capital. For these reasons, the HIV epidemic has been transformed from a health issue into a much wider issue impairing economic and social development. Because it prevents an increasing share of the population from participating in economic growth, the HIV/AIDS epidemic increases poverty. The result is a vicious circle whereby HIV/AIDS reduces economic growth and increases poverty, which in turn accelerates the spread of HIV. Preventing further spread of HIV/AIDS, in addition to providing care and support programs to those both affected and infected by this epidemic, requires early intervention and the mobilization of external resources. The purpose of this paper is to discuss and quantify the economic rationale that underlies such an effort. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, South Central Europe Country Department, 2003 Feb 11.  p.The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of the AIDS epidemics in ECC05 countries (Bulgaria, Croatia, and Romania), to evaluate the approaches and strategies currently being used in each country, and to make recommendations both for government strategies and for the Bank’s current and potential future involvement in relation to these strategies. The paper is divided into three sections: 1) an overview of recent regional perspectives; 2) a situation analysis and evaluation for each country including current strategies and implementation arrangements, and 3) a discussion of potential actions by the Bank. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2004 Feb. 103 p.This Guide sets out principles and advice for the procurement of HIV/AIDS medicines and related supplies for programs scaling up antiretroviral therapy (ART) and associated health services, such as basic and palliative care, disease prevention, treatment of opportunistic infections, and laboratory tests. ART includes the treatment of infected adults and children and the prevention of mother-to-child transmission. A wide range of other commodities— particularly condoms and support for basic living and care—are also essential to support the treatment and prevention of HIV. The primary audience for this guide is World Bank staff and those responsible for procuring HIV/AIDS medicines and related supplies in Bank-funded programs and projects. That could include either procurement agency staff or technical agency staff. Policymakers and Bank partners will also benefit from the information and advice in the guide. (excerpt)
Africa Recovery. 2004 Apr; 18(1): p..Almost a decade ago, the development of an effective treatment for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes AIDS opened an ugly new gap in the global divide between rich and poor. People in wealthy countries could get the expensive new drugs, known as anti-retrovirals (ARVs), and live. For people in poor countries, there would be no drugs, only the certainty of a slow and agonizing death. And die they did, in the millions. Declaring the inability of the poor to obtain HIV/ AIDS medications "a global health emergency," the director-general of the UN's World Health Organization (WHO), Dr. Lee Jong-wook, launched a global drive to provide life-extending ARVs to 3 million people, including 2 million in Africa, by the end of 2005. It is known as the "3x5" campaign. About 6 million people worldwide currently require ARVs, which are prescribed only to those in the last stages of the disease. It is also a long-term commitment, since the drugs do not cure the disease and must continue for life. "To deliver anti-retroviral treatment to the millions who need it we must change the way we think and change the way we act," noted Dr. Lee. "Business as usual will not work. Business as usual means watching thousands of people die every single day." (excerpt)
Lancet. 2004 Dec 4; 364:2007-2008.Mikhail Rukavishnikov sits in his modern apartment in central Moscow sipping tea. To the casual visitor he has all the trappings of Russia’s emerging middle class who have overcome the chaos of the 1990s and made a comfortable life. He has an office job with a big Russian firm, a decent apartment, a big TV, and money to travel abroad on holiday. But Rukavishnikov and his girlfriend are among the million Russians living with HIV. “I toyed with drugs when I was younger and got infected. We had no idea then of the dangers. We had never heard about HIV/AIDS and Russian awareness is still catching up with the rest of the world”, says Rukavishnikov. Drug abuse in Russia is rampant and is still the main route of HIV transmission, but the spread of the disease has reached a critical point: public-health officials warn that the virus has begun to move from the high-risk groups such as drug users, sex workers, and prisoners, to a bridge population. A recent report by UNAIDS says the Russian epidemic is growing out of control, as infection spreads faster than in any European country. (excerpt)
Global AIDSLink. 2003 Apr-May; (79):12-13.The media plays a unique role within society either to denounce or to perpetuate the bias and moral judgments against people with HIV/AIDS. Sometimes journalists can underestimate how influential their portrayal of HIV/AIDS is in shaping people's attitudes, especially when society fails to distinguish between people and the disease they suffer from; when denial is so pervasive that the infected are ostracized by their families. In addition, reporters, editors and producers constantly grapple with ways to find fresh angles to discuss HIV, and ensure their viewers and readers remain engaged by a topic that never appears to grow old. To address these and other key topics concerning the media and its treatment of HIV/AIDS, the World Bank organized a distance-learning course from June to November 2002 that simultaneously brought together journalists and HIV/AIDS project managers from Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Nigeria and Malawi. The course, entitled Fighting the HIV/AIDS Pandemic through Information and Strategic Communication, recognizes the role that successful communication campaigns can play in increasing understanding of the disease and promoting life-saving behaviors. Each program stream consisted of eight video-conferenced modules, which were followed up through in-country work. (excerpt)
The US$500 million Multi-Country HIV / AIDS Program (MAP) for Africa. Progress review mission - FY01.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2001. 32 p.In September 2000, the World Bank approved the US $500 million Multi-Country HIV/AIDS Program (MAP I) to support national HIV/AIDS programs in Sub-Saharan Africa to accelerate and expand existing programs in prevention, care, treatment, and mitigation and to build capacity. The MAP approach was flexible and innovative in design – multisectoral, using multiple implementation channels, channeling money directly to communities, empowering stakeholders to make their own decisions, and emphasizing speed and responsiveness. From September 2000 through July 2001, the Bank committed US $399 million for nine country programs, more than in the previous decade. In preparation for requesting the Bank’s Board to approve a second MAP operation, a joint UNAIDS/World Bank Progress Review was carried out in June/July 2001 on the preparation and implementation of MAP I to learn lessons so Borrowers and the Bank could improve their performance in the war against HIV/AIDS. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., Africa Action, .  p.Debt is the greatest economic obstacle to African efforts to combat the HIV/AIDS crisis. Debt repayments rob $15 billion from the continent every year. This money could be used to provide health care to millions of people and to fund the war on HIV/AIDS. But it is instead being taken away by foreign governments and institutions. Africa's debts must be canceled to allow Africa's people to control their own resources and direct them towards their real priorities--combating poverty and the HIV/AIDS crisis. (excerpt)
The new lepers. HIV-positive people are treated as social outcasts while the government fails to cope.
London, England, Institute for War and Peace Reporting [IWPR], 2003 Aug 8. 3 p. (Belarus Reporting Service No. 28)More and more people in Belarus are finding themselves in her position – 50 or 60 new HIV cases are recorded every month. At the beginning of August, the number of people carrying the virus reached 5,150, and experts fear that the figure will be more than double that in 2005. More worryingly, some say the recorded figures should be multiplied by a factor of three or more since they fail to capture drug users who have not been seen by the health authorities. Although HIV and AIDS are advancing rapidly, neither the government nor society in general appear able to come to terms with it. A survey conducted jointly by the United Nations and the Centre for Sociological and Political Research in Minsk found that three quarters of the people polled thought people with HIV should not be allowed to care for their own children, and more than 40 per cent said they should not be allowed to travel around the country or choose where they want to live. (excerpt)