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New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2005.  p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/247)The HIV/AIDS epidemic has been a gathering force for nearly a quarter-century, and it continues to be a major global challenge. AIDS finds its victims in both rich and poor countries. There is no region of the world where HIV/AIDS is not a potentially serious threat to the population. Sub-Saharan Africa has so far borne the brunt of the AIDS devastation, and the region continues to experience high rates of infection. About 3 million people in the region were newly infected with the virus in 2004. Countries in Eastern Europe and Asia now have the fastest-growing rates of HIV infection in the world, and the populous countries of China, India and Indonesia are of particular concern. In some more developed countries, there are signs of a resurgence of risky sex between men. (excerpt)
Women, gender and HIV / AIDS. Women bear the heaviest HIV / AIDS burden, but they can’t prevent its spread by themselves.
Countdown 2015: Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights for All. 2004; (Spec No):65-68.Women, especially young women, are increasingly the face of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. About half of all adults infected with HIV worldwide are women, although this proportion varies by region. In sub-Saharan Africa, 75 percent of those infected are young women and girls, and the proportion of pregnant young women in capital cities who are HIV positive—an indicator of how the epidemic is spreading— remains high in five of the most populous countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Recent data from South Africa, one of the countries hardest hit by HIV/AIDS, showed that 10.2 percent of all 15- to 24-year-olds were infected in 2003, and three of every four HIV-infected young people were female. In the United States, AIDS is now the leading cause of death among African-American women age 25-34. Even in Thailand and Cambodia, relative HIV-prevention success stories, the epidemic increasingly affects women: The rate of new infection is now higher among women than men, and many of those women are the wives of HIV-positive men. (excerpt)
Can this marriage work? Linking the response to AIDS with sexual and reproductive health and rights.
Countdown 2015: Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights for All. 2004; (Spec No):58-63.For people involved in family planning, ICPD was a landmark event. Yet it is striking how few experts, activists and stakeholders involved in other SRHR issues, particularly HIV/AIDS, were centrally involved in Cairo. Cairo had no visible involvement of people living with HIV, and no HIV/AIDS-dedicated non-governmental organisation was amongst the many formal observing agencies. Even five years later, at the ICPD+5 meeting in New York where progress was reviewed and further targets established, only one HIV/AIDS NGO was formally present. In the years immediately following Cairo, many AIDS activists felt excluded and ignored by the SRHR community. This perception was worsened by a sense that the SRHR community was trying to “take over” AIDS, while simultaneously not taking AIDS seriously. One prominent SRHR expert repeatedly stated that “there should be no such thing as an HIV/AIDS programme”; he insisted these should be replaced with holistic sexual health strategies. The World Health Organization’s Global Programme on AIDS was abolished and replaced with what was initially a much smaller and more modestly-funded inter-agency body, UNAIDS. And by 1997 the majority of OECD donors had abolished their stand-alone global HIV/AIDS departments or budget lines and “integrated” these efforts within new or restructured SRHR funding. (excerpt)