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  1. 1
    322019

    Scaling up HIV / AIDS prevention, treatment and care: a report on WHO support to countries in implementing the “3 by 5” Initiative, 2004-2005.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Treat 3 Million by 2005 Initiative

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2006. 143 p.

    In September 2003, LEE Jong-wook, Director-General of WHO, and Peter Piot, Executive Director of UNAIDS, declared the lack of access to antiretroviral therapy for HIV/AIDS in low- and middle-income countries to be a global health emergency. Shortly after this declaration, WHO and its partners launched a global initiative to scale up antiretroviral therapy with the objective of having 3 million people receiving antiretroviral therapy - representing half the total number of those globally in need - by the end of 2005 ("3 by 5"). Although the actual target of putting 3 million people on antiretroviral therapy was not reached by the end of 2005, countries have made significant progress in the past two years in expanding treatment coverage, strengthening prevention and building the capacity of health systems to deliver long-term, chronic care. Overall, in the two-year period, antiretroviral therapy coverage in low- and middle-income countries increased from 7% of those in need at the end of 2003 (400 000 people) to 20% of those in need at the end of 2005 (1.3 million people). Eighteen countries managed to increase antiretroviral therapy coverage to half or more of the people who needed it, consistent with the "3 by 5" target. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    319303

    Better procurement and supply management of HIV / AIDs drugs and supplies.

    Osewe PL; Habiyambere V; Li Bassi L

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, Global HIV / AIDS Program, 2005 Dec. 5 p.

    Many countries are working to expand access to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for millions of people with HIV/AIDS. Uninterrupted and timely supplies of safe, effective and affordable ARV drugs are needed. They must be dispensed correctly by health workers, and consistently taken by patients. A partnership between the World Bank and World Health Organization (WHO), in collaboration with the Global Fund for AIDS, TB and Malaria (GFATM), UNICEF, UNAIDS, and the American and French Governments is helping countries build capacity to procure and manage HIV/AIDS drugs and related supplies. This effort has helped support an increase in the number of people on ARV treatment in low- and middle income countries, from 400,000 at the end of 2003, to about one million in June 2005. (author's)
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  3. 3
    307304

    Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus. Report of UNICEF-WHO consultation: Development of a Programming Guide for Scaling Up Treatment, Care and Support for HIV-Infected and Exposed Children in Resource-Constrained Settings, New York City, USA: January 11-13, 2006.

    Walkowiak H

    Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health, Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus, 2006 Jan 24. 22 p. (USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No: PN-ADG-534; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-00-00016-00)

    While many countries in resource-limited settings have made considerable progress in scaling up access to HIV care and treatment for adults, the provision of services, especially antiretroviral therapy (ART) for children, is still in the early stages. The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have agreed to develop appropriate programming guidance to assist countries in the scale up of pediatric HIV care and support. The consultation was convened jointly by UNICEF and WHO with the following goal and objectives. Goal-- The aim of this meeting is to review the draft UNICEF / WHO programming guidance and identify essential revisions and modifications and outline next steps. Specific Objectives -- 1. Review and agree on the essential package of services for treatment, care and support of HIV-exposed and HIV-infected infants and children. This will include, but not be limited to: a. Routine HIV testing; b. Follow up of children exposed to HIV and ensuring early testing (polymerase chain reaction [PCR] for infants and for older children, rapid antibody) through child and family care programs; c. Delivery of long-term care of symptomatic children in health care settings, including provision of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and ART; d. Training to improve skill levels of health care providers and laboratory staff; e. Delivery of home-based care to both exposed and infected children; f. Provision of psychosocial support and counseling for HIV-infected children; g. Quality improvement activities. 2. Review the draft programming guidance to confirm its applicability, suitability, and relevance to the key intended audience. 3. To examine and endorse the identified key program elements of the draft programming guidance. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    281982

    HIV / AIDS medicines and related supplies: contemporary context and procurement. Technical guide.

    Tayler Y; Abbott F; Perez Casas C; Fink C; Green C

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2004 Feb. 103 p.

    This Guide sets out principles and advice for the procurement of HIV/AIDS medicines and related supplies for programs scaling up antiretroviral therapy (ART) and associated health services, such as basic and palliative care, disease prevention, treatment of opportunistic infections, and laboratory tests. ART includes the treatment of infected adults and children and the prevention of mother-to-child transmission. A wide range of other commodities— particularly condoms and support for basic living and care—are also essential to support the treatment and prevention of HIV. The primary audience for this guide is World Bank staff and those responsible for procuring HIV/AIDS medicines and related supplies in Bank-funded programs and projects. That could include either procurement agency staff or technical agency staff. Policymakers and Bank partners will also benefit from the information and advice in the guide. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    278191
    Peer Reviewed

    WHO insists it can meet its target for antiretrovirals by 2005.

    Fleck F

    BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2004 Jul 17; 329:129.

    A huge international effort is under way to get lifesaving antiretroviral treatment to three million people with AIDS in poor countries by the end of 2005, said the World Health Organization, but added that its six month campaign had fallen short of interim targets. In all, 400 000 AIDS patients in developing countries were receiving antiretrovirals when WHO launched its "3 by 5 strategy." That figure has edged up to 440 000, said WHO's progress report, presented at the international AIDS conference this week. "Although this was disappointing, the absolute increase of 40,000 people in a few months dose indicate that country and international efforts to scale up HIV- AIDS treatment are resulting in progress report. The progress report is likely to fuel critics of WHO's 3 by 5 campaign, who contend that it is overambitious, poorly managed, and too focused on lowering drug prices. (excerpt)
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  6. 6
    194660
    Peer Reviewed

    Achieving the WHO / UNAIDS antiretroviral treatment 3 by 5 goal: what will it cost?

    Gutierrez JP; Johns B; Adam T; Bertozzi SM; Edejer TT

    Lancet. 2004 Jul 3; 364(9428):63-64.

    The “3 by 5” goal to have 3 million people in low and middle income countries on antiretroviral therapy (ART) by the end of 2005 is ambitious. Estimates of the necessary resources are needed to facilitate resource mobilisation and rapid channelling of funds to where they are required. We estimated the financial costs needed to implement treatment protocols, by use of country-specific estimates for 34 countries that account for 90% of the need for ART in resource-poor settings. We first estimated the number of people needing ART and supporting programmes for each country. We then estimated the cost per patient for each programme by country to derive total costs. We estimate that between US$5·1 billion and US$5·9 billion will be needed by the end of 2005 to provide ART, support programmes, and cover country-level administrative and logistic costs for 3 by 5. (author's)
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