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  1. 1

    Sexual and reproductive health of women living with HIV / AIDS. Guidelines on care, treatment and support for women living with HIV / AIDS and their children in resource-constrained settings.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]; World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2006. [80] p.

    The sexual and reproductive health of women living with HIV/AIDS is fundamental to their well-being and that of their partners and children. This publication addresses the specific sexual and reproductive health needs of women living with HIV/AIDS and contains recommendations for counselling, antiretroviral therapy, care and other interventions. Improving women's sexual and reproductive health, treating HIV infections and preventing new ones are important factors in reducing poverty and promoting the social and economic development of communities and countries. Sexual and reproductive health services are uniquely positioned to address each of these factors. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    Why AIDS in South Africa threatens stability and economic growth in other parts of Africa.

    Singh JA

    Lancet. 2004 Nov 27; 364:1919-1920.

    South Africa’s rise to pre-eminence on the African continent since holding its first multiracial elections in 1994 is underscored by its status as, among others, the continent’s largest economy, one of its leading investors, and chief sponsor of regional conflict resolution, and by its selection in 2004 as host of the inaugural African Parliament. The past decade has also seen South Africa become the largest contributor of personnel to peacekeeping operations in Africa and one of the continent’s chief sources of donor aid. Given South Africa’s primacy in these arenas, the latest report from the UNPF is cause for concern. The Fund projects a negative population growth for South Africa for the first time, mainly because of AIDS. The effect of AIDS has mostly been considered in country-specific contexts. If the UNPF’s projection proves true, the AIDS pandemic will likely not only threaten South Africa’s prosperity and population growth, but could also compound the threats posed by AIDS, poverty, and military conflicts in many other parts of the African continent. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Waking the giant: making the case for mainstreaming.

    Osborne K

    Global AIDSLink. 2004 Aug-Sep; (87):16-17.

    The importance of addressing HIV/AIDS from a stronger sexual and reproductive health and rights perspective has over the past few months been gaining increased global momentum and recognition. Earlier this year, the All Party Parliamentary Group on Population, Development and Reproductive Health in the UK commenced their hearings into the very question of integration: its successes, failures and contextual realities. The Glion Call to Action (see page 8)— released in June — specifically addressed the integration aspects involved in PMTCT programs and policies. And in May, UNFPA hosted a series of technical meetings that aimed to explore some of the broader technicalities of integration. This advocacy document was launched in July at the Bangkok XV International AIDS Conference. Clearly, the question of when, where and how to integrate HIV/AIDS with reproductive health has been plaguing programmers and policy makers, donors and service providers. Answering these questions with meaningful action is not only long overdue but — in the age of increased awareness, and treatment access increasingly becoming a reality — it is unarguably the most unexplored terrain of our international response. For it is only with the concerted effort and coordinated involvement of the sexual and reproductive health community that the lofty Millennium Development Goals; the UN General Assembly's Special Session on HIV/AIDS Commitments; the '3 by 5' targets; and even new modalities of reducing HIV/AIDS-related stigma, will be achieved. The mainstreaming of HIV/AIDS is perhaps not only an untapped avenue, but it also has the potential to awake the full potential of a by-and-large under used resource. Getting there, however, would involve a change in mind-set of all the role players involved. A 'business as usual' approach that does not move beyond rhetoric will have damning consequences. The exceptionality of HIV/AIDS as a largely sexually transmitted infection requires an exceptional response — especially from sexual and reproductive health providers. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    HIV prevention in maternal health services: training guide.

    Perchal P; Mielke E; Kaniauskene A; Verbel LB

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2004. [126] p.

    The goal of this training is to build the capacity of programme managers and staff to address pregnant and postpartum clients’ HIV and STI needs by offering integrated HIV and STI services within their own particular service-delivery setting. The general objectives of this curriculum are to ensure that by the end of the training, the participants will have the knowledge, attitudes, and skills necessary to carry out the following key prevention tasks: 2 Help clients assess their own needs for a range of HIV and STI services, information, and emotional support. 2. Provide clear and correct information appropriate to clients’ identified concerns and needs. 3 Assist clients in making their own voluntary and informed decisions about HIV nad STI risk reduction. 4. Help clients develop the skills they will need to carry out those decisions. (excerpt)
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  5. 5

    HIV prevention in maternal health services: programming guide.

    Perchal P; Farrell B; Koumpounis A; Galvão L; Mielke E

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2004. [148] p.

    While this guide primarily addresses HIV prevention, it also makes the link to other STI’s, since these can increase a pregnant woman’s succeptibility to HIV infection and since both HIV/AIDS and other STI’s can be transmitted to the foetus or newborn child. While preventing HIV infection in pregnant women is a critical element in preventing HIV transmission to the child (vertical transmission), this guide does not attempt to duplicate the many training aides and programme guides that already address prevention of vertical transmission. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) is more than the provision of antiretroviral drugs to prevent transmission of HIV from an HIV-positive woman to her infant. A comprehensive programme to prevent HIV transmission to pregnant women, mothers, and their children, which has been endorsed by the UN system, includes four elements known as PMTCT, defined as: 1. Prevention of HIV, especially among young people and pregnant women. 2. Prevention of unintended pregnancies among HIV-infected women. 3. Prevention of HIV transmission from HIV-infected women to their infants. 4. Provision of treatment, care, and support to HIV-infected women and their families. This guide focuses primarily on the first of the four elements. (excerpt)
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  6. 6

    Preventing HIV infection, promoting reproductive health. UNFPA response 2003.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 2003. 30 p.

    Previously known as AIDS Update, this is the 12th annual publication to provide information about actions taken by UNFPA, the United Nations Population Fund, to prevent HIV infection. UNFPA has worked to improve reproductive health for more than 30 years; never has the need been more urgent. UNFPA is at the forefront of international prevention efforts, integrating HIV prevention throughout all reproductive health services. We work with countries, at their request, to plan and implement programmes that provide life-saving information and services. Young people, especially if poor, are at great risk: nearly half of all new infections occur between the ages of 15 and 24. UNFPA supports programmes that provide the knowledge, skills and services young people need in order to protect their reproductive health and prevent HIV infection. Such programmes also strive to build a supportive environment free of stigma and discrimination. Moreover, ending the epidemic requires caring adults to arm adolescents against infection—through education, participation and decision-making that delays the start of sexual activity and keeps girls in school. (excerpt)
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  7. 7

    Maternal mortality update 2002: a focus on emergency obstetric care.

    Weil L; Javet JC; Rebold A; Donnay F

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 2003. 40 p.

    This second edition of the UNFPA Maternal Mortality Update focuses on Emergency Obstetric Care, an intervention that is fundamental to reducing maternal mortality worldwide. The momentum for addressing maternal mortality has been strengthened by numerous international resolutions— most recently the Millennium Development Goals agreed upon at the Millennium Summit in September 2000. The Millennium Declaration calls for a 75 per cent reduction of 1990 maternal mortality rates by 2015. This report analyses the issue and shares tools and experiences to meet this challenge. (excerpt)
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