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NewsCAP: The WHO releases Consolidated Guideline on Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights of Women Living with HIV.
American Journal of Nursing. 2018 Jul; 118(7):17.Add to my documents.
Turning gender and HIV commitments into action for results: an update on United Nations interagency activities on women, girls, gender equality and HIV.
[Geneva, Switzerland], UNAIDS, 2009 Dec. 4 p.In September 2000, 189 UN Member States committed to achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015. Among these goals is a commitment to promoting gender equality and empowering women and combating HIV, malaria, and other diseases. Today, almost 10 years on, addressing gender inequality and AIDS remains the most significant challenge to achieving the MDGs, as well as broader health, human rights, and development goals. This update highlights key 2009 interagency initiatives, all of which operate at the intersection of gender equality, women's empowerment, and HIV.
Integration of the human rights of women and the gender perspective: Violence against women. Towards an effective implementation of international norms to end violence against women. Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Yakin Ertürk.
[New York, New York], Economic and Social Council, 2003 Dec 26. 24 p. (E/CN.4/2004/66)In section I, the report defines the mandate and methods of work of the Special Rapporteur. Section II describes the activities of the Special Rapporteur since she took over the mandate in August 2003. Reference is also made to the activities of the former Special Rapporteur from 2003, until the end of her tenure in July. Section III starts with an assessment of the developments of the past decade in the area of women's human rights and violence against women, and continues with a focus on violence against women, as it manifests within a broad spectrum from the domicile to the transnational arena, in order to capture the persistence of the old as well as the emergence of new sites and forms of violence. Within this context, emphasis is placed on the universality of violence against women, the multiplicity of its forms and the intersectionality of diverse kinds of discrimination against women and its linkage to a system of domination that is based on subordination and inequality. HIV/AIDS is highlighted as the single most devastating epidemic experienced in modern history and that embodies the intersectionality of diverse forms of discrimination. Owing to the magnitude of health, security, development and human rights problems associated with HIV/AIDS and its intricate interplay with violence against women, the Special Rapporteur intends to carry out extensive research on the issue for her annual report for 2005. Finally, section III of the present report elaborates on guidelines for developing strategies for the effective implementation of international standards to end violence against women at the national level and proposes an intervention strategy with three interrelated levels, consisting of the State, the community, and the individual woman. While the State is bound by international human rights law, it is suggested that the human rights discourse at the level of the community and individual women needs to be complemented by a culture and an empowerment discourse, respectively. Section IV contains the conclusions of the report, highlighting the issues raised throughout the report that require further research and analysis. (excerpt)
Revista de Saude Publica / Journal of Public Health. 2006 Apr; 40 Suppl:5-8.Recognizing the HIV/AIDS pandemic as an unprecedented worldwide emergency and one of the greatest challenges to life and the enjoyment of human rights, the United nations called on member states to reflect on this matter. In June 2001, around 20 years after the first AIDS cases were recorded, the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV and AIDS (UNGASS HIV/AIDS) was held in New York. The Session culminated in the drafting of the Declaration of Commitment on HIV and AIDS: a document that reflected the consensus between 189 countries, including Brazil, and stated some essential principles for an effective response to the epidemic. The Declaration recognized that economic, racial, ethnic, generational and gender inequalities, among others, were factors that boosted vulnerability and, whether acting separately or in synergy, favored HIV infection and the onset and evolution of AIDS. The Declaration of Commitment on HIV and AIDS has become transformed into a tool for reaffirming the urgency and necessity of promoting the solidarity that the epidemic demands. It aims towards better management of the actions and resources destined for controlling HIV and AIDS and towards social control over public HIV/AIDS policies. (excerpt)
Breaking barriers. Effective communication for universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support by 2010.
Lusaka, Zambia, Panos Southern Africa, Panos Global AIDS Programme, 2006. 25 p.Effective HIV and AIDS communication is central to the achievement of universal access. This paper reviews lessons learned from the response so far and suggests that there is an urgent need to strengthen communication approaches that look beyond narrow, short-term interventions focused on individual behaviours. Development actors must realistically and effectively engage the social, political and economic drivers of the epidemic, in a way that is informed by the experiences and priorities of those most affected. There is also a need to better understand and engage with the distinct communication dynamics of social movements and the neglected area of interpersonal communication - both of which are key to an effective response. The intransigent problems of stigma and discrimination must also be addressed. The challenge is at once social, political and technical, but without this paradigm shift in development and communication practice, universal access will remain elusive. As country-level plans for universal access are being developed in late 2006, it is vital that they explicitly include fully resourced communication strategies, activities and targets that are integrated into programming at all levels. Communication challenges include: the effective coordination of the response; sustained advocacy to tackle the underlying drivers of the epidemic; and the specific communication needs of prevention, treatment and care initiatives that require grassroots ownership and social mobilisation. (excerpt)
Choices. 2004; 6.HIV/AIDS has reached the proportion of a pandemic because human rights continue to be violated on a massive scale. During my term as UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, and in the years since, I have seen first-hand how these rights violations fuel the spread of HIV/AIDS. I have met with women in rural areas across Africa who feared losing their homes and being rejected by their families due to their actual or suspected HIV status. I will never forget the elderly man I met in Delhi who was refused hospital treatment for a broken hip because he was HIV positive, or the discrimination against the gay, lesbian and transsexual community recounted to me by a group in Argentina, every one of whom had a personal story of rejection and hardship. (excerpt)
Rapid spread of TB, AIDS discussed by World Health Assembly - includes brief updates on health improvement developments - United Nations developments.
UN Chronicle. 1993 Sep; 30(3): p..The rapid worldwide spread of diseases, such as tuberculosis (TB) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was a focus of discussions at the forty-sixth World Health Assembly (Geneva, 3-14 May). Plans of the World Health Organization (WHO) to fight health scourges, old and new, were outlined in resolutions adopted by the Assembly. A new Global Strategy for Health and Environment, an outcome of "Agenda 21" - the action programme adopted at the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro - was endorsed. It warned that sustainable development was possible only when special attention was given to health and environment-related matters. WHO was asked to carry out prospective studies on potential environmental hazards to human health. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2004 Jul 6.  p.The global community is at a crossroads in expanding access to HIV treatment and care. Never before have the opportunities been so great: unprecedented political will in countries; unprecedented financial resources to fund treatment, care and support; and unprecedented affordability of medicines and diagnostics. Despite these extraordinarily positive conditions, access to antiretroviral treatment and other HIV-related disease care remains abysmally low. As part of addressing this emergency, UNAIDS, WHO and their partners are fully committed to getting 3 million people on antiretrovirals by the end of 2005. (excerpt)
Progress in Reproductive Health Research. 2005; (67):6.In many parts of the world, certain sexual practices, such as dry sex, douching, and warming and stretching of the labia, are common. However, the epidemiological impact, and the social and cultural meanings of these practices, are not well understood. With the emergence of the HIV pandemic, there has been renewed interest in the role these practices might play in facilitating transmission of HIV, as well as in their potential impact on the effectiveness and acceptability of new products such as microbicides. In addition, it is increasingly recognized that such practices could also compromise the efficacy of some contraceptive methods. Recent studies of rituals associated with sexual initiation in sub-Saharan Africa indicate a greater prevalence of such practices than had previously been documented. However, there is a need for more in-depth research on sexual practices, to explore the full context of both belief and practice, particularly in the context of HIV. (excerpt)
Africa Renewal. 2004 Oct; 18(3): p..Since his appointment in January 2001 as UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan's Special Envoy for HIV/AIDS in Africa, Ambassador Stephen Lewis has earned a reputation as a fierce, plainspoken advocate for greater action against the HIV/AIDS pandemic sweeping the continent. He was an early - and often lonely - voice for a much stronger focus on the special challenges to and contributions from African women in the struggle against the disease. On 12 July, Mr. Lewis delivered the first of two major addresses on women and AIDS at the International AIDS Conference in Bangkok, drawing attention to the soaring HIV infection rates among young African women and calling for urgent action. The announcement that girls and young women now account for 75 per cent of all Africans aged 1524 living with HIV and AIDS, he said, "is unprecedented in the history of the pandemic and . . . perhaps the most ominous warning of what is yet to come." (excerpt)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2004 Jun; 82(6):474-476.Since its introduction in 1996, highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) has enabled people with HIV/AIDS in industrialized countries to live healthier, longer lives and to continue to contribute to the social and economic well-being of their families and societies. However, although 95% of the world's 40 million HIV-positive people are living in developing countries, only about 400 000 of the six million people requiring treatment actually received it in 2003. To address this treatment gap, at the UN General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS in 2001, UN Member States unanimously committed to scaling up ART within their national HIV/AIDS programmes. In late 2003, WHO and UNAIDS declared the inequity in access to HIV/AIDS treatment a global public health emergency and launched the initiative, dubbed "3 by 5", which aims to treat three million people living with HIV in developing countries by the end of 2005. In a special interview with the Bulletin, WHO's Director of HIV/AIDS explains the principles behind the strategy, describes the challenges to its success and recounts the progress made towards achieving the target to date. (excerpt)
The lack of equal rights for African women is a central cause of the rapid transmission of HIV / AIDS on the continent.
New York, New York, UNIFEM, 2003 May 13. 2 p.To focus international attention on the often ignored fact that women are now the majority of people infected by HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa, averaging 58% of all the infected population, Noeleen Heyzer, executive director of UNIFEM - The United Nations Development Fund for Women - is arriving in South Africa for consultations to assess the degree to which HIV/AIDS infects and affects women. The dialogue with women and youth AIDS organizations will result in specific strategic recommendations on how the perspectives and experiences of women can be better integrated into national AIDS programs and policies. (excerpt)